Policing Week 2
Policing Week 2 CRJU 311 003
Popular in Policing
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Spitzer on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CRJU 311 003 at University of South Carolina taught by chrusciel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Policing in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
CRJU 311 Week 2 September 1 2015 o How many law enforcement officers are there 0 Estimations range 1500040000 agencies 0 20000 federal state and local agencies with 680000 sworn 0 Most arms of the federal government have at least some enforcement component as do the branches of the military ATF DEA and FBI most likely to come to mind Levels of Law Enforcement Federal Agencies 0 Enforce federal laws 0 Prior to 911 agencies housed within different cabinetlevel departments ie Justice Treasury etc 0 After 911 shift in policing to homeland security I Centralized federal law enforcement 0 Homeland Security Act 2002 0 Created the Department of Homeland Security which also includes 0 The Critical Infrastructure Information Act CIIA I Exempts some information from disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act FOIA I FOIA makes previously undisclosed government information available to the public as well as the procedures to obtain them 0 The CyberSecurity Enhancement Act increase in government latitude to view electronic information of US residents 0 Increase in penalties for possession of explosives allow pilots to carry firearms limit airport screeners to US citizens and nationals 0 US Secret Service in DHS 0 Created in 1850 o Protects the president other government officials and their families 0 Original purpose was to suppress counterfeit currency 0 Investigation of organized crime and money laundering and counterfeit currency 0 Customs and Border Protection CBP in DHS 0 Established after 911 combined elements of various federal agencies that had previously been separate 0 More than 60000 employees 0 Primary goal is to fight terrorism but also to quotfacilitate legitimate trade and travel 0 Immigration and Customs Enforcement ICE in DHS o Closely connected but independent of CBP 0 Three main branches of ICE I Homeland Security Investigations I Enforcement and Removal Operations enforces immigration laws I Management and Administration o More than 10000 employees worldwide 0 FBI in DO 0 Protect and defend the US against terrorist and foreign intelligence threats 0 Uphold and enforce federal criminal law 0 Provide leadership and services to federal state local and 0 US Marshals Service in DO 0 America s oldest law enforcement agency 0 Main responsibilities are judicial security and fugitive investigation 0 Joined with customs and immigration officials to more efficiently deport criminal aliens o ATF in DO 0 Taxcollection enforcement and regulatory arm of the US DO 0 Screens applications and issues licenses for firearms o Inspects dealerships to ensure compliance with federal law and recordkeeping requirements 0 Investigates explosions and cases of arson o Regulates distilleries wineries breweries and tobacco manufacturers and retailers 0 Drug Enforcement Agency DEA in DO 0 Enforces controlled substance laws and regulations Investigate and prepare for prosecution of major violators Manage a national drug intelligence program Seizure and forfeiture of assets associated with drug trafficking Enforce laws pertaining legal controlled substances Coordination and cooperation in nonenforcement methods Liaison for international drug control programs 000000 State Agencies 0 Most were initially created for a specific purpose 0 Organizational Methods of State Agencies 0 Centralized Model major criminal investigations and patrol of state highways PA MI NJ NY VT and DE 0 Decentralized Model employ highway patrol and state bureau of investigation separately SC NC and GA Usually have other adjunct statelevel law enforcement agencies Example is SC Highway Patrol and SLED 0 Local Agencies 0 Includes municipal police departments sheriff s departments campus police airport police etc 0 Approximately 12700 municipal police departments 0 Approximately 3100 sheriff departments I Out of about 20000 law enforcement agencies in the US 0 Municipal Police 0 If incorporated may create your own police force 0 Most employ less than 10 fulltime officers 0 Whether a city has a police force depends on funding hiring training paying etc o Chiefs usually appointed by the mayor or selected by city council chief deputy sheriffs etc o Sheriff s Departments o Responsible for law enforcement throughout their county I Mostly patrol unincorporated areas of county or those that lie between municipalities but routinely work with municipal police 0 Also serve court papers maintain security within state courtrooms and run countyjails o Tend to be small nearly 23 employ less than 25 sworn officers o In some parts in New England mostly function as court agents limited law enforcement duties but in southern and western states still considered law enforcement officers in their respective counties 0 Sheriff s usually elected thus they answer to voters not city officials o quotconsciously coordinated someone or a group of people manages the organization 0 quotSocial entity organizations How Police Departments are Different from other organizations 0 Have bother legitimate arrest power and authority to use force 0 Posse Comitatus Act 0 Consider private security companies 0 Public agencies vs businesses 0 Limited resources quotsoft money grants 0 Exist with political environment vs private org 0 Work in the public eye and must obey all rules that apply to government agencies 0 Answer to the public indirectly and directly 0 Not for profit vs private security and some prisons o Often stymied by bureaucratic rules and regulations that can stifle creativity and flexibility o Employ nonsworn staff and sworn line officials personnel Traditional Police Organization 0 Sir Robert Peel follow the military model quotquasimilitary 0 Max Weber and classical organizational theory 0 5 characteristics of an effective bureaucratic organization welldefined hierarchy of authority specialization formalization impersonality of management personnel decisions based on merit Contemporary Organizational Theory 0 Organizations are organic o Allows employees greater input and responsibility in decision making especially at the lower level 0 Participatory management 0 Elevates status of line officers 0 More flexible and adaptive 0 So which should we use o Contingency theory repetitive vs nonrepetitive tasks I Example traffic enforcement division vs investigation unit 0 Systems theory organizations are a system of parts I Focus on the pieces and their relationship to each other Public vs Private Policing 0 Private 0 Focus on loss prevention 0 Prevention not punishment 0 Private justice punishment up to discretion of business 0 Concerned with protection of private property and clients 0 Public 0 Focus on right vs wrong and enforcing public policy 0 Detection apprehension and punishment 0 Public justice punishment depends on law 0 Concerned with protection of public property and the general public September 3rd 2015 Becoming an Officer Policing is a civil service job 0 Civil service branches of public service that are not legislative judicial or military 0 Employment based meritqualifications I Implemented to enhance professionalism I Vs the patronage system I Civil service commissions unions for civil service employees 0 Recruitment 0 Lack of qualified applicants I War in middle east had claimed workforce I Relative strength of economy I College credit requirements I Unfavorable press coverage of scandals and corruption 0 Agencies offer attractive schedules benefits and job perks and aggressively recruit 0 Testing Requirements 0 Two tests I Written gauge intelligence and reading and writing abilities Often includes a personality test I Physical must be trulyjob related or face discrimination complaints Tests tailored to match physical requirements ofjob Screens out most applicants 0 Interview o Intense and timeconsuming 0 Thus it is best for agencies to do as much prescreening as possible before this step 0 Why you want it what can you bring that others do not have I Intended to pick up where others left off 0 Gauge factors like confidence poise reasoning oral skills memory observational prowess Background Investigation 0 Examines any official record 0 Conducts indepth interviews with friends family coworkers acquaintances and even former acquaintances 0 Social media Medical and drug screening 0 Asked about drug use at earlier phases but test provides difficult to dispute results 0 Assess medial fitness to perform the job 0 Must not have any serious medical conditions that would hinder your ability to do the job 0 Check vision and weight I These are necessary to perform some required onduty tasks Polygraph Exam lie detector 0 Tell the truth 0 Not without their faults 0 Results cannot be used as evidence in court Academy 0 Must pass the academy o Strive to teach how to be an efficient officer and to develop the everimportant quotsixth sense a heightened but not too heightened sense of suspicion 0 Teach limits of the law as it applies to police work and the technical aspects of the work I Recently also includes topics such as diversity sexual harassment dispute resolution victim awareness using technology stress management and courtroom demeanor 0 Three types inhouse regional and state I Some civilians pay their own way through in hopes of finding a job upon completion
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