THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1865
THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1865 HIS 315L
Popular in Course
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janie Mills on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 315L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Robert Holmes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see /class/181371/his-315l-university-of-texas-at-austin in History at University of Texas at Austin.
Reviews for THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1865
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/06/15
Reconstruction Part 1 I The legacy of the Civil War 0 The end of the Slavery o The Emancipation Proclamation 39 The Emancipation Proclamation freed all slaves under rebel control on January 1 1863 Though the practical effect of the proclamation on Southern slaves was slight it proved a brilliant political moveThe 13 h Amendment 0 The 13th amendment abolished slavery permanently The Amendment was ratified by twentyseven states in December 1865 0 Questions raised 39 How would the south be incorporated back into the union Would they be punished II Reconstruction o Lincoln s Plan 0 Lincoln proposed a more forgiving and flexible plan for Reconstruction known as the llTen Percent Plan which allowed a state to reenter the Union when 10 percent of its voters pledged allegiance to the Union 0 Congress s Plan I Radical Republicans opposed Lincoln s llTen Percent Planquot and instead proposed a more stringent and punitive plan The Wade Davis Bill which declared that each Confederate state would be run by a military governor 0 Proposed by Congress in July 1864 0 After half of each state s eligible voters took an oath of allegiance to the Union a state convention could be called to overturn secession and outlaw slavery 0 Andrew Johnson s Plan 0 In April 1865 soon after Lee s surrender Lincoln was murdered and Vice President Andrew Johnson became president 0 South De ance I Andrew Johnson presented a weak plan for Reconstruction liberally pardoning exConfederates and allowing reconstructed governments to be dominated by proslavery forces which passed black codes to keep the freedmen subjugated o Outlawed interracial marriage and jury service by blacks banned blacks from the right to testify against whites imposed a curfew on blacks and limited their access to public institutions 0 The radical response Reconstruction Part 1 I Congress expressed displeasure with Johnson s Reconstruction plan I Radical Republicans set out to dismantle Johnson s Reconstruction plan by calling for black voting rights confiscation of Confederate estates and military occupation of the South Moderate Reconstructions O 0 To help former slaves adjust to their new lives Congress established the Freedmen s Bureau which offered education employment economic relief and legal aid to freed slaves The Freedmen s Bureau helped build hospitals and supervised the founding of black schools throughout the South The Civil Right Act 1866 I Granted blacks full citizenship and civil rights like able to have access to court own land very basic civil rights It did not say anything about voting To give the Civil Rights Act constitutional protection Congress passed the 14th Amendment in 1866 which declared all persons born or naturalized in the United States to be citizens of their states and of the nation and prohibited states from denying citizens equal protection and due process of the law Congressional Reconstruction O O O The Reconstruction Acts 18671868 I Invalidated state governments formed under presidential Reconstruction and imposed martial law on the exConfederate states I Under the stringent terms of g 39 39 39 quot39 39 of the Fourteenth Amendment was made a condition of readmission to the Union Carpetbaggers and Scalawags I Democrats called the Southern moderates who cooperated with Republicans scalawags I And they labeled the Northern opportunists carpetbaggers an unsavory title meant to suggest that the Northerners came to the South just to gain easy political power and wealth through bribes The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson I In March 1867 Congress passed two bills to limit President Johnson s authority 0 The Tenure of Of ce Act prohibited the president from removing civil of cers without Senate approval 0 Command of the Army Act prevented the president from issuing military orders except through the commanding general Ulysses S Grant who could not be removed without the Senate s approval I In August 1867 Johnson suspended Secretary of War Edwin Stanton and replaced him With Grant I Congress refused to approve Johnson s change and called for impeachment on the grounds that Johnson had violated the Tenure Reconstruction Part 1 of Office Act In truth Johnson s violation served as a mere excuse for Congress to launch impeachment proceedings Congress s real motivation was to remove a president hostile to Reconstruction I Johnson s impeachment trial began in March 1868 and lasted nearly three months Johnson escaped impeachment by one vote but was left effectively powerless Reconstruction Part Two III Freed people during Reconstruction 0 Life After Slavery 0 After slavery blacks hit to road to find jobs and reunited with their families 0 Apprenticeship wasn t slavery but it was close You couldn t just get up and leave Now they have to pay for their food and shelter as well as it is no longer provided Hours were generally reduced Women and children were no longer working 0 Aspirations Land Educationvote 0 One of the highest aspirations were land education and the vote 0 Congress debated whether blacks should be given land Whatever was not given to freed slaves was sold 0 Life liberty and property is essential to American people 100000 schools were created for blacks A lot of schools were supported by churches and reform movements gt they were trying to help the ones in need A lot of the schools were private and were highly costly Hence why public schools were created 0 A lot of black churches were formed They were the only institutions ran by black people 0 The Fifteenth Amendment passed in 1870 guaranteed the right to vote to any citizen regardless of race color or previous condition of servitude 0 Black Codes 0 Outlawed interracial marriage and jury service by blacks banned blacks from the right to testify against whites imposed a curfew on blacks and limited their access to public institutions IV The End of Reconstruction 0 Southern Resistance 0 Violence The ku klux Klan The Knights of the White Camellia Reconstruction Part 1 I The Ku Klux Klan 0 Worked to undermine the Fifteenth Amendment 0 Founded in 1866 in Tennessee and operated in all Southern states by 1868 o The Klan conducted raids to intimidate black voters as part of its campaign to assert white supremacy in the South Along with these raids the Klan orchestrated lynchings and floggings of blacks I The Knight ofWhite Camellia o A secret group opposing the northerners in the US Southern states during the Reconstruction era and beyond 0 Founded by a Confederate veteran on May 1867 in Franklin Louisiana 0 Supported white supremacy and was opposed to Republican party government like the KKK o Consisted mainly of high class southerners including physicians newspaper editors doctors and officers 0 The Ku Klux Klan Act 1871 39 Passed to authorize the president to use federal troops and emergency measures to overthrow the Klan o Redemption 0 Democrats called their return to power Redemption Once under Democratic control every state in the South cut expenses ended social programs and revised their tax systems to grant relief to landowners Many blacks migrated northward to escape the discriminatory policies of the Redeemed South 0 Political disillusionment o The 1872 split in the Republican Party hastened the collapse of Republican rule in the South 0 Moderates in Congress pushed through Amnesty Acts allowing almost all ex Confederate officials to return to politics and hold office Using tactics such as promising tax cuts and engaging in outright violence and intimidation Democrats took control of one state after another 0 Some Republicans gave up and moved back North while others defected to the Democratic Party 0 The Panic of 1873 0 As a result of overexpansion by railroad builders and businessmen the nation s economy collapsed o The stock market crashed the largest bank in the nation failed as did many smaller banks and firms and 25 percent of railroads shut down 0 The Civil Rights Act 1875