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by: Janie Mills


Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > History > HIS 315L > THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1865
Janie Mills
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Megan Seaholm

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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janie Mills on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 315L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Megan Seaholm in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/181373/his-315l-university-of-texas-at-austin in History at University of Texas at Austin.




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Date Created: 09/06/15
HIS 315 L Exam 1 Study Guide Essay Topics 1 Businessmenworkers essay 2 Farmers essay 3 Native Americanswestern bou nd Anglo Americans essay 1 Businessmen and workers were challenged by the chaotic economy and unregulated marketplace of the late nineteenth century They all chose various forms of organization to cope with the unpredictable and sometimes harsh realities of industrial capitalism Write an essay about the difficulties that businessmen and workers experienced 1Describe and explain the hardships of these two groups A Hardships for workers gt Long hours low wages No minimum wages chronic financial instability Wage Slavery Southern argument against Northern treatment of workers They re slaves to their wages No one would give aid to those who couldn t work Southerners would take care of their slaves so that they could continue to work Bullet below has more info gt No life insurance or sick leave If sick or hurt they have no income Rate of injuries in workplace was shocking People would die ex Railroad workers many of them were killed on the job or badly hurt gt Job insecurity In times of economic recession unemployment rises Many people were left without jobs for months B Hardshi s for Businessmen Think Boom and Bust Business C cle gt American born workers called for immigration restriction Wages would go up this was not advantageous for a businessman gt Over production 0 Made people nervous and insecure 0 Many farmers did not know they were overproducing wheat soon the surplus goes up gt prices fall gt Ruinous Competition 0 Entrepreneurs were competing with each other because they were so many industries 0 Too many people producing surplus prices decreased can t make a profit 2 Describe and evaluate ways that these two groups organized to deal with problems A Worker Organizations gt Industrial Unionism 1Knights of Labor 1869 leader Terrance Powderly a Goals similar to national labor union b Recommended cooperative ownership Cooperative ownership workers own part of the company better incentive to treat them fairly even if their share is relatively small This would dissolve enmity between owners and workers c This was a Anti Capitalism solution 2 National Labor Union 1866 Goal abolition of wage slavery gt Trade 1 American Federation of Labor 1886 To obtain this goal American industry must reorganize itself into cooperatives where people who owned it worked it Non capitalist of Craft Union a Samuel Gompers Contacted a number of different craft unions suggesting a collective union b Umbrella organization for craft or trade union skilled laborers c Utilized collective bargaining Had more success in this than industrial unions BBusinessmen Organizations gt Mechanization 1 decrease the need for skilled labor gt skilled labor is more expensive 2 This way businessmen did n t have to pay for skilled labor Awesome gt Scientific Management Arranging a factory so that fewer steps were taken People doing the same thing over and over again for 10 hours Creation of the time clock emphasis on time Created by Frederick Winslow Taylor Attempt to solve the problem of ruinous competition not very successful mostlyjust created tensionresentment 1 2 3 4 5 Increased production but did nothing to issue of ruinous competition a gt Industrial Cooperation 1 Vertical Cooperation a Swift meat company Adopted by Gustavo Swift He owns all of the process so he does not pay anyone Had his own fridge wagons etc etc etc 2 Horizontal Cooperation a 0 Michigan salt producers in the 18605 You could mine for salt and package it It was relatively easy and there was a lot of people who did mine for it Price was really low Some of the Michigan salt producers contacted each other to figure out how to make money They formed the Michigan Salt Association or also known as goolltrustlcartels agreed on a price Then they divided up the market decided who would sell to whom Reduced competition and guaranteed stable profit Problem No way to guarantee a standard price Solution Rockefeller solved this in Standard Oil Company and created a system of interlocking directorates Board of Trustees pretty much Significance Allows prices to be stabilized and stabilize the market It wouldn t be affected by ruinous competition Consumers didn t like this however because prices went up Comparison shopping could n t be done 3 Explain what each group businessmen and workers hoped to accomplish gt Worker organizations Knights of Labor goals 1 a Wanted 8 hours days fair hours abolition of child labor equal pay for equal work 2 American Federation of Labor a Did not a have a larger reform vision Skilled laborers just wanted to be viewed as more valuable and have higher wages Wanted to be exclusive gt Businessmen increase profits and end ruinous competition 4 Explain why the strategies they pursued were or were not successful gt Workers 1 not successful it created this class warfare as a result there many strikes a RR strike of 1877 So much destruction that the government had to send the national guard Great Upheaval 1886 Great Southwestern Strike of 1886 man get shots for going to a KOL meeting gt strike to shut down all railroads in South Texas d Haymarket square riot in Chicago DU gt Businessmen Successful I don t know 2 In the decades following the end of the Civil War farmers in the South and on the Great Plains experienced hard times By the end of the century many farmers who had owned their land had become tenant farmers and sharecropping was widespread in the American South 1Explain the troubles that farmers experienced gt Farmers kept on going into debt because every time the land appreciated rapidly and they anticipated profit In boom times they rushed into debt to acquire more land and better farm equipment 2 How did farmers explain their problems and what organizations did they form to address these problems 3 How did the situation of sharecroppers in the South differ from that of the homesteaders of the Plains states and what challenges were the same 4aWhat solutions did the farmers organizations recommend 4b Why amp when did the Farmers Alliance create the PopulistPeople s Party gt Represented a radical form of farming hostility to banks railroads elites 4c What was the Populist Party platform and how did farmers think it would help them 3 Native Americans of the TransMississippi West posed a problem for the United States in the decades following the Civil War as increasing numbers of Anglo Americans chose to move west Write an essay about the decadeslong conflict between the western Native Americans and the westernbound AngloAmericans 1 Why was there conflict gt Natives had land and the Whites wanted land gt Land was shrinking resources were vanishing gt The grasses were being eaten by oxen and horses that came with the white settlers 1 Took a food source away from the buffalo shrinking land vanishing resources a Buffalo becoming a commodity Native American culture revolved around buffalo i Used every part of the buffalo Meat for eating Hide for clothing and housing Bones for tools It became a sport Anglo Americans started hunting buffalo i Not for meat but for hide leather and sport b Land No one really thought that the indians had claims to any of this land i During the gold rush the Sioux petitioned to president Polk about the land Polk disagreed and said that shi was US land ii results in the sioux rebellion US then must intervene and assert controlauthority over land and natives 2 What policies did the US pursue to resolve the conflict How did these policies change over time gt Set aside reservations for the Natives 1 Offered to provide food and other resources for Natives to stay put on said reservations As Westward expansion took over in the US Indians began to get pushed farther and farther off their land Due to the increase in western population gold etc The Dawes Severally Act 1887 gtdouble check Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 gtdouble check 0 3 How did certain Native American groups respond to the US policies for the native people gt Some rebelled 1 Sioux Rebellion of 1846 a Gold was discovered by the whites in the Black Hills b President Polk granted the military permission to enter the Sioux territory in search of the gold c Petitioned President Polk to pay for damages the white men caused to the tribes d Polk refused e Sioux warriors then began to attack wagon trains and settler encampments Some tried to compromise Fort Laramie Council 1851 10000 Native Americans attend hoping to compromise with the whites Outcome 0 Whites agreed to Compensate tribes for the loss of buffalo to the plains Send supplies to the tribes o In return Tribes had to give up their nomadic lifestyle and stay on reservations designated by the Americans 0 Most tribes accepted the terms Except for the aforementioned Sioux 4 What was the situation of these First Nation peoples by 1900 gt By 1890 the Indian Barrier was broken floods of whites came into Dakota and Oklahoma and left many of the Native Americans without homes that was once previously theirs 20000 Native Americans out of a 400000 population in South Dakota gt 70000 Native Americans out of a million population in Oklahoma Short Answer Questions You will be asked to identify and explain the significance of two of the following 15 points each To identify and explain the significance you should answer these questions as they are relevant what when how or why and so what 13th Amendment Abolish Slavery 14th Amendment Adopted 1865 Officially outlaws slavery and involuntary servitude except as punishment for a crime The Emancipation Proclamation was a wartime measure used by President Lincoln to free the slaves in 10 Confederate states it did not free slaves in the border states nor did it make slavery itself illegal The 13th amendment was therefore necessary in legitimizing and making permanent the end of slavery in the US Paraphrased from Wikipedia Blacks were still denied equality The national government had power over the state government 0 South was not happy that the government could abolish slavery Resulted in lost of slave capitol for the south gt So what Maybe the creation of the black codes jim crow aws 13th amendment needed to be passed in all states under the 10 plan The right to Citizenship 1868 Fortified Civil Rights Act of 1866 Act by Republicans to enshrine black civil rights in a constitutional amendment Furthered movement of Congress to go away from black codes Made African Americans citizens and extends rights to all citizens 0 except Native Americans Defines citizenship and states that all citizens are equal States had to ratify to rejoin the Union U l 0 Established the constitutionality of the Civil rights Act and served as the basis on which the courts and Congress justified a standard of equality before the law in the states Dawes Severalty Act 9 Adopted in 1887 o Aimed to stimulate the assimilation of Native Americans into Anglo American society o Surveyed Native American tribal lands and divided it into allotments for individual Native Americans o The US government will give 160 acres of land to each tribe Native Americans so they could farm and be less Indian like gt This is an attempt to not move these Native Americans but make them assimilate to American Culture 15th Amendment The right to vote 1869 states cannot deny citizens right to vote on basis of race color or previous servitude Republicans had 23 of congress and had power to pass 15th amendment but left room for poll taxes and property requirements Cannot deny access to vote based on race and color but things like the Poll Tax literacy tests and the Grandfather clause still left many African Americans with the short end of the stick The promise of the 15th Amendment would not be fully realized for almost a century Jim Crow Laws Separation laws 0 Extensions of white supremacy into law 9 Goal to segregate identifiable group of people in public o EX water fountains schools rail cars 0 Black and white facilities were the same by any means 0 These laws were unconstitutional but they were still there for a long timeearly 1900 s Chinese Exclusion Act 0 1882 Legislation enacted this act to not allow any person from China to come to the US 0 First time that US ever put a limit on immigration 0 Arose because whites blamed Chinese for depressed labor wages 0 Also few blacks in West where most Chinese were Geronimo o Leader of Chiricahua Apache tribe o Apaches were known for their raiding non tribe members and enemy tribe members alike They usually did this to gain supplies but was not meant in a sense of warfare 9 Children and Wife murdered by Mexican soldiers in 1858 American settlers wanted to exploit Apache land for resources saw Apaches as obstacles so they moved them to reservations and promised to give them basic necessities of life but went back on their word on multiple occasions Life for Apache tribe members being nomadic and having to change their lifestyle was hard enough as is so Geronimo eventually led rebellion against American settlers Geronimo flees to Mexico only to be caught New Federal Policy follows in 1876 that closes the current reservation and moves the Indians to San Carlos They do not like the land here as it is dry and arid not suitable for farming Black Codes 0 Part of South s response to Reconstruction o Discriminatory laws that denied many civil liberties and rights to African Americans including voting and participating in politics along with many other restrictions Purpose was to define by law a second class place for African Americans in South Overruled by Civil Rights Act of 1866 7 o weren t segregation laws but were clearly intended to maintain African Americans as second class citizens Social Darwinism o Theories that attempted to apply principles of Darwin s theory of evolution to society Initiated by Herbert Spencer o One of the major ideologies preached by the middle class in attempt to understand the urban industrial transformation of the Gilded Age 0 Stated that progress in human society is the result of competition 9 The process of natural selection weeds out those who choose not to play the market and compete and so will not be rewarded with the fruits of riches o The great majority of American businessmen rejected the anti philanthropic implications of the theory Instead they gave millions to build schools colleges hospitals art institutes parks and many other institutions Freedmen s Bureau 9 Intended to aid former slaves with food education health care employment contracts amp reuniting them with their families many functions o Operated from 1865 1869 0 Created by furious congress as response to black codes 9 Having to take an active approach to secure African Americans basic rights Sioux Rebellion o 1876 o Gold was discovered in the Black Hills by the US 0 Polk grants the military permission to enter Sioux territory to search for the gold 0 Sioux demanded that Polk compensate the tribes for damages caused by the US military 0 Sioux and other tribes began to strike settlers39 wagon trains and encampments ISlOUX decisively defeat General Armstrong Custer and the 7th Cavalry at Little Big Horn US military eventually overwhelms the Sioux IIncreasing intervention of white settlers on Indian territory broken promises decreasing Indian morality Compromise of 1877 Informal agreement made to settle the dispute over who won the 1876 election The victory was given to the Republican Hayes as long as he agreed to remove all troops from the South effectively putting an end to radical reconstruction Homestead Strike 0 1892 1892 Andrew Carnegie decided collective bargaining was too expensive so he fled to Scotland and left behind Frick July 1 No longer deal with Association of Steel and Iron Workers July 6 Barges with guards Pinkerton Detective Agency started opening fire but then surrendered Frick appealed for the State Militia Union leaders and town officials were arrested ended lingering illusions about sanctity of workers communities 0 is this the strike in Out of This Furnace not in parts 1 or 2 Ward politics political machines 8 Political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support people and businesses who receive rewards for their effortsspoils system Power derived from getting people to vote for their candidate Unofficial and essentially ran political parties in late 19th century Did informally much of what the relatively passive governmental system left undone Plessy v Ferguson 1896 Seven to one decision that 14th amendment is not violated if separate facilities were equa However everyone knew that separate facilities were not equal Genesis of separate but equal doctrine that helped retain white supremacy for decades Lone dissenter said the decision did not support a color blind constitution Iquot Vertical Integration Building company from natural resource to consumer Owns all parts of the business Innovative and cost decreasing way to conduct business EX Swift Meat Packing Company Consolidation of business processes was sign of vastly changing American economy new forms of industrial cooperation Horizontal Integration Who standard oil company Michigan salt companies steel sugar beef companies What TrustsMonopolies When 18905 1905 How everyone got together to stop competition and form one company such as a board of trustees managers could still run their own Why to cooperate with competition and reduce competition while being able to control prices and profits guaranteed a stable profit margin Significance they could dominate an industry and make unfair costs for the public revealed the vastly changing American economy Populist Party ho people s party poor white cotton farmers What short lived political party in the united states gained power in the states but never nationally When established in 1891 How represented a radical form of farming hostility to banks railroads elites Why agrarian unrest in response to low farming prices in the south Significance It opposed the growing belief of industrialism tried to unite all the disadvantaged as a political voice was a tough group to satisfy because of such opposing views between farmers and poor industrial workers link to the other class study guide httpsdocsgooglecomdocumentd1BOwrer7ehh6eWu1OZA4oZOQLpiPCngZ6H5SE3hngedithlen ampauthkeyCJPw9champpli1 SpanishAmerican War 1898 0 Spanish were in conquest mode but only held onto Cuba and a few other small islands in the late 19th century Many Cubans wished to no longer be a part of Spain anymore and so they fought for independence she mentioned that Jose Marti was one leader of this rebellion With newspaper competitors like William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer Yellow Journalism many Americans sympathized with Cubans after vicious things were written about the Spanish the media emphasized sexual exploitation of women Once the USS Maine exploded in harbor the Americans assumed it was the Spanish felt attacked by a foreign power The explosion of the USS Maine was just as likely due to faulty ship design that placed explosive munitions too close to coal bunkers prone to spontaneous firesquot Spain declared war on US April 24 1898 McKinley was president Theodore Roosevelt accepted commission as lieutenant colonel ofa volunteer cavalry regiment that soon became famous as the Rough Riders the small army although lacking supplies was a disciplined highly professional force US navy was much more equipped than Spanish navy Spanish admiral Pascual Cervera The decisive engagement of the war took place in the Pacific with the destruction of a Spanish Fleet in Manila Bay May 1 through handiwork of Theodore Roosevelt The Philippines were seized by the US because of it s strategic location in the Pacific Naval strategists had long coveted an anchor in the western pacific At this time too the Great Powers were carving up China into spheres of in uence lf American merchants wanted a crack at that glittering market the US would have to project its power into Asia Manila the Philippine capital fell August 13 1898 Commodore George Dewey was appointed commander of the Pacific fleet American leaders began to realize the value ofthe Philippines and even McKinley wanted to reap the benefits the main battle on July 1 occurred near Santiago in the San Juan heights In an armistice signed by Spain and the US Spain agreed to liberate Cuba and cede Puerto Rico and Guam to the US Guam would serve as a coaling base for US and Puerto Rico as a naval base in the Caribbean forthe US The US continued to occupy Manila in the Philippines Platt Amendment in 1901 was made with Cuba to basically make sure that all land and power would go to the US wheneverthey deemed necessary included mil bases Guantanamo Bay and interfered with Cuban relations with anywhere else in the world Cuba would agree to give land for naval bases sign no treaties against US US could intervene with trade and given Guantanamo Bay US won new territories Cuba the Philippines and Guam War only lasted 113 days 1 million American men volunteered to fight fatalities mainly bc of tropical disease The Treaty of Paris ceded the Philippines to America for 20 million dollars US left Cuba in 1901 FilipinoAmerican War 1898 1902 Docu 205 1899 Emilio Aguinaldo became first president ofthe independent Philippine nations When the US refused to recognize their independence Aguinaldo led a guerrilla war against America On February 4 1899 ghting broke out between American and Filipino patrols on the edge of Manila The US had occupied the Philippines since the SpanishAmerican War when the Spanish Fleet was destroyed in Manila Bay and the Americans took charge of Manila American intention was to keep only Manila but it was not defensible without the whole of Luzon the island in which Manila is located With the close of the Spanish American War the fate of the Philippines was in dispute One option called forthe return ofthe islands to Spain Another suggested giving the islands to another imperialist nation But the most attractive was giving the Filipinos independence with the same stipulations that were present with Cuban independence McKinley concluded that we could not leave the Filipinos to themselves they were unfit for selfrule and they would soon have anarchy and misrule over there worse than Spain s was Before a decision could be made in 1899 Filipino and American patrols became entangled in a series of fights that took place in Manila The fighting didn t end until 1902 after years of vicious guerrilla warfare The Philippines wanted to declare themselves free with Emilio Aguinaldo as president America wants them as colonies con ict of interests within anti imperialist league lntense guerrilla warfare with the death toll at over 4000 American soldiers and 16000 Filipino soldiers F surrendered More American soldiers were lost ghting this war than the entire SpanishAmerican war ghting stopped by 1902 and William Howard Taft appointed governorgeneral of the Philippines set up a civilian administration He intended to make the territory a model ofAmerican roadbuilding and sanitary engineering the Treaty of Paris gave the ceded Spanish territories freedom of religion but did not give them citizenship It was up to Congress to determine their civil rights and political status Although by 1916 when the US committed itself to Filipino independence with the Jones Act the Philippines did not actually become independent until 1946 Open Door Policy Many imperialist nations including Japan France Russia England and Germany carved out spheres of influence in China These countries were developing trade and developing commercial markets and harvesting raw materials for their own interests in ChinaThe US despite the bases in the Philippines had little power over business and trade in the far East As a result Secretary of State John Hay in 1899 sent an Open Door note a diplomatic dispatch to other nations sent to the spheres of influence in China and any other nations who wanted to do business with China It said that the US was interested in trading with China so the way we can all get along and avoid conflict is if we all agree to respect China s sovereignty however unstable it seemed in China Sent in 18991 an insistence that other nations recognize that US has an interest in China like everyone else 2 That all nations recognize China s independence 3 The US commitment to the stability in Asia Another interpretation China was the underdog at the end of the 19th c and everyone was clamoring for a piece of the pie US was not a sphere of influence but their presence in the Philippians and active trade with China spurred desires for expansion Secretary of State John Hay under President McKinley came up with a policy that would put all the imperial nations regardless of previous spheres of influence on equal footing by 0 Establishing equal trading rights to all nations in all parts of China 0 Preserving Chinese territorial integrity No nation was down for this but Hay was determined simply announced that agreement had been reached only Japan and Russia voiced displeasure Seemed like US was doing this for reform but really it was mostly business if Chinese territories were divided American trade and business would suffer 2nd Open Door Note asks all foreign powers to respect China s governmental authority Europeans should not prosecute Boxer rebels William Henry Seward Advocate of expansion William Henry Seward believed that continued expansion was absolutely essential the US must continue at the very least to move westward Even moving westward acrossthe pacific Gain access to paci c islands Hawaii He wanted to buy Virgin Islands lceland Greenland Cuba andor Hawaii He failed at all ofthese but did see expansion to Midway weigh station on way to Asia Seward presided over US purchase from Russia of Alaska 1867 said it would give us control ofthe world Give me fty years of life and I ll give you American control of the world William Seward Believed it to be necessary to expand westward to gain access to China and the Paci c Islands US needed to expand its foreign trade to Asia Huge population in China market for American goods boom and bust might be over if With trade expansion He believed overproduction could become a thing of the past if US contributed to foreign markets Tried to acquire Alaska part of Russia Seward s FoleyIcebox Captain Alfred T Mahan o Said that we needed to improve and expand the US naval forces and persuaded Congress that it was necessary in the 1880 s American expansionist although he did not agree with colonial rule over subject peoples like Europeanstyle imperialism needed to expand US navy because nothing had been done since the Civil War needed a merchant marine US navy to protect merchant ships American Expansion in the Paci c 1 8651 902 Included the annexation of Hawaii during the SpanishAmerican war in the 1890s the occupation of the Philippines and Guam The United States had assembled an overseas empire Hawaii annexation went through Congress by joint resolution in1898 it had strategic value as a halfway station on the way to the Philippines Puerto Rico Guam the Philippines and finally in 1900 several ofthe Samoan lslands that had been jointly administered with Germany and Britain Imperialism Extending rule over other nations in a way that undermines their sovereignty and relinquishes their freedom to make decisions Goals of imperialism are political and economic US wanted to expand itself like other countries were doing Moved westward gained islands etc However there was a difference in that the US didn t choose to conquer and govern like other big nations did Many people thought that imperialism would civilize other nations it was their duty to do so Many believed America needed to expand to become a first rate country expand foreign markets and because of racist ideologies social DanNinism white man s burden US revolt in Hawaii 1893 King Kalakua dies and his sister becomes the queen of Hawaii Queen L She was disturbed that Hawaii lost a lot of in uence to US and Britain Wanted to revive Hawaiian nationalism Planters didn t like thisso a group of US planters supported by the US ministerto Hawaii revolted Sanford Dole proclaimed himself President A planter and US minister deciding to get the marines CongressPresident had nothing to do With it Cleveland heard later OUTRAGED Sent new US minister apologize to Queen and reinstate her Sanford Dole refused to step aside continued to rule until 1894 Proclaimed 1894 Independent Republic of Hawaii Democratic Party Let s annex Hawaii Others We don t want any part of this imperialist game McKinley 1896 negotiated a new treaty Recognized Navy in the paci c could have advantages 1900 McKinley had vote for annexation Hawaii 50th state 1959 committee of safety organized by Sanford Dole decided to overthrow the reign of Queen L they called in US marines and marines occupy the island Queen L arrested and overthrown President Cleveland ordered an investigation Revolution was not by the Hawaiians just by the US planters So Cleveland tells the Americans to stop and that Queen L is restored to the throne But Sanford Dole refuses and he continues to rule as president And in 1894 he officially proclaims that it is the independent republic of Hawaii Cleveland gives up and reluctantly recognizes it but will not approve annexation but Congress decides to annex it because they realize the importance of Pearl Harbor white man s burden 0 Feb 23 Lecture Had to do with racism and social danNinism Ethnocentrism evaluating other peoples and cultures according to standards of your own culture o The technological and commercial successes of industry and Euro expansion seemed to justify that US is clearly superior o AngloSaxon was made to be his brother s keeper those with darker skin Rudyard Kipling s poem in 1899an appeal to the US to assume the task ofdeveloping the Philippines 0 white superiority to rule over darker races American s observed rush for expansion in Europe Americans were eagerly pushing for that More pressing reason for expansion was the need for more markets Foreign trade was small part for US business More markets overseas might deal With booming bust A way to keep economybusinesses strong Expansion of foreign trade was only way for relief RacismSocial Darwinism gained currency Ethnocentrism Most culturespeoples have some amount of Ethnocentrism Pretty normal predictable understandable Problem for 14th century to late 19th century ethnocentrism was tenaciousD Incapacity to see anything positive in other cultures Racial ideologies continued to affect how Americans saw the rest of the world Social Darwinism added to racial ideologies European expansion provided proof that Whites Anglo Saxon were superior race We are superior to these people so it is much better for us to take over their countries The White Man s Burden to help civilize other nations into a nation like the Anglo Saxon Panama Canal Body of water located between Costa Rica and Colombia which connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans To garner support from the temperamental locals Teddy changed tactics deciding to aid in the Panamanians separatist movement from Columbia This coalition resulted in the HayBurnau Varilla Treaty which granted the states the rights to indefinitely build and administer the Panama Canal Part of Teddy Roosevelt s Big Stick Policy Jane Addams Organized a shelter forthe needy in Chicago Hull House and established similar homes in other big cities Fought against the frequent abuses of women in the industrial trades especially those employed in sweat shop labor Believed women should be for peace enlisted in the anti imperialist cause while the US debated over what to do with the Philippines after the SpanishAmerican War Believed it was up to reformers like herself a product of the middle class to right the present industrial system which was in a state of profound disorder Also participated in the Woman s Suffrage Movement asked Why should a woman who was capable of running a settlement house be denied the right to vote part of the settlement house movement that re ected the desire to bridge divisions by bringing the and energies of middleclass Americans to poor immigrant neighborhoods to find middle ground between con icting groups Johnson 211 Muckraking journalism Books and articles that exposed horrific true ction about certain aspects of American life Many took on big business monopolies others condemned working conditions in factories The Jungle or the living conditions in urban slums How The Other Half Lives by Jacob RIIs TR thought they went too far More than any other group the muckrackers called the people to arms National Consumers League An organization founded in 1899 to represent consumers in marketplace and workplace issues including child labor food safety privacy etc Headed by Florence Kelley a resident of the Hull House Kelley led the National Consumers League on a campaign that focused on factory legislation to bring about change in the workplace One of the NCL s greatest achievements was the Supreme Court decision on Muller v Oregon 1908 which limited the workday in Oregon to 10 hours Regulatory liberalism see pg 701 o This is what the Progressives were about Dates of enlightenment comes from liberty Talking about people believing that the purpose of the govt was to protect people s liberty There is an indissolvable link between liberty and property hence life liberty and the pursuit of property No other man is your master with property 0 A step up from the liberalism of the 19th century which supported small government Progressives in the early 1900s granted power to the government by allowing authority over big business with regulatory legislation Regulatory liberalism became social welfare liberalism with the New Deal in the 1930s which created social welfare programs like Medicare and social security granting the government even more power with their assistance Clayton AntiTrust Act 1914 Passed in the Wilson Administration on October 15 1914 the Anti Trust act sought to capture anticompetitive practices by prohibiting four types of actions 1 Price discrimination between purchasers to the point where competition lessens and a monopoly arises 2 Exclusive Dealings or Typings 3 Any person from being the director of two or more competing corporations 4 Mergers and acquisitions where the effect may substantially lower competition 0 From the book In the Clayton Antitrust Act of1914 amending the Sherman Act the definition of illegal practices was left flexible subject to the test of whether an action substantially lessen ed competition or tended to create a monopoly President Wilson created the Federal Trade Commission to investigate companies to enforce the new provisions Booker T Washington o Spokesperson for the African American community in the late 19thearly 20th centuries 0 His followers were called the Tuskegee Machine He wanted to cooperate with Whites to foster equality and peace WE Dubois did not agree with Washington he thought that the African American community needed to confront the issues and go headtohead with the White population The Atlanta Compromise as his stance became known avoided a direct assault on white supremacy and urged blacks to start by making themselves productive citizenshe lobbied hard behind the scenes against Jim Crow laws and disfranchisement Woman Suffrage campaign In 1848 the suffragists had their first meeting the Seneca Falls ConventionThey made a Declaration of Sentiments that was modeled after the Declaration of Independence Married women wanted to own their own land they did not want to lose their children in the case of divorce or if her husband moved away The women wanted voting rights and the ability to have education after primary school It took 75 years forthe 19th amendment to pass in 1920 Women did not believe that their mental capacity was less than that of men and this was a radical thought at the time Involved in the campaign was the Women s Christian Temperance Union WCTU led by Frances Willard Advocate ofthe Prohibition Other key leaders in campaign included Susan B Anthony and Lucy Stone National American Women s Suffrage Association 1903 Elkins Act This Act amended the Interstate Commerce Act It imposed large fines on railroads that offered rebates and to those shippers that acceptedasked for such rebates It was a part of Roosevelt s Square Deal and the Act greatly boosted his popularity Roosevelt got started pushing through in 1903 the Elkins Act which prohibited discriminatory railway rates that favored preferred or powerful customers a practice lda Tarbell reminded Americans in her muckraking articles that had enabled Rockefellerto monopolize the oil industry Theodore Roosevelt amp the Square Deal Roosevelt believed business labor and the public would bene t from the square deal Built upon three C s Control of corporations Consumer Protection and Conservation of Natural Resources Roosevelt was well aware that his square deal was built on nineteenthcentury foundations In particular antitrust doctrine seemed inadequate in an age of industrial concentration It would be better Roosevelt thought to regulate big business than try to break it up Theodore Roosevelt and the New Nationalism At the center New Nationalism called for government protection of human welfare and property rights Roosevelt believed that only a powerful federal govt could regulate the economy and guarantee social justice He imposed strict limits and disclosure requirements on campaign contributions he called for registration of lobbyists and the recording and publishing of a 39 39 39 quot a From this came a federal child labor law regulation of lab relations and a national system lnsisting that the courts stood in the way of reform Roosevelt proposed sharp curbs on their powers even raising the possibility of popular recall of court decisionsquot Woodrow Wilson s New Freedom A part of Wilson s 1912 presidential campaign New Freedomquot was in opposition to Roosevelt s New Nationalismquot and called for smaller govt He proposed three reforms 1 Tariff reform wanted to lower tariffs for the first time since the Civil War 2 Business Reform establishes the FTC Federal Trade Commission 3 Banking Reform establishes the Federal Reserve a program capable of finally resolving the decadelong crisis over corporate powerLong out of power the Democrats were hungry for tariff reform The Underwood Tariff Act of 1913 pared rates down to 25 targeting especially the trustdominated industriesWilson then turned to the nation s banking system whose key weakness was the absence of a central bank orfederal reserve systemThe resulting Federal Reserve Act of 1913 gave the nation a banking system that was resistant to financial panicWilson relied heavily on a new advisor Louis D Brandies to deal with trusts In the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 amending the Sherman Act the definition of illegal practices was left flexible subject to the test of whether an action substantially lessened competition or tended to create a monopolyquot pg 602603 UndenNood Tariff Act of 1913 Reimposed the federal income tax following the ratification of the 16th Amendment The Underwood Tariff Act of 1913 pared rates down to 25 targeting especially the trustdominated industries Democrats confidently expected the Underwood tariff to spur competition and reduce prices for consumersquot Federal Reserve Act 1913 Creates the central banking system of the US Signed into law by President Wilson in 1913 The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 gave the nation a banking system that was resistant to financial panic The act delegated operational functions to twelve district reserve banks funded and controlled by their member banks One crucial new power granted the Federal Reserve was authority to issue currency federal reserve notes based on assets within the system that resolved the paralyzing cash shortages during runs on the banksquot Lusitania German government announced it would engage in unrestricted submarine warfare in 1915 Wilson invoked the principal of freedom of the seas in announcing that he would demand strict accountabilityquot for any German violation of American rights Germany sunk the Lusitania a British liner in 1915 which was carrying a few arms but mostly passenger vessel 1200 people died 128 of those were Americans Americans are furious Woodrow Wilson immediately says that they are not tolerating this and broadened his policy to include the right of Americans to travel on belligerents ships Germany backs down and accepts the blame and promises to henceforth not sink any nonmilitary vessels or harm any noncombatants until they are sure they are carrying arms to enemies 1917 Germany announces intentions to resume unrestricted submarine warfare in north sea threatening to sink any American vessel that tried to reach England or France When German U boats began sinking American ships Wilson had no choice but to declare war Zimmerman Telegram Sent from German foreign secretary to German minister in Mexico and says if they try to persuade Mexico to create some diversionary tactic to distract US then it will help Mexico regain all territory that Mexico lost to US Woodrow Wilson then thought that Germany already indicated aggressiveness to US so Wilson declares war In uenza Epidemic 191819 Killed as many as 50 million people around the world In the US more than 500000 civilians died The flu began in Kansas in early 1918 Started as a virus native to wild birds then mutated into a form that could be passed among humans The epidemic strained the resources of a public health system already prepared for the war effort Sixteenth Amendment 0 The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes from whatever source derived without apportionment among the several States and without regard to any census or enumeration 1913 0 Income Tax Seventeenth Amendment 17 17 17 senators 1913 senators directly elected by popular vote Eighteenth Amendment 0 Prohibition 1919 Repealed in the 21st amendment 1933 0 With the great depression in full force any industry that provided work and prompted consumption was considered a good industry Nineteenth Amendment Women s suffrage The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex 19 SheppardTowner Act 1921 provides federal funding for maternity and child care signed in to law by President Harding Lobbied for by the League of Women Voters The first federally funded healthcare legislation the act lowered infant mortality by subsidizing medical clinics prenatal educational programs and visiting nurse projects However conservatives charged that the SheppardTowner Act was part of a communist plot to socialize American medicine and an attack on the rights of the states which traditionally handled public health measuresquot Was cut off by the late 1920s when it became clearthat women did not vote as a blocquot War Industries Board Created in 1917 during WWI to coordinate the purchasing of war supplies WIB encouraged companies to mass produce items and to standardize products in order to increase efficiency and to reduce waste The board also was able to negotiate price and handle worker strikes because the govt was not able to do this The central agency for directing military production was the War Industries Board established in July 1917 Headed by Bernard Baruch a superb administrator the WIB gathered economic data and statistics allocated scarce resources among industries ordered factories to convert to war production set prices and standardized proceduresquot is this from vvikipeida or did she mention Baruch in class National War Labor Board Created in 1918 by Wilson in order to handle disputes between workers and employers and to ensure labor reliabilityaccountability during the war It was disbanded after the war in 1919 The NWLB formed in April 1918 greatly improved the working lives of laboring men and women Composed of representatives of labor management and the public the NWLB established an eight hour day for war workers with time and a half for overtime and endorsed equal pay for women workers In return for a nostrike pledge the NWLB supported the workers right to organize unions and required employers to deal with shop committeesquot The Great Migration Occurred between 1910 and 1930 The movement of 2million blacks out of the South and into the MidWest They migrate to escape racism and to seekjobs in industrial cities Some industries recruited individuals to move to the bigindustrial cities forjobs at the railroads in the meatpacking industry and in the stockyards some of the factories were working 24 hours a day just to keep the US supplied The war emergency also created job opportunities for ethnic and racial minorities For the first time northern factories activer recruited African Americans spawning a Great Migrationquot from southern farms to the nation s industrial heartland During the war more than 400000 African Americans moved northward to St Louis Chicago new York and Detroitquot MeuseArgonne Offensive Part of the Allied forces offensive in WWI that stretched along the entire western front They wanted to break the Hindenburg line The MeuseArgonne Offensive also know as the Battle of the Argonne Forest was part of the final allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front The whole offensive was planned to breach the Hindenburg Line and ultimately force the German forces to surrenderquot Wiki Post WWI Red Scare The starting point forthe red scare was the espionage Act of 1917 Strong antigerman and anticommunist sentiment Led to the Sedition act Strong distrust of foreigners The socialist outlook of many recent immigrants frightened native born citizens and the communist ideology of the Russian Bolsheviks terrified themHatred of the German Huns became hostility toward the Bolshevik Reds Although public concern about radical socialism increased there were few in number and little political influence to purport itYet the public and the press continued to blame almost every labor disturbance on alien socialists and radicalsAt the height of the Red Scare in may 1920 police arrested Italian aliens Nicola Sacco a shoemaker and Bartolomeo Vanzettie a fish peddler for the murder of paymaster and a security guard during a robbery of a shoe company in South Braintree Massachusettsquot pg 665 Palmer Raids concerned that US was being beset by foreign radicals and communists and so on Jan 2 1920 arrested 5000 people in 23 diff states that was directed at foreigners Drag net raids were common in which naturalized citizens were arrested as well Palmer attorney general set up an antiradicalism division in the Justice Department and appointed J Edgar Hoover to direct it Hoover s division shortly because known as the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI Then Palmer staged the first of what became known as Palmer Raidsquot pg 665 100 Americanism Basically hostility towards foreigners people not white christian democratic etc Harm against socialists foreigners blacks etc rebirth of the KKK in which race riots where people got burned etc happened Things happened like a man who wouldn t stand up during the star spangled banner was shot During WWI In April 1917 Wilson formed the Committee on Public Information CPI The CPI urged recent immigrants and long established ethnic groups to become 100 Americansquot by giving up their Old World customs and ties German Americans bore the brunt of this Americanization campaign Although antiGerman hysteria dissipated when the war ended hostility toward hyphenated Americansquot a new term embracing lrish Polish Italian and Jewish Americans survived into the 1920squot Sedition Act of 1918 levied heavy penalties and or prison sentences upon anyone convicted of using disloyal profane or abusive language about the government constitution flag or military Seaholm thinks this to be an assault on what we would recognize as free speech If i were to say fuck bushquot or fuck obamaquot nothing would happen to me Although it was common to do this 27 states passed strict laws many were in for 725 years but these got repealed eventually The sedition Act prohibited speech writing and behavior that might incite provoke or encourage resistance to the United States or promote the cause of its enemies Wilson s Fourteen Points A speech given to Congress by Wilson in 1918 The speech sought to ensure that the Great War was being fought for a moral causeto ensure postwar peace in Europe The 14points became the basis of terms for German surrender as negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference This was the only explicit statement of war aims by any nation fighting WWI The president Wilson scored a diplomatic victory in January 1919 when the Allies accepted his Fourteen points as the basis for the peace negotiations In this blueprint forthe postwar world the president called for open diplomacy absolute freedom of navigation upon the seasquot arms reductions the removal of trade barriers and national self determination forthe peoples of the AustroHungarian Russian and German empires Essential to Wilson s vision was the creation of a league of nations a multinational organization that would afford mutual guarantees for political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alikequot Traditionalist Revolt 19205 one aspect of this revolt is that many ppl were concerned with this new leisure in the 1920s and women smoking and drinking and wearing short skirtslooked like the cities were bad and ppl were falling away from evangelical protestants Christians found this very disturbing There was also a concern of new ways of interpreting the bibleessentia to get back to basics strict interpretation of the bible Then a number of states passed laws saying it was forbidden to teach darwin s theory of evolution in the schools because it was contrary to word of God As movies radio advertising and assemblyline products began to transform the country into a modern cosmopolitan nation many Americans welcomed these changes as exciting evidence of progress Others were uneasy Flappers dancing to jazz youthful experimentation in Model Ts sexually suggestive moviesthese harbingers of a new era worried nativeborn Americans of religious stock They were also troubled by the powerful presence in American cities of millions of Catholic and jewish immigrants from Europe and African American migrants from the South Beneath the cliches of the jazz age and the roaring Twenties were deeply felt tensions that surfaced in conflicts over immigration religion Prohibition and race relationsquot Second Industrial Revolution New growth and prosperity in US in the 20s people started looking modern and not so quaint Spurt of economic expansion and prosperity so much industrial outputnearly double in that decade GNP rose 40 National per capita income had risen by 30 by 1929 Right before the great depression it could be said that the workers in the US were the highest paid workers in the world More and more people had telephones 20s saw more and more people start having modern indoor bathrooms With flush toilets and bathtubs in the same room American diet improved sale of fresh vegetables openly Health improved Access to education expanded In 1910 only 1 in 10 teenagers still in school but by 1930 610 teenagers were still in school More kids going to school Wages increased as well The economy was becoming more corporatized controlled by large companies Standard of living raised Advances in technology Electricity was important electric motors come to replace steam in industries and machines Automobile industry stimulated and encouraged growth in so many sectors of the economy lncreased production of consumer goods as opposed to producer goods in the 19th century Near the end of the 1920s there wasnt enough consumption of produced goods Overproduction Great Bull Market of the 1920s When people are buying a lot that makes everyone else think that things are optimistic so prices go up So businessmen had very good years Corporate dividends were so high in early 1920s These profits fueled the speculation of the stock market people thought everything was going great Wages had risen but not high enough throughout the decade for consumers to continue purchasing Time during which stocks and bonds soared fortunes were made and people still managed to suffer Companies increased profits by investing in the stock market Atkins v Children s Hospital 1923 o is a supreme court ruling holding that federal minimum wage legislation for women was an unconstitutional infringement of liberty of contract as protected by the 5th amendment 0 voided a minimum wage for women workers in the District of Columbia 0 a ruling that helped mark the advent of welfare capitalism a system of labor relations that stressed management s responsibility for employees well being Scopes Trial 1925Lots of states passed laws that prohibited the teaching of evolution because evolution did not coincide with the bible John Scopes was a biology teacher intentionally taught evolution to test the law in Tennessee he had a very popular trial many were there including William Jennings Bryan who represented the state Trial broadcast over the radio and lasted a long time Scopes found guilty but got off easy with a fine National Origins Act 1924 A response by Congress towards immigration in the early 1920 s The act cut immigration quotas to 2 of each nationality present in the United States in 1890 when the census had listed few people from southeastern Europe and Russia In 1929 Congress imposed even more restrictive quotas setting a cap of 150000 immigrants per year from Europe and banning most from Asia Chinese Exclusion Act HawleySmoot Tariff 1930 An illtimed act of Congress that dramatically raised the tariff of imported goods just after the stock market crash of 1929 It made the Depression much worse not only nationally but internationally as well Reconstruction Finance Corporation idea was to finance or stimulate the top and it would trickle to the bottom video The agency gave financial aid to banks railroads and other businesses during the Great Depression It also helped to fund portions of the New Deal The idea was that if bigger businesses were stimulated then the smaller people would be helped 0 In response to the depression Hoover s most innovative program was the Reconstruction Finance Corporation RFC which Congress approved in January 1932 The RFC was modeled on the War Financial Corporation of World war and like that agency stimulated economic activity by providing federal loans to railroads banks and other businesses This strategy of pump priming infusing funds into the major corporate enterprises was meant to increase production and thereby create newjobs and invigorate consumer spending This plan might have worked but the RFC lent money too cautiously by the end of 1932 it had loaned out only 20 percent of its 15 billion in fundsquot Dust Bowl early 19305 ecological disaster drought wind came and blew of great plains away no rain and no harvest fish and cows die because of dust destroying habitat 1 in 3 Americans had no income and 12 of laborforce was underunemployed Black Blizzards or Black Rollers huge migration many died of starvationpneumonia Drought relief service federal surplus relief corporation civilian conservation corpsetc Hoover was the spiritual godfather of the red cross believed people should do good deeds for each other during this time and not want rewards for it Red cross gave out garden seeds but the drought was so bad it killed off those too Planters blocked their efforts bc they thought it would keep people from working Even Betty Boop was shown as losing farm i dont understand this that s because you didnt watch the videoltlt well maybe you could be nice and explain it since this is a collaborative thingltlti reaaaaally doubt betty boop will be on the test ltlt lolzzz ltlt everyone play nice Bonus Army Bonus Army was made up of WWI veterans from all over US who were due to receive huge bonuses from the government in 1945 The economic hardship of the Depression angered these veterans starvation etc so they banded together to demand immediate payment of the bonus hence bonus army They marched to Washington in the summer of 1932 to demand payment They set up a shack city called Hooverville and pretty soon the environment got out of control Hoover ordered the Bonus marchers evicted When many refused to leave Douglas MacArthur a headstrong army general marched in the real army and things got violent Tear gas was used and several people were injured Hoover s actions hurt his popularity even more MacArthur went on to become one of the most famous generals of WWII finally brought depression close to WA rich vs poor Anacostia was most famous bonus camp stayed for more than two mo Placed whites and blacks together side by side for same cause but still separated in govt Death Marchquot 3 days without shoes on hot asphalt Pretty Boy Floyd Famous bank robber during the Great Depression Robbed banks and while running from the law would pay families to allow him to hide out in their homes Families would gladly allow him for the money He was celebrated and called the sage brush robin hood spent jail time but was released in 1929 smart enough to rob all over the place instead of in one area 12000 in 5 months Once America began to get scared of the underworld of robbers and gangsters in the movies they started turning people like him in The telephone operator eventually caught him and they tried to catch him coming back home he killed the sheriff and FBI agents finally found him and shot him in an Ohio corn field Agricultural Adjustment Administration Act AAA 0 Part of New Deal 0 Problem Huge surplus of farm products drove prices to very low levels Farmers were not making enough money to pay their mortgages or make a living AAA attempted to raise prices by getting rid of surplus To do this AAA would often pay farmers to stop growing crops Very controversial program because it restricted the production of food during a time when many people were starving The Agricultural Adjustment Act began direct governmental regulation of the farm economy To solve the problem of overproduction which resulted in low prices the AA set up an allotment system for seven major commodities wheat cotton corn hogs rice tobacco and dairy products The act provided cash subsidies to farmers who cut their production to pay these subsidies the act imposed a tax on the businesses that processed these commodities which they in turn passed on to consumers New Deal policymakers hoped that farm prices would rise as production fell spurring consumer purchases by farmers and assisting a general economic recovery Works Progress Administration Part of New Deal scooped up huge numbers of unemployed people and put them to work building new public buildings roads bridges stadiums and auditoriums Also provided work for artists painting murals on public buildings and stage actors who provided public plays put about 9 million people to work Under the energetic direction of Harry Hopkins the WPA combated the depression by providing jobs rather than relief Whereas the FERA of 19331934 had supplied grants to state welfare programs the WPA put workers directly on the federal payroll Between 1935 and 1943 the WPA spent105 billion and employed 85 million Americansquot Civilian Conservation Corps Part of New Deal Young men would join the CCC just like they would join the army They would live in camps and work on various projects most related to conservation plant trees build state parks drain swamps etc Put about 3 million young men to work during economic hardship Men sent the money they earned home which reduced suffering for their families Emergency Banking Act A part of the New Deal lt closed insolvent banks and reorganized and then reopened them so that they would be strong enough to survive o On March 5 1933 the day after his inauguration FDR declared a national bank holidayquot a euphemism for closing all the banks and called Congress into special session Four days later Congress passed the Emergency Banking Act which permitted banks to reopen if a Treasury Department inspection showed that they had sufficient cash reserves The act worked because Roosevelt convinced the public that it would In his first Sunday night fireside chat to a radio audience estimated at sixty million the president reassured citizens that federal scrutiny would ensure the safety of their money When the banking system reopened on March 13 deposits exceeded withdrawals restoring stability to the nation s basic financial institutionsquot Securities and Exchange Commission Part of New Deal applied new rules and restrictions on stock trading most of them related to openness and honesty Goal was to end fraud and insider trading In 1934 Congress established the Securities and Exchange Commission SEC to regulate the stock market The commission had broad powers to regulate companies that sold stocks and bonds to the public to set rules for credit transactions and to prevent stock sales by those with inside information on corporate plansquot National labor Relations Act Part of New Deal also known as Wagner Act FDR was in favor of stronger labor unions He believed that strong unions would keep more people employed and improve the lives of ordinary Americans National Labor Relations Act gave labor broad new powers to freely organize unions and the right to collective bargaining meaning that unions could negotiate their own contracts with employers The unions would bargain for all of their collective membership If no agreement was reached the union had the right to strike The Wagner Act 1935 upheld the right of industrial workers to join unions The act outlawed many practices used by employers to squelch unions such as firing workers for organizing activities It established the National Labor Relations Board NLRB a federal agency with the authority to protect workers from employer coercion supervise elections for union representation and guarantee the process of collective bargainingquot Social Security Act Part of New Deal For the first time the government took up the burden of providing retirement benefits for the aging citizens and help for other citizens who lose spouses parents and forthose who are thrown out of work This was done through new payroll taxes set aside specifically to provide for these needs Social Welfare Liberalism New Deal activists social welfare liberalism expanded the individual s right to governmental assistance p701 Social welfare liberals made a impact by increasing the range of national legislation created a centralized administrative system and instituted new programs Social Security and Medicare National Government s responsibility increased Conservatives disliked programs thought they were a threat to individual responsibility and personal freedom From Today s Lecture A balance between individual liberty and security Finding a balance between the ideas of capitalism while still ensuring aid through social security This was the first time the federal government had been responsible for the welfare of it s individuals Keynesian economics Gradually won acceptance as defense spending during WW II ended the Great Depression p714 The theory developed by British economist John Maynard Keynes in the 1930s that purposeful government intervention into the economy through lowering or raising taxes interest rates and government spending can affect the level of overall economic activity and thereby prevent both severe depressions and runaway inflationtaken from Henretta glossary Jeffersonian Democrats advocates a federal govt with greatly constrained powers and a strict interpretation of the Constitution Believe that the govt s purpose is to safeguard


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