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by: Janie Mills


Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > History > HIS 319D > ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN WORLD
Janie Mills
GPA 3.98

Paula Perlman

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Paula Perlman
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This 77 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janie Mills on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 319D at University of Texas at Austin taught by Paula Perlman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/181374/his-319d-university-of-texas-at-austin in History at University of Texas at Austin.




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Date Created: 09/06/15
HIS319D 1212010 40200 PM HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN WORLD Themes Political culture in antiquity citystate empire federation democracy oligarchy Ancient society class and gender Roles of religion Public and private Mechanisms for and consequences of contact and exchange Chronology ca 3000 BC AD 650 o Millennium 3rd millennium BC 30002000 BC Century 3rd century BC 300200 BC o Periodization eg Bronze Age emphasizing discontinuities o Ca circa Latin means approximately Sources o Archaeological Evidence stuff left behind o Textual Evidence 0 Documentary everyday life coins inventory objective 0 Literary myth comedy history Bible o Primary and Secondary Sources 0 Primary ancient sourcecontemporary with historical context 0 Secondary presentation or discussion of ancient source later than historical context Civilization Begins in Sumer o Where southern Mesopotamia c When ca 3500 BC o Who the Sumerians o What definition and characteristics From Hunter to Farmer o Bands 0 Small scale society lt 100 0 Related by birth or marriage 0 No formal leadership o Segmented societytribe o Societies of a few 1000 persons 0 Several groups that identify through kinship as members of same groups 0 Settle farming ca 6500 BC 0 Permanent structures in isolated farmsteads o Fragile leadership noncoercive o Agricultural revolution ca 8000 6000 BC 0 Neolithic Period 0 Fertile Crescent is where it took place o Domestication of crops and animals 0 Cereals wheat and barley o Cattle sheep goats and pigs o Permanent villages o Jericho ca 9000 BC One of the oldest continuously inhabited settlements West Bank Einhorn wheat 7600 BC Tell accumulated archaeological debris where previous settlements existed on top of each other mound o Catal Huyuk Best preserved Neolithic settlement Ca 75005700 BC Central Turkey Auroch domestication of cattle from 6000 BC Massive clay heads of bulls plastered into temples and homes Unlike Jericho no fortification or defense Mesopotamia o The land between two rivers Tigris and Euphrates o Mountains on the north and east o Syrian desert lies to the west o Northern Region 0 Sufficient rainfall for dry farming o Central and Southern Region 0 Little rainfall but rich earthalluvial plain yields high crops if wateredirrigated From Village to City o Increasing population densitypossible in Sumer if you can irrigate o Chiefdom o Societies of 5000 to 20000 persons 0 Ranked with marked differences in status wealth public authority etc o Leaders who control resources labor supply etc o Rising agricultural productivity Peoples of Mesopotamia o Sumerians o Origins unknown 0 Language group 0 Settled in Southern Mesopotamia Sumer o Blackheaded people o Akkadians 0 Speakers of a Semitic language 0 Settled in north and central Mesopotamia o Elamites o No language group 0 Settled in the East PreDynastic Mesopotamia o Hassuna period 65006000 BC 0 Dry farming in the north depending on rainfall o Samarra period 60005500 BC 0 Irrigation in southern Mesopotamia Ubaid period 5900 4300 BC 0 Focus in Sumer o Irrigation and the oxdrawn plow o Villages 0 Religion Agricultural fertility Patron divinity Priesthood Temples ziggurat o Uruk Period 0 Ca 4000 3000 BC 0 Foundation of the first cities urbanization 0 Temple Complexes Religious authority Political authority Economy storage and redistribution Pop Ca 50000 Controlled satellite villages Center of a trading network from southern Turkey to eastern Iran King Gilgamesh ca 2600 n Heroic figure from the Epic of Gilgamesh flood myth a Historical kingname shows up on Sumerian king list Plan of Uruk n Surrounded by a city wall a Large tells on which temples are built The CityState o City as a political religious and ceremonial center o Dependent territory o Primary allegiance to central authority o Largescale intensive agriculture o Complex social stratification Theories for the Emergence of Mesopotamian Civilization o Food Surplus Population Growth 0 As the population increases you need more food obviously some harvests are better than others so you end up with more food than you can eat store it up incase you have a bad year much more stable than huntergatherer o Hydraulic Theory 0 Adds a reason for public authority to create and conceive irrigation canals you need some sort of authority to organize labor water storage due to flood times not correlating with harvest times o Trade o Suggests that you have a surplus of something to use in trade and there is stuff that you want that you don t have Why trade It is an important riskmanagement strategy build up relations with neighbors if your harvest fails you can always trade Acquire stuff you can t produce yourself like stuff for building ie stone and timber Elite gets stuff from foreign exotic places to identify yourself as a member of a group that can acquire cool stuff Ferrari of that era 0 War 0 As a population grows it needs more land to develop so you get competition for resources between surrounding communities To conduct warfare effectively you need organization Presenting one s relationship with the gods if victorious Sumer and Babylon Mesopotamia ca 31001600 BC o Politically independent citystates o Common culture o Multiethnic population Sumerians Akkadians etc o Alternating periods of unity and fragmentation Temple and Palace Temple o Ziggurat stepped temple symbol of the gods creating land rising up out of the primordial waters o Pantheon of gods and goddesses o Patron of godgoddess of the citystate o Inanna at Uruk goddess of war o Divine residence 0 Cult image 0 Priesthood o Economic center 0 Storage and redistribution 0 Administration Ziggurat at Ur 21002050 BC Palace o Residence of the king o Absolute monarchy o Priestking o Divine mediator o Responsibilities 0 Dispenser of the laws Head of the government Military commander Bquer Warka Vase Uruk 35003000 BC o Upper Register procession approaches a figure priest in ceremonial clothing who stands near a male figure who presents an offering to Inanna o Middle Register procession continues with males bearing offerings jaws and bowls with fruit and grain o Lower Register vegetation of the TigrisEuphrates delta delta reeds and cultivated grain procession of animals oxen and sheep Royal Standard of Ur ca 26002400 BC o Small wooden box found in the grave of a royal o City at War scene shown on long side clearly see the King with his military o City at Peace scene shows King dining with his noblemen and musicians are playing on the lire important aspect of aristocratic behavior The Invention of Writing o Clay Tokens ca 8000 BC 0 Envelope indicates contents and total number o Logographic Script ca 3000 BC 0 One symbolone word Development of Writing o Cuneiform ca 2800 BC proper Mesopotamian writing o In the form of a wedge o Symbolism to Abstraction transformation of logographic to cuneiform early and then later more advanced Uses of Writing o Literacy o Scribal classgroup of ppl who mastered the cuneiform held a high position in Mesopotamian society 0 O O Administration 0 The King the Royal Bureaucracy used texts for administration Archives 0 Anything that could be recorded myths dreams poetry was written down 0 Daily documents not meant to be kept for long periods of time Libraries 0 Temples and palaces were collecting and storing Sumerian literature for posterity Sumerian Literature Early Dynastic Period 30002500 BC o Development of powerful citystates o 4 biggest gt Kish Uruk Ur Lagash o Struggle for supremacy o Endemic border conflict 0 Competition for power 0 Alternation between unification and fragmentation o Political Authority the Lugal Lugal great man king 0 Military leader army fortifications 0 Administration ofjustice judge o Priestking responsible for helping to maintain cosmic order 0 Basis of authority divine gift 0 O O O Hereditary dynasties Shepherd of the people Head of a vast bureaucracy Irrigation land and produce Trade o Sumerian King List 0 Earliest version recorded ca 1800 BC Part myth and part history Records the flood Records Gilgamesh king of Uruk Earliest king whose reign is certainly historical ca 2700 BC 0 O O O The Akkadian Empire ca 23342153 BC o First great Empire from the Persian gulf to the Mediterranean Sargon I of AgadeAkkad 23342279 BC 0 Lugalzagezzi The King is Legitimate 0 Myth and Reality 0 War Lord o AgadeAkkad in central Mesopotamia o NaramSin 22542218 Grandson of Sargon 0 God of Agade King of the four quarters Empire reached its zenith Stele of NaramSin shows mountains where he lead his army sun gods at top bullhorn helmet adorns Sin s head 0 First king of Mesopotamia to identify himself as a god o Methods of Control 0 Garrisons o Nepotism family membersfriends in important positions Governors Priests and priestesses o Temples o Centralization 0 Royal ideology supreme authority o Legacy 0 Empire tribute to Sargon and NaramSin o Akkadian Language Semitic The Third Dynasty of Ur 21002000 BC o UrNammu 20942047 BC 0 Cultural Renewal 0 Lawcode earliest surviving 0 King as builder o Elamites sack Ur ca 2000 BC o End of Sumerian independence Period of Rival Kingdoms 20001600 BC o Political fragmentation but cultural unity o Amorites o Semites O O O 0 King Og of the Amorites o Ashur 0 Northern Mesopotamia 0 Independence citystate 0 International trading community Trading colonies karums 0 Political organization Kings agent of Ashur Cityassembly Limmum elected officials Old Babylonian Empire ca 19001600 BC o Babylon o Hammurabi ca 17921750 BC 0 Conquest diplomacy and rebuilding 0 King of Sumer and Akkad o Downfall o Hittites sack Babylon ca 1600 BC EGYPT Egypt is the gift of the Nile o 750 miles o Relative regularity of flood o High water table o Naturally occurring flood basins o Communication and unification Kemet The Black Land o Agricultural Cycle 0 Akhet inundation o Peret growing 0 Shemu harvest o Isolation 0 Sea and desert o Easily defensible 0 Trade comes stuff and new ideas about religion etc o Conservatism Early Dynastic Egypt Neolithic settlements from ca 5000 BC Distinct cultures specific to Upper amp Lower Egypt until ca 3100 BC Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt ca 3100 BC Kings Menes Narmer Aha o ruler of the Two lands 0 kind of Upper and Lower Egypt King Narmer 0 Early Dynastic Egypt Dynasties 12 Upper Egypt Capital at Hierakonpolis Greek name S of Thebes Center of Horus cult Oldest known zoo o Narmer Palette FRONT nar catfish mr chisel his name in hieroglyph Hathor leading divinity of the kings Shows king defeating an enemy Horus standing on Nile Delta Narmer has subjugated Lower Egypt and brought it under control BACK King in procession to inspect beheaded enemy Two bearded men restrain mythological beasts Bull symbol of victorious king tramples enemy O O 0 Old kingdom 2700 2200 BC Stable prosperous Lower Egypt North moves north from PreDynastic Egypt Capital at Memphis Religion 0 Polytheistic Complex system Gods with multiple manifestations National and local Syncretism two divinities become a single figure 0 Cosmology Ma at and Isfet order and chaos o Temples Temple Complexes Priesthoods O O Divine Kingship Afterlife o Pharaoh O O O 0 Per aa great palacehouse Living God Incarnation of Horus son of Isis and Osiris andor Son of Re Sun Afterlife Identified with Osiris or with Re Ma at and Isfet Royal Symbols cobra Lower Egypt north and vulture Upper Egypt south shepherd s crook shepherd of the people threshing flail Pharaoh s mastery of cereal agriculture double crown Sources of Authority Living God a Mortuary cult a Responsible for flood Centralization n A land of villages with few urban centers Control of trade monopoly of acquisition and distribution of prestige goods Administration of irrigation canals o Pyramids O O Monument Symbolic ladders to heaven Old Kingdom Djoser 3rd Dynasty 27th century BC stepped like a ziggurat Giza most famous of the pyramids Ritual United Egypt in a single religion of the Divine Kings Ka or life force what animates us departs at death Ba or individualized self what makes us unique Akh or spirit ka ba ahk Do not pierce him with many stares for such an aggression against him is an abomination to the Ka Instruction of Ptahhotep 120 Mummification to feed ba and preserve your spirit akh o Organization 0 Absolute monarch 0 Ownership of land and people not accurate to say citizens of Egypt Followers of Horus Vizier eg Ptahhotep Bureaucracy scribes etc eg Ani Capital at Memphis Upper and Lower Egypt Provinces nomes Nomarch governor of each nome o Decline and Recovery 0 Increasing instability Economic overextension pharaohs were overreaching in the amount of building they were performing they were unable to mitigate irrigation Poor floods Pepi II 22752180 BC his unwillingness to appoint a crowned prince weakened the kingship no successor dynasty trouble 0 First Intermediate Period ca 2180 2040 BC Upper and Lower Egypt divided 0 Mentuhotep II 11th Dynasty ca 2040 BC Thebes moves back up north Reunification Middle Kingdom Egypt 2040 1650 BC o Expansion of frontiers o Nubia o Fortresses control newly won territories in the south o Increased trade 0 Nubia O O 0 Red Sea Land of Punt o Canaan 0 Mediterranean Crete o Pharaoh as Good Shepherd o Second Intermediate Period ca 1650 1550 BC 0 Hyksos foreign princes 0 Capital at Avaris o Immigrants from Asia Middle Kingdom trickling in Egyptians cast as a story of invasion Myth of Hyksos Invasion Manetho 3rd century BC much after the fact Superior War Technology Bronze weapons and armor Chariots Egypt divided Thebes Resurgent Ahmose I 15501525 BC Besieged Avaris Defeated the Hyksos 1St Pharaoh of New Kingdom New Kingdom Egypt 1600 BC 1000 BC o Egyptian Empire 0 Thebes shifted to the South 0 Syria and Canaan acquired a buffer zone to protect from peoples of the north Trade Tribute 0 South to the 4th Cataract Nubia o Warrior Kings 0 Generals 0 Active Administrators 0 Fortified the borders 0 Intolerant of foreigners reaction to Hyksos Apiru foreigner Hebrews 0 Great builders built of durable material like stone 0 Thutmosis III 15th century Empire at its greatest O O n 16 campaigns in 20 years n captured 350 cities Builder Pharaoh n 50 temples a lavish tombs for nobles n statues and buildings to commemorate his deeds n campaigns recorded on the walls of the temple of Amun at Karnak o Amenhotep aka Amenophis IV 13631347 Created the first monotheistic religion Akhenaten he who is effective for Aten n Nefertitihis wife Aten Sun disk Akhetaten Amarna Horizon for Aten Motives n Monotheism n Suppression of Amun cult Change in Egyptian art from static figures to a much more lifelike humanistic representation 0 Tutankhamen 13471338 BC Living Image of Amun son of Akhenaten Moved the capital to Thebes Restored worship of Amun Basically undid everything his father put in place 0 Ramesses II 1290 1224 BC Ramesses the Great came to power at a very troubled time Sea Peoples the threat came from the sea tremendous disturbance in the Mediterranean the sea peoples are a collection from the islands that were driven out from their homes and began marauding Egypt Syrian Campaigns trying to consolidate Syria Battle at Kadesh 1285 BC Peace Treaty with the Hittite King 1269 BC Karnak Temple Complex 0 Karnak Thebes Valley of the Kings 0 Largest ancient religious site in the world 0 Amun Patron god of Thebes Rise of cult during the New Kingdom Creator god hidden essence Divine creatorprotector personal piety Instruction of Ani 0 Powerful priesthood High Priest of AmunRe Hittite Empire 1700 1300 BC 0 Central Turkey Capital of Hattusas Sack of Babylon 1600 BC Defeat of Pharaoh Ramesses II Battle at Kadesh 1285 BC before the battle Egypt had land much farther north after the battle they receded their border Aftermath to ca 1100 BC 0 End of the last dynasty 20th of the New Kingdom ca 1100 BC 0 Causes Problems in dynastic succession Competition from priests of AmunRe Economic woes 0 Period of fragmentation Legacy 0 Monumental architecture and sculpture made of stone rather than Mesopotamian clay 0 Literature Wisdom Literature Apocalyptic Literature Humanism presenting art in a much more natural way Religion stay tuned O O O O 0 Greece 60001000 BC Minoan and Mycenaean Civilizations Greece o Hellas the republic of Greece the republic of Hellas o Hellenes what the people called themselves o Common culture o Political fragmentation o Outward looking lots of contact beyond territory west to Spain France north into the Black Sea south to Egypt east to Pakistan 0 Trade 0 Resources Overview of Periods o Neolithic period ca 60003000 BC o Minoan Civilization ca 30001400 BC 0 Crete and islands 0 Prepalatial ca 30002200 BC 0 Palatial period 22001400 BC o Mycenaean Civilization 30001100 BC 0 Mainland Greece 0 Prepalatial 30001600 BC 0 Palatial ca 16001100 BC o Dark Ages ca 1100800 BC no writing fall in population which means less information for historians and archaeologists The Minoans ca 22001400 BC o Palace as political and administrative center 0 Pictographic writing ca 2000 BC 0 Linear A c 1700 BC o Palatial Centers 0 Knossos biggest and most powerful Phiaistos Mallia Zakros etc o Redistributive economy from the palace the ruler and his bureaucracy provided for the ppl the sheep goats the seed grain and metal so that they could grow food the products was then collected and then the manufactured goods were distributed back to the ppl or used for trade lead to the development of writing and storage in palaces o Mass export of finished goods o Wool and flax from linen Minoans were great weavers and artisans o NearEastern model o Social Structure 0 PriestKing Minos may be the title of the Minoan monarch o Minoan Trade Routes 0 Greece Aegean Islands Cyprus point of contact for Minoans and ppl of the Middle East Egypt Near East o Minoan Religion 0 PriestKing 0 Great Goddess Snake Goddess22 Male Consort goes through a cycle of death and rebirth that correlates with the agricultural year bornspring deathfall Bull symbol of male consort masculinity and strength Bullleaping sport but recognized as a ritual Palace Shrines did not build huge temples but rather had small shrines incorporated into palaces and elite villas Caves and Peaks Sanctuaries found in nature 0 Offerings processions epiphanies methods of worship Crete and Its Neighbors o Minoan influence o Thalassocracy rule of the sea 0 Flotilla Fresco long band of wall painting in a building on one of the islands shows a fleet of Minoan merchant crafts sailing between cities lots of small boats along the way fresco continues with a scene of the Nile represents an expedition of merchant sailors trading from Crete to the Nile o Cultural hegemony Minoan influence was very widespread in Egypt there are Minoan frescos on Hyksos walls o Greeks c 2000 BC inhabitants of the Minoans on the mainland The Mycenaeans ca 16001100 BC o Palaces o Mycenae Tiryns Pylos Thebes Orchomenos o Elite Burial at Mycenae O O O O O Shaft Graves ca 1600 BC built down into the mountain upon which the palace was later built filled with gold golden death masks rings depicting war scenes Bee Hive Tholos Tombs ca 15001300 BC shaft dug into the hill and inside there are beehive shaped rooms o Cultural homogeneity O O O O Cyclopean walls massive fortification walls only the Cyclopes mythic giants could have lifted those stones Megaron suite of rooms at the heart of the palace public ritual center of the palace compared to the central court of Minoan palaces Tholos Tombs Treasury of Atreus circular tomb Linear B c 1450 BC similar to the Minoan Linear A early form of Greek Mycenaeans are the ancestors to the later Greeks o Relations among the PalaceCenters walls suggest war times coalition of kings inhabiting the palace centers acknowledged the leadership of Agamemnon O Agamemnon in Greek Myth o Organization of Pylos O O O O O O Wanax the monarch Lawagetas second in command suggests military function or crown prince Hequetas follower elite serving the Wanax and Lawagetas Pasireu in later Greek means king but in Linear B it means noble man who is controlling the agricultural hinterland Damos members of the community who are in the agricultural sector country folk Slaves ManufacturingCommerce the palace served as redistributive centers Produced linen oliveoil bronze items o Wa rfa re 0 Unlike Minoans Mycenaeans engaged in warfare to compliment their walls art depicting war scenes o Conquest and Downfall O O Mycenaean takeover of Crete c 1450 BC Eruption of Santorini 16205 or 15705 BC volcanic eruption tremors knocked down houses ash settled on lands and made agriculture difficult Knossos sacked c 1375 BC Destruction of palaces c 1200 BC MycenaeTiryns abandoned c 1100 BC Sea Peoples or internecine warfare outside conflict or civil war between palaces Ecological causes drought that weakened the authority of leadership and encourage invasion from without The Dark Ages 1100800 BC Depopulation fall in population size of settlements decrease Population movements traceable through language as well as myths Athens moves into W Turkey Subsistencelevel existence trade stops working land enough to support yourself Loss of writing Reduced contact with Near East little evidence of exchangetrade Iron working c 1050 BC iron vs bronze for tools and weapons Dark Age Society 0 O O O 0 Homer ca 700 BC Oral tradition Iliad Odyssey Basileus pl basileis leader of the group Hetairoi group of elite followers War amp feasting the behavior of the elite in the Dark Ages Demos agricultural people Reaction Papers Follow directions indicate topicquestion provide word count Avoid lengthy intros and conclusions 1 or 2 sentences Be as specific as possible Use specific passages from the ancient sources to support your statements 1212010 40200 PM THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST c 1200 BC The Sea Peoples o Origins o Shardana Sardinia o Shekeesh Sicily o Peeset Greece 0 Lukka 5 Turkey o Motives o Plunderconquest 0 Migration forced out by others migrating o Refugees o Ramesses 111 11941163 BC 0 Temple at Medina Habu narrative about confrontation with the Sea Peoples Destructions Egypt o Land of Hatti o Mycenaean Palace Centers The Philistines o Peeset o Mycenaean Greeks the way they decorate their vases is similar to the Greeks o Invaded Canaan ca 1190 BC 0 Confederacy of citystates o Ironworking o Israelites 1150900 BC 0 David and Goliath Decline 700600 BC The Phoenicians o Syria Lebanon n Israel o Citystates ca 1100 BC o Maritime trade they carried a lot of what was ferried across the Mediterranean o Colonization o Carthage modern Tunis ca 800 BC o Hannibal the General of Carthage who fought the Romans o Israelites 9th ca BC 0 King Ahab and Jezebel o Alphabet 1000 BC most important as transmitters of the alphabet one letter one sound helped them with trade Greece The Dark Ages ISRAEL AND PERSIA Canaan and Canaanites o Canaan between Syria and Gaza the Jordan River and the Mediterranean 0 Ancient Super Highway 0 Fought over Canaanites 0 Contact assimilation cultural exchange 0 Religion baalim and baalot heavy on the godsgoddesses of fertility agricultural nation 0 Alphabet before the Phoenicians they developed the first alphabet which the Phoenicians used and adopted Oral Tradition Hebrew Bible and History o Book of Genesis 0 Based on oral traditions 0 1st written down in 10th c BC 0 Genesis as we have it dates to 6th c BC o Abraham son of Terah of Ur o Migrates to Heran Syria 0 Migrates at God s command south to Canaan o Jacob aka Israel son of Isaac grandson of Abraham 0 With his 12 sons 12 tribes of Israel migrates south to Egypt due to drought o Moses the Ten Commandments and the Exodus o 1250 BC Moses leads the Israelites back towards Canaan Israelite Religion o Oral Tradition o Monotheistic beginning with Abraham 0 Yahweh 0 Covenants with Abraham with Moses o History 0 Polytheistic o Yahweh cult one of many 0 Canaanite fertility gods and goddesses Baal and his Consort Israelite Conquest of Canaan ca 12001050 BC o 11th c BC confederation of Israelite tribes o Councils of Elders o Judges o Monarchy in response to external threat 0 Philistines etc o Saul c 10501000 BC first king comes to rule the consolidated kingdom of Israel o David ca 1000970 BC Saul s son the second king 0 Capital at Jerusalem o Yahweh cult is made the state cult important process in the elimination of competing cults Ark of the Covenant Ten Commandments o Solomon c 961932 BC 0 Temple Solomon founded the first temple of Jerusalem and stretched the resources in building o Tel Dan Inscription o 9th8th c BC 0 Earliest reference in a documentary source to the royal House of David 0 Discovered 1993 1994 The Kingdom of Israel 1050932 BC Divided Kingdom Israel and Judah 925587 BC o Divided ca 925 BC o Kingdom of Israel 0 Sargon II 721 BC 0 NeoAssyrian Empire 934609 BC o Kingdom of Judah o Nebuchadnezzar II 587 BC 0 NeoBabylonian Empire 0 Babylonian exile and Diaspora O NeoAssyrian Empire 934609 BC NeoBabylonian Empire 629539 BC Judaism and Mosaic Law o Covenants with Abraham and Moses o King David Jerusalem and the Cult of Yahweh o King Solomon Temple o Divided Kingdoms 950800 BC Hebrew Bible begins to take shape we have different traditions and different authors emphasizing different things in the north and the south o Exile 587 BC Pentateuch or Torah Five Books of Moses Mosaic Law o Without a state Israel defined as the community of all those who follow Mosaic Law Early Persian History o IndoEuropean Migration 1200 BC correlates with the migration of the Sea Peoples o Medes and Persians 900 BC o Median Kingdom c 725 BC 0 Ecbatana Hamadan 0 Alliance with Babylon against Assyria 609 BC 0 Lydia 585 BC o Achaemenes c 700 BC 0 Pasargadae o For the Persians he is the first in a line of kings which goes down to Alexander the Great Cyrus the Great 559 530 BC o Revolts against Astyages of Media 550 BC o Defeats Croesus of Lydia 546 BC o Absorbs Babylon 539 BC o Cyrus as Wise Ruler An Expanding Empire Cambyses II 530522 BC 0 Egypt o Darius I 522486 BC Law and Economy probably came to throne thru palace coup relate to Sargon the legitimate king Code of Laws Agricultural productivity Trade Standardized weights and measures Circulated coins Darics Anything can serve as money a coin is a particular kind of money created of precious metal that bears on either side a symbol that stands as a value of that particular coin 0 India and Thrace o Achaemenid Dynasty 0 Darius III 336330 BC Administration of Empire o Central Government 0 King of kings the Persian King was number one inherited from the Greeks who referred to many kings across the Mediterranean but only one King 0 Susa Ecbatana Babylon principle cities centers of powers 0 Persepolis treasuries and archives found in these 4 locations o Satrapies and satraps Administrative districts think Egyptian nomes 0 Royal road Sardis to Susa means of communication which ran W to E Lydia to Elam The king s eyes network of observersspies to keep eyes on the satrapys each satrapy was required to supply gold to the treasury and troops to the infantry Religious toleration aspect of royal control that Alexander the Great later adopted o Tribute and military service Persepolis city of Persia Greek word o Palace center o Palace walls are heavily decorated ceremonial staircase as procession Persian Religion o Zoroaster 1200 BC 0 O O O O O O o Avesta 600 o Religion of the Achaemenids o Ahura Mazda vs Ahriman o Cosmic conflict 0 Judgment after death 0 Sacred fire o Faravahar Background o Mycenaean Period ca1600 1100 BC 0 Palace centers 0 Monarchy o Redistributive economy o Greek Dark Ages ca 1100 800 BC 0 Tribesbands chiefdoms o hero of Lefkandi Overview of Developments o Colonization from ca 750 BC 0 Metropolis Oikistes founder Oracle of Apollo at Delphi send someone to them and they inquire of the oracle is it a good idea to find this colony or how do we create peace etc o Motives Search for raw materials iron in particular we ve left the age of bronze weapons Trade emporium pl emporia colonies established as market centers Land hunger coming from the main land probably not so much Political turmoil at home as citystates first begin to develop there will be lots of tension in the negotiations of a new governance seeking fairer times elsewhere 0 Importance Mediterranean as a Greek pond we have a Greek cultural homogeneity spread all along the Med Early contact with citystate other peoples who had established a citystate culture ie Phoenicians o Writing from ca 725 BC during DA there is no script until 725 we find the earliest evidence of Greek alphabet borrowed from the Phoenicians 0 Adoption of Phoenician script c 800 BC 0 Literacy how widespread was it restricted to the aristocracy Fair to say that the Greeks never enjoyed or suffered a scribal society writing is restricted to very few individuals because the alphabet is far easier to learn than a script 0 Civic use of writing inscriptions not just private writing but inscriptions written on durable materials Laws 0 Reasons Commerce writing down inventories prices contracts Epic poetry Homer Nestor s cup ca 725 BC one of the earliest Greek inscriptions written on a cup found in a grave used for drinking wine racy nature of poem leads us to believe it was part of aristocratic wine drinking symposium reference to Homer o Development of the pois by ca 650 BC 0 Necessary preconditions what do we need in order to recognize a state 0 Definitions 0 Law 0 Polis warfare o Polis society o Cultural Unity The Polis o CityState cf Mesopotamia Philistines Phoenicians o Defining Characteristics 0 Selfregulating enactment of laws adjudication of disputes 0 Urban center agricultural hinterland o Community of citizens politai sing polites o Expectation of equality under the law o Direct government by the demos 0 Council elected or appointed on the smaller side 0 Assembly where the real work of govt was done 0 Magistrates elected officials o Forms of Constitution 0 Less inclusive oligarchy Sparta o More inclusive democracy Athens o Necessary Preconditions o Sufficient population by 8th century BC Ranked society Central authority with coercive power Urbanization 0 Models Contact with Phoenician citystates o Emergence of the Pois by ca 650 BC 0 Law from Dreros Crete Ca 650 BC Inscribed on the exterior of the Temple of Apollo at Dreros Selfregulating enactment of law Officials kosmos arranger Council 20 in the city damoi Assembly of citizens pols o Warfare and the Pois 0 Dark Age Warfare Homer Individual combat Personal excellence o Hoplite warfare antithesis of DA warfare Massed infantry phalanx Corporate identity citizen soldier Corporate glory o Chigi Vase ca 650 BC Greek Society o Classes 0 Citizens 0 Resident aliens o Dependents slaves serfs o Oikos pl oikoi household 0 Nuclear family 0 Dependents 0 Property real and moveable o Domestic economy 0 Husband agriculture 0 Wife household labor Citizen Women in the Home vase shows a seated woman wife who is looking at her husband and holding a male infant behind her is a servant woman carrying a basket holding wool for textile production Greek Culture and Cultural Unity o Language to be Greek was to speak Greek o Pois organization selfregulating definition huge areas in the Greek world where this never developed or where it developed very late and while the pois did develop there was tremendous variation each one a little different o Society the citizens resident aliens and dependents classes different rules and regulations throughout Greece o Religion 0 Oracle of Apollo at Delphi place where you inquire of Zeus and a prophetess would tell of the will of Zeus through Apollo o Agonistic competitive spirit 0 Athletic composition chariot racing or warfare o Panhellenic festivals eg Festival of Zeus at Olympia o Hellenes vs Barbaroi ethnic national sense of being Greek being a Hellene and the barbarians someone who doesn t speak Greek develops most fully in the 5th century BC Greek Religion o Continuity with Mycenaean religion we know from Linear B that many of the gods worshipped by both cultures have the same names religion survived the Dark Ages o Pantheon of gods o Olympian gods 0 Chthonic earth gods includes Hades and his wife Persephone o Anthropomorphic gods took human form with all the frailties envious conniving but the gods have immortality o Worship 0 No formal doctrine nothing about how to worship 0 Do ut des I give that you shall give we give gifts to the gods and give them gifts and they answer our prayers or sometimes not o Forms 0 Private worship 0 Pois religion 0 Panhellenic religion o Fundamentals of Ritual Sacred space 0 Altar Sacrifice Temple Cult statue Priests O O O O Agonistic Spirit o Panhellenic festivals held in rotation Olympia and Delphi once every 4 years others every 3 years 0 Olympia o Delphi great music contest Apollo was god of the lire o Isthmia o Nemea o Athletic Competition 0 Funeral games held in connection with funerals celebrate the dead Funeral of Petrakos 0 War and athletic competition 0 Religion and athletic competition the gods liked to be entertained and they wanted to watch handsome built men compete SPARTA AND ATHENS two most radical citystates of Greece Development of Sparta 950700 BC o Dorian migration ca 1000 BC 0 Myth of conquest spoke Doric Greek o Settlement of Sparta ca 950 BC o Laconia annexed by ca 730 BC o Conquest of Messenia ca 730710 BC Terms and Society o Sparta urban center o Lanconian and Messenia agricultural hinterland o Spartiatai full Spartan citizens aka homooi or equals o Perioikoi dwellers round partial citizens o Hoi Lacedaemonioi pois as political community Spartiatai perioikoi o Helots subjugated people of Laconia and Messenia serfs o Spartans were very xenophobic fear of foreigners no resident aliens Crisis and Recovery o Pheidon of Argos 669 BC o Messenian uprising ca 650 BC o Sparta and Tegea ca 600550 BC o Peloponnesian League from ca 550 BC 0 Bilateral alliances 0 Sparta as hegemon principle leader The Spartan System Political they had a kingship Kings 2 0 Institutional authority eg military leadership 0 Noninstitutional authority o Gerousia Council of Elders o 2 Kings 0 28 elders 60 years old 0 proboueusis the body sets the agenda for the citizen assembly whereas the Gerousia exercises control o Assembly of Spartiatai o Yeanay vote on proposals o Ephors 5 o Annually elected 0 Chief public officials they could arrest the king if he had done something illegal Each exchanged oaths to each other The Spartan System Society Pois vs Oikos Boys to men 730 0 Individual excellence 0 Member of group 0 Military training started at teenage years 14 or 15 Men s dining clubs 20death 0 They became members of society 30 and could marry 0 Basis of organization of infantry Upbringing of girls 0 Physical exercise rather famous for being outdoors exercising which was unheard of elsewhere 0 Late marriage 18 years very young teens wed in other citystates but Spartans held off till 18 and waited to reproduce Austerity beginning ca 550 BC deliberate disinterest in aristocratic culture o Lycurgus figure who lived hundreds of years earlier ca 8th century was a famous lawgiver who revamped the way Sparta behaved Sparta and Athens have the largest territories of the Greek citystates Sparta had the largest ratio of land control to citizen population Athens proper the capitol of the citystate Attica is to Athens as Laconia is to Sparta Development of Athens o Mycenaean Athens o Myth of autochthony o Earthborn myth of origins trace the community s identity back to the soil conceived of part snake part human o Ionian Ionic dialect o Theseus and synoikism he joined up all the different villages in Attica and made them all into a single political entity Synoikism means living together as one political state Myth of the origin of the state Terms and Society o Athens urban center o Attica agricultural hinterland o HoiAthenaoi pols as political community o Chattel slaves o Did admit resident aliens unlike Sparta Athens in the 7th century BC o Feuding aristocratic clans o Cylon ca 632 BC 0 Attempt at tyranny o Draco s law on unintentional homicide o 620 BC 0 Oikos and pois shows state stepping in to prevent family from vengeance 0 Citizens and noncitizens o Exile territorial boundaries o Political institutions 0 9 Archons magistrates 0 Assembly 0 Areopagus named after the hill of Ares it was a council Solon ca 594 BC o Abolished serfdom o Established wealth as qualification for political office opened it up to a lot more Athenians o Established appeal to the people s courts o Objectives 0 Eunomia o Prevent tyranny Tyranny in Athens o Competition among Athens aristocratic families o Peisistratus 546528 BC 0 Popular support 0 Did not alter political institutions 0 Strengthened central authority 0 State festivals eg Panathenaia Hippias 527510 BC 0 Assassination of Hipparchus 514 BC 0 Harmodius and Aristogeiton o Cleomenes of Sparta 510 BC joins together with the aristocracy to drive Hippias out of Athens Reforms of Ceisthenes ca 508500 BC o Aristocratic competition 0 Isagoras 0 Wins over the demos appeals to them introduces a bill of reforms revises the way Athens does business o Mixes up the population 0 10 new tribes o In each tribe citizens from Coast City Central plain 0 New council boule of 500 democratic peoples council o Power to the people the people can vote make amendments to proposals o Founder of Athenian democracy Sparta and Athens in the 5th Century BC Overview o Persian Expeditions Against the Greeks 490 479 BC o Athenian Maritime Empire 478404 BC o War between Athens and Its Allies and Sparta and Its Allies 430 404 BC Persian Expeditions Background o Persian Empire 0 Royal ideology of expansion 0 Cyrus the Great and Croesus king of Lydia 546 BC beginning of PersianGreek friction pushed W towards the Mediterranean to conquer Croesus also conquered the Greeks of Asia Turkey o Ionian Greeks o Ionian Revolt 499494 BC 0 Athens sends help goes first the Sparta and Sparta says no too far 0 Sardis burned by Athenians o The king at the time of the revolt was Darius he vows to avenge the destruction of Sardis o Earth and Water 491 BC 0 Darius builds expedition o Embassy of the Persian canvassing each city 0 Idea of subjugation to Persia was a gift of Earth and Water Herodotus of Halicarnassus Ca 484425 BC o Father of History o First to connect the events of the past into a casual chain c Herodotus here presents his research in order that human events do not fade with time the great and wonderful deedssome brought forth by Hellenes others by barbarians not go unsung and so that the causes that led them to make war on each other be understood The Marathon Campaign 490 BC o Darius sent 2 generals o Datis and Artaphernes 2 generals sent with a fleet infantry and cavalry on ships o Causes 0 Payback for the burning of Sardis 0 Expansion and conquest o Hippias son of Peisistratus advisor who accompanies the generals Peisistratus was tyrant of Athens Hippias then fled to Persia o Marathon Attica where Hippias hailed from why Marathon takes place at Marathon o Spartans too late they agreed to help but army showed up late Marathon Against All Odds o Athenians 10000 hoplites o Persians 20100000 hoplites 2x to 10x more o Why Persia lost Persian cavalry not in play Persians had their backs to the sea Hoplite infantry warfare superior to other forms of infantry warfare o Miltiades Athenian general who determined the day that the battle took place both sides camped for a week set strategy for infantry war o Marathon and the modern marathon Messenger ran from Marathon to Athens to announce the victory and warn the city that the Persian fleet was circling Attica making ready to attack the city 0 26 miles from Marathon to Athens Persian Invasion of Greece 480479 BC o Xerxes son of Darius 486465 BC o Persian army and navy o Themistocles of Athens convinces the Athenians to use the surplus of silver to build a fleet before 483 BC the fleet was small 0 200 triremes warships o Hellenic League 481 BC 0 Spartan leadership 0 Unity but barely patched up neighborly disputes to achieve unity sort of 0 Many Greeks remained neutral 0 Many Greeks medized went over to Persia Battles of 480 BC 3 total o Thermopylae P and Artemisium draw 0 Leonidas leader 0 Ephialtes traitor o AugustSeptember o Sanctuaries burned revenge for the burning of Sardis o Salamis G o Isthmus of Corinth Themistocles trick told Xerxes that the Greek fleet was withdrawing Later in September 0 O O O O O o Xerxes to Sardis with defeat went back to Sardis never again returns to Greece 0 Mardonius to Thessaly Persian general stays The Greeks Victorious 479 BC o Battle at Plataia G o Pausanias o On the same day that Plataia was fought Battle at Mycale was won o Battle at Mycale o Ionian Greeks defect from Persia The Serpent Column Set up at Delphi 478 BC o Consisted of a gold vessel resting on a bronze base standing over 20 feet high inscribed with the names of the 31 communities who fought PostPersian War Ideology o Hubris error of Xerxes o West vs east o Liberty vs slavery o Rule of law vs despotism o Aeschylus Persians The Rise of Athens o Hellenic League against Persia 481 BC 0 Institutional body throughout the 5th century o Delian League 478477 BC 0 Some Greeks kept the war with Persia going going on the offense instead of defense On the island of Delos Purpose Revenge and loot Drive Persians out of Europe Liberate Ionian Greeks 0 Organization Athens as hegemon Aegean island and coastal communities Delian League treasury O O Fixed contributions of money and ships dependent on size and resources o Shift to Maritime Empire from late 470 s BC 0 Athens is the imperial power 0 Delos o Tribute and ships Delian League to Athenian Empire o Naxos 471 BC 0 Original member of the Delian league 0 Wanted out in 471 BC but Athens would not have it 0 Members of league no longer free o Eurymoedon battle of the Eurymoedon riverca 468 BC 0 Cimon s double victory crushed Persian fleet and army 0 Cimon was son of the hero of Marathon 0 Greeks refused to enter into a peace agreement with Persia o Thasos 465 BC 0 Tried to withdraw from the Delian League 0 Again Athens refused o The islanders in secret appealed to the Spartans and in secret the Spartans agreed to help 0 First good evidence of mounting tension between Athens and Sparta o Treasury to Athens 454 BC 0 Delian League treasury moved from Delos into Athens 0 This move has been understood as an important symbolic gesture of Athenian imperialism o Deducts money from revenue and given to goddess Athena to build grand buildings o Coinage decree ca 447 BC same coins weights and measures 0 Ordering all members of Delian League to standardize 0 Good interpretation Athenians trying to facilitate commerce like the modern Euro 0 Bad interpretation Again symbolic but public nod to Athenian imperialism issuing own coinage is a sign of autonomy o Juridical interference from ca 446 BC Conflict with Sparta o Sparta promises to help Thasos 0 Made a secret pact but never came Why 0 Helot Revolt 464 BC Sparta became entangled and could not help Thasos o The First Peloponnesian War 460446 BC 0 Involving Athens and the Peloponnesian citystates o A lot of stuff went on during this period creates tension between Athens and southern citystates o ThirtyYears Peace 446 BC 0 Sparta forces many of the citystates it sided with to make peace with Athens 0 Still a lot of tension and harbored anger Peloponnesian War 431404 BC the Second o 432431 BC Sparta and her allies declare Athens has broken the ThirtyYears Peace Declaration of war o 431 BC war begins o Spartan Strategy 0 Invasion of Attica o Athenian Strategy 0 Pericles 0 Athens as an island give up agricultural hinterland o Preserve empire don t target Sparta but make sure Sparta doesn t manage to undermine the empire 0 Naval expeditions largely defensive o 421 BC Peace treaty between Athens and Sparta breaks down later that year More war o 404 BC Athens capitulates Sparta wins Thucydides ca 460400 BC o Interested in psychology The Athenian character innovative and quick to action vs the Spartan character powerful but slow to action o History of the Peloponnesian War o If it be judged useful by those who desire an exact knowledge of the past as an aid to understanding of the futureI shall be content o The past is an aid to the present 0 Human nature is a constant and will perform in specific ways under specific conditions o Causes of War 0 Immediate causes Corcyra and Corinth tensions between the Peloponnesian state and its territory Corinth angry about Athenian interference Potidaea allycolony of Corinth and member of Delian League wanted out of League Athenian besieged the city second beef of Corinth Megarian decree trade embargoes with Megara issuing ultimatums o Underlying causes the ones nobody voiced was the growth of Athenian power and the fear that caused Sparta s allies The War Years 430421 BC Plague 430426 BC 0 Athens was devastated by a plague wiped out a huge part of Athenian population Pylos 425 BC 0 Cleon the most violent leader of the Demos in Athens 0 120 Spartiatai captured Sparta desperate to get these men back demonstrates how small the full citizen body was Amphipolis 424 BC 0 Important to Athenian interests timber grain slaves o Brasidas seizes the city of Amphipolis o Peace of Nicias 421 BC 0 Status quo ante terms of each keeping what it had before war The War Years 415404 BC o Sicilian Disaster 415413 BC the Athenians were deluded into thinking that they could send a massive naval expedition W to attack and conquer Sicily o Alcibiades very flashy Athenian aristocrat member of Socratic circle 11500 troops 337 ships half the citizen population of Athens They lost nearly all of the troops and all of the ships at the end of this 2 year expedition Problems distance made it difficult for communication back home Sparta got involved with Sicilians Alcibiades defected to Sparta was condemned to die in abstention Decelea 413 BC Sparta set up camp in Attica strategic because it provided a haven for Athenian slaves who fled from slavery Lysander commander Spartans have convinced some of the Satraps to enter the war Persian gold financing Persia 412 BC 0 Cyrus Oligarchic revolution in Athens 411 BC first of two undertaken in the hope that Sparta would be more likely to support an oligarchic govt Aegospotami 405 BC Athens to surrender 404 BC 0 Empire join the Spartan league with Sparta as hegemon Fleet Athens had to give up fleet Walls had to tear down the fortification walls Lysander has all the Athenians in the Aegean league to return to Athens there by doubling the population then blockade so they would surrender o Corinth and other allies wanted ultimate punishment execution of males enslavement of all others braze city to ground but Sparta declined O O O O O O O O O O O ATHENS IN THE 5TH CENTURY BC Overview o Radical Democracy 0 Empire 0 Assembly 0 Jury Courts o Education o Sophists o Socrates o Social critique tragedy and comedy o Elite and the radical democracy Radical Democracy o 2000030000 citizens 300000 population with citizen families and slaves o Direct participation on the part of every citizen not a representational system every citizen was a member of assembly every citizen was going to be a member of the Council of 500 at least one time in their life o Most offices open to all o Most offices filled by lot apart from o Generals want someone effective 0 Treasurers want someone from a certain economic status Democracy and Empire o Delian League to Maritime Empire ca 478404 BC o Empire gt fleet gt rowers gt thetes member of lowest class 0 200 triremes o 200 rowers each 0 40000 thetes and slaves o Power to the people thetes thetes were the largest of the classes they had a big say in members of the assembly The Citizen Assembly o Open to all Athenian citizens o Ten principal assembliesyear o Routine business 0 Officials election of officials 0 Food supply Athens could not feed itself had to import grain Defense campaigns etc Treason o Procedure 0 Agenda set by Council 0 Debate any individual could stand up and address the council just people who have something to say 0 Vote 0 O o Amendments any member could give ideas for amendments o Pnyx the hill upon where they met could hold up to 6000 o Power to the people gives a great deal of power to the demos The Jury Courts o Dikasterion where justice occurred o Multiple courts 0 litigious Athens willingness to go to court o Huge juries 201 0 Pay source of a days wage for an Athenian who had no other way to earn money o Typical trial 0 Litigants no attorneys professional court speech writer 0 Testimony from witnesses 0 Judgment no single judge just citizen juries 0 Water clock used to time the speeches o Political function 0 Control of officials used as a way to attack ones opponents indicting him for some wrong o Power to the People again giving the demos power Athenian Education very different from Sparta o Sources of education 0 Private schools no public schools not everyone had an education only those who can afford it Gymnasium location of education trained in athletic events Sophists means technician of wisdom largely foreigners who traveled throughout the Greek world offering lessons 0 Girls no educationtraining outside of the household o Objectives 0 Traditional values 0 Skills for political participation o Pericles Funeral Oration cf Athens and Sparta Training for Public Life o Sophists o Sophistes worker of wisdom o Itinerant intellectuals O O o Taught subjects useful for success in public life ie rhetorical skills necessary in the assembly and the courts 0 Famous for their rhetorical slight of hand and moral relativism morals are culturally determined o Socrates 469399 BC opponent of the Sophists 0 Ethics 0 Socratic method Underlying beliefs Questioning in order to display those beliefs Knowledge 0 Socrates never wrote anything we only know about him due to his students writings ie Plato Social Critique the Stage o Tragedy 0 Myths 0 Aeschylus Sophocles Euripides o Comedy 0 Everyday life and fantasy 0 Aristophanes o Competition 0 Great Dionysia o Forum of debate and criticism 0 Aristophanes Wasps Elite and the Radical Democracy o Ostracism from 487 BC process by where the elite could exile anyone for a period of ten years way for the demos to get rid of a public figure o Elite financing of the democracy 0 Liturgies financial burden maintain a trireme finance a tragic chorus etc o Fairly burdensome notice of elite dissatisfaction of liturgical system in history o Elite Symposium 0 Small groups 14 or so 0 Sympotic poetry 0 Support in politics and in the courts o Elite Critique Political Philosophers o Plato 427347 BC 0 Aristotle 384322 BC was a student of Plato s and founded his own school of Philosophy lived through the Macedonian conflict connection with Alexander the Great Athens as the School of Hellas o Cultural and intellectual center of Greece o Philosophy o Tragedycomedy o History where it blossomed o Architecture and sculpture a lot of building going on sculptures in the round and on small monuments like gravestones real high end was monuments on buildings 0 Cf Sparta and Athens Sparta never really urbanized so if this is a characteristic of a state then Sparta never achieved it Periclean Building Program 447406 BC Pericles wanting to adorn the acropolis with sculpture Nashville Parthenon reconstructed pediment depicting the birth of Athena O 0 Greece and Macedonia Overview o Xenophon of Athens 430354 BC well todo o Socrates taught him Socratic method 0 Sparta knew a lot about the Spartans 0 Helenica 411362 BC the story of Greek stuff from the end of the Peloponnesian war on to end of hegemony o Athens Oligarchic Revolution 404403 BC right after wars end democracy restored in 403 BC o Sparta Empire 404371 BC what do we do with Athens They assume leadership in Athenian empire Sparta exercises empirical control o Relations with the Persian Empire Persians entered war in final decade to aid Sparta Persia continues to be a player in Greek affairs o Era of Theban Hegemony ca 371362 BC Thebes rule Philip II King of Macedon 360336 BC Aftermath of the Peloponnesian War The Thirty Tyrants 404403 BC 0 Lysander of Sparta o Critias relative of Socrates Socratic circle Leader of the Thirty particularly brutal committed wide scale murder of their opponents o Trial of Socrates 399 BC eliminate Socrates as a voice of critique o Nonbelief in the gods of the state Corruption of the youth Plato Apology a speech in defense Gadfly to a horse way in which Socrates describes himself as a small individual annoying the democracy to improve it not destroy it Hegemony of Sparta 404371 BC o Aegean naval empire 0 Won with Persian support o Xenophon and the 10000 401400 BC 0 Revolt of Cyrus against Artaxerxes II o Mercenaries o Agesilaus II r ca 400360 BC Spartan king friend of Xenophon o Persian campaign 396394 BC 0 Liberation of the Ionians free the Greeks of the East from Persia Corinthian War 395387 BC o Quadruple Alliance against Sparta 0 Athens Thebes Corinth Argos o Peace of Antalcidas King s Peace 387 BC 0 Persian control over the Asiatic Greeks so much for trying to liberate the Ionian Greeks o Autonomy for the Greeks alliances in the Greek states had to disband used to prevent the development of power blocks in the Greek world 0 O O o Thebes and the Boeotian League principle target for that provision Rise of Thebes Cadmea 382379 BC was captured by Thebes a very powerful city the cadmea was the center of the Boeotian federation Epaminoclas and Pelopidas very able generals in the field and statesman at home big names 0 Sacred band 2 mentioned above were responsible for this consisted of 150 gay Theban hoplite couples Sphodrias 378 BC renegade general unsuccessful due to freak snow storm but galvanized Athenians to take action 0 Led an expedition against Athens Second Athenian League 377 BC developing a maritime league as a result of Sphodrias no they are never going to learn not Athens as an empirical power though King s Peace 374 and 371 BC 0 Sparta and Athens vs Thebes go from ppl fighting Sparta to ppl fighting Thebes 4th century Greek history when will they learn 0 Persian king was again involved Battle of Leuctra 371 BC 0 Epaminondas important Theban public figure 0 Took place in Leuctra Thebans beat the Spartan army big time Sparta never recovered Sparta s last hurrah as a major military power 0 Marks the emergence of Thebes as the major player in the Greek world Theban Hegemony 371362 BC Invasion of Laconia 370369 BC 0 Liberation of Messenia the agricultural hinterland of Sparta o Affects the food supply of Sparta Spartan decline Battle at Mantinea 362 BC 0 Epaminondas vs leads a Boeotian army 0 Athens Sparta et al all fight against Theban army o More or less a draw important consequence is that it wasn t an outright Theban victory eliminates Thebes as a Greek powerhouse o Social War 357355 BC Athens vs the 2nd League fighting to keep its members eventually loses coalition o Disbandment of a naval league that could have defended against Philip II o These two events open the way for a new Greek powerhouse Macedonia o Lower Macedonia agricultural plains and coastline o Monarchy descendants of Heracles not a strong monarchy but had been centralized there for centuries identified as being Greek relatives of Spartans 0 Agriculture very fertile o Upper Macedonia mountainous 0 Local dynasts local chiefs o Forests and minerals you need timber to build ships naval powers like Athens were very interested in their forests rich in silver gold and iron o Ethnicity divide between Phillip and his family and the Upper Macedonians not going to identify homogeneity o Phillip II r 360336 BC belonged to the monarchic family 0 Found tomb skeleton shows same wounds that Phillip had blind in one eye leg badly injured from battle o Note Thessaly Thermopylae Boeotia Amphipolis cities that kept Lower Macedonia at bay for awhile Phillip II o Son of King Amyntas III o Immediate threats 360358 BC very warlike people 0 Illyrians Paeonians Thracians Shows that he is good king has to be good warlord o Olympias of Epirus married the lady with the snakes asserting authority by marrying a princess marriage alliance o Success in battle led to unification of Upper and Lower Macedonia 0 O O o Subjugation of Greek coastal cities 357354 BC 0 Amphipolis 357 BC begins with this city extremely important as a gateway Athens was passionate about this city state 0 Looking for access to the sea o Reforms o Macedonian phalanx increases the length of the thrusting spear so that the projectile part is longer deepens the phalanx by adding rows 0 Royal pages sets up a training center for young men raising the teenagers to adults of fighting age centered around the king extremely loyal Demosthenes and Phillip o Demosthenes 388322 BC 0 351 BC 1St speech against Phillip o 3565346 BC The Third Sacred War has to do with Delphi and neighboring cities squandering the resources sucks up Greek interest o 353 BC Phillip seized Thessaly south to Thermopylae Greeks too busy fighting Sacred War o 346 BC peace of Philokrates recognizes Philip s control of Thermopylae part of terms of the peace o 340 BC Philip seized the grain fleet en route to Athens Philip has control of Aegean steals Athens food supply 0 Athens declares war against Philip o Winter 339338 BC Athens forms Greek coalition force of 40000 The End of Greek Independence o Chaeronea 338 BC battle here marks the end of the autonomous Greek citystate League of Corinth 0 Common peace 0 Expedition against Persia o Assassination 336 BC 1212010 40200 PM Alexander the Great o Sources Discussion Section Early Years 356336 BC 0 Born 356 BC 0 Phillip II and Olympias o Lysippus 0 Education Aristotleimported from Athens to serve as a tutor to Alexander If we want the best form of govt we should choose the best individual Chaeronea 338 BC at 15 he commanded the troops Philip s assassination 336 BC assumed Philip s place as king Succession and Consolidation 336335 BC 336 BC 0 Clean house Philip III Arrhidaeus his older half brother who was mentally ill probably a way to make sure Alexander is king he survives Alexander the Great more on that later 0 League of Corinth established after battle at Chaeronea Alexander needed to get the League behind him wanted to go on expedition that Phillip II had planned 335 BC 0 Thracians fought tribes on Northern edge of Macedonia looked for moments of weakness in south to cause trouble ascension of new king good moment Illyrians Alexander handled this quickly Greek Resistance Thebes Greeks revolt good time because there was a report that Alexander the Great had been killed Conquest of Asia 334332 BC o Panhellenic Ideology objectives 0 Avenge Xerxes avenge the holy places that Xerxes army had destroyed 0 War to liberate the Greeks liberate Greeks in Turkey and the coast of the Black Sea 0 O 0 new Achilles Achilles the hero of the Iliad he can do this myth working to political ends Olympias was according to myth a descendant of the son of Achilles o Forces 0 30000 infantry 0 5000 cavalry o 200 ships o Supplies for 30 days hopes to live of land as they go into Asia Battle of the Granicus 334 BC opened way into Asia 0 Appoints first Macedonian satraps of Greek cities instead of liberating Greeks First act as a conquering king o Battle of Issos 333 BC 0 Darius III 0 Decisive victory Royal treasure 55 tons of gold Darius family Used the silver to mint the first of what would become the first Alexander coinage sets him dressed up as Heracles descendant of Macedonia and on the flip side is a portrait of Zeus o Siege of Tyre 332 BC 0 Offer of Darius III Treaty of friendship and Alliance All Asia west of the Euphrates Daughter in marriage Alexander says no 0 Alexander proclaims himself king of Asia From Asia to Egypt 332331 BC o Egypt surrender o Proclaimed Pharaoh 0 Temple of Amenhotep III Luxor o Alexandria earliest of Alexander s foundation great city founder Oracle of Zeus Ammon From Alexandria to Persepolis 331330 BC o Battle of Gaugamela 331 BC o Darius flees to Media 0 Babylon surrenders o Susa surrenders o Persepolis 330 BC 0 Sack and burning o Thais prostitute who was a camp follower apparently dared him to do this 0 Alexander burned selectively places associated with power and burned a lot of stuff Trying to eliminate the source of Persian royal authority o Darius assassinated July 330 BC 0 Bessus Persian who killed him o Great King King of Kings Alexander successes Darius III To the Indus River and back 330324 BC o Bactria Sogdiana Parthia 330327 BC 0 Roxane 327 BC princess from Sogdiana whom Alexander marries mother of only legitimate offspring o Indian Campaign 327326 BC 0 Revolt at the Hyphasis Beas river 326 BC forces him to turn back There were other moments when his army revolted but this is when he decided to return o Journey back to Persia 326324 BC 0 Nearchus with the fleet 0 Alexander with the army Alexander s Final Year 324323 BC Marriage at Susa 324 BC 0 Barsine daughter of Darius III important political marriage alliance o Marriages of companions encourages his inner circle to marry upper class Persian women create a ruling class of Macedonian Persians excludes Greeks and other native women Cancellation of debts those of his fighting force the troops could accrue debts from the quarter master during service o Mutiny at Opis on the Tigris 324 BC 0 Sends the veterans home 0 o Macedonian troops grew angry due to the fact that Alexander was bringing all this Persianness into the army 0 This time he doesn t give him goes into his tent and sulks like Achilles o Execution of those who organized the revolt o Feast of Reconciliation Alexander laid out his great plan o Death in Babylon June 10 323 BC Alexander s Administration o Principles 0 Opportunist 0 Utility over uniformity c When in Rome 0 Macedonian king by assent o Persian king Proskynesis royal dress Persian retinue 0 Egyptian pharaoh o Founder of 70 cities 0 Garrisons control of routes promote tradecommunication o Macedonian veterans Greek mercenaries The Hellenistic World Introduction 323 BC o Alexander s Rule 0 Right of descent and assent Macedonia and Greece 0 Right of conquest all else o No Designated Successor o Roxane was pregnant with Alexander IV 0 Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander s half brother is still alive nominally Macedonian king at Alexander s death o No time to consolidate his empire just conquered but did some to gel things together but not on a wide scale o Royal Seal to Perdiccas general never manages to utilize the symbol to any effect but not for want of trying eliminated early on o 323280 BC power struggles among Alexander s generals Constructing Hellenistic Kingship o Basis of rule uncertain military power essential had to defeat their Macedonian enemy often o Imitation of Alexander 0 Marriage alliance diplomacy o Philoi Friends designation of political friendship a political institution once recognized you can expect certain things from the king and the king would expect things from you Giftgiving as a mode of achieving obligations between giver and receiver giving of prestige items to individuals in whose debt the king wanted to be Royal bodyguard cavalry school young pages drawn in to be trained in service of the king modeled after Philip II o Adoption of native forms of kingship Persian Egyptian the successor king of Egypt is going to model his kingship of the Egyptian pharaohs same deal with Persian king o Development of royal cult successor kings are all Macedonians new royal cult that coops the features the kingship of the indigenous peoples and establishes a new set of principles Main Players and Dynasties o Antigonus 382301 BC the oneeyed O O O O Antigonid Dynasty Greece and Macedonia controlled Macedonia and nominally controlled Greece 7 kings 306146 BC for 15 years Antigonus does not call himself king instead serving on behalf of Alexander o Characteristics 0 0 Macedonia vs Greece distinguish the two lands similar to the rule of Philip II and his ancestors apart from the ruler cult Development of new Greek Leagues end of the autonomous citystate but uprising of new leagues Egalitarian no hegemon or single leader had League armies and League citizenship Federal citizenship a way to create a power base to protect them from Macedonian kings able to assert a united front 0 Coin of Antigonus shows AtG s face on one side but then Antigonus on the other side shows legitimacy and connection to Alexander Ptolemy 363283 BC 0 Ptolemaic Dynasty 0 Egypt 0 Ruled as satrap to 305 BC top coin shows Alexander s portrait on front and on back shows Athena in war garb shows that he is ruling Egypt on behalf of Alexander 0 Ruled as king 305283 BC bottom coin now shows portrait of Ptolemy wearing the royal diadem king in his own right coin now says Ptolemy as king and shows eagle holding thunderbolt symbol of god Zeus o 22 rulers kings queens 0 30530 BC o Characteristics 0 CentralAdministration Capital at Alexandria right on the coast GrecoMacedonians elite Ptolemaic laws and judicial system new laws based on GrecoMacedonian models 0 Local Administration Villages Egypt never urbanized at the village level things were very different Egyptians Egyptian laws and judicial system allowed to survive alongside Ptolemaic laws allowed to choose which set to follow Mixed population largely native Egyptians but Greek and Macedonian veterans were settled there to provide a way to keep the natives quiet o Seleucus 358281 BC 0 Seleucid Dynasty 0 Asia largely the area that was conquered o 31 kings 0 31263 BC claimed he was king in 301 BC after everyone but counted his kingship as going back to 312 BC o Characteristics 0 Satrapies kept this system used largely for the army and the extraction of wealth 0 Great diversity within satrapiesvillages cities temple states 0 Unwieldy Cultural Exchange Ai Khanoum o Foundation of Alexander or Seleucus o Northern Afghanistan o Town plan 0 Gymnasium central space for elite Greek culture 0 Theater for 5000 expecting a large community o Delphic maxims collection of wise sayings scribed on the Temple of Delphi 0 As children learn good manners as young men learn to control the passion in middle age be just in old age give good advice then die without regret Hellenistic Religion o Old patterns continue both Greek but also Egyptian Persian Jewish etc o New trends 0 Cult of Tyche Ms Chance luck personified before the Hellenistic period but during she becomes a goddess with cult sacrifice temples and all to worship her Wears a crown representative of crenellations and fortifications Syncretism eg ZeusAmmon becomes increasingly common to identify the divinity in one religious system to the divinity in another Ruler cults new in the Greek world these kings have autocratic power 0 Astrology 0 Magic o Cults of New god Serapis healing seen as a benign and concerned figure 0 O O o Isis thou of 1000 names holding a rattle used in cults where worshippers are filled with the divinity Hellenistic Philosophy removing individual from connections to community Cynicism o Diogenes of Sinope 400325 BC 0 Selfsufficiency and freedom from distractions of wealth power etc Epicureanism o Epicuris of Samos 341270 BC 0 Freedom from disturbance greatest pleasure o Stoicism detachment o Zeno of Citium 335263 BC 0 Detachment from everything but cultivation of virtue o Common feature 0 Withdrawal from public life 0 Cf with the Classical period man is a political animal 0 Freedom from suffering in an age of uncertainity Hellenistic Art o Patronage monarchies and poles Classical elements with Hellenistic theatricality Characteristics 0 Baroque ornate and flamboyant o Realistic representation of nature 0 Observation of everyday life Great Altar of Zeus at Pergamum 175150 BC 0 Sculpture all along the base depicting mythic scene battle between gods and giants The Boxer 10050 BC 0 Everyday life look of anguish on his face Italy and Early Rome Western Mediterranean Italy Geography and Environment o Mountains Apennines Alps Seas Tyrrhenian Adriatic Rivers Po Arno Tiber Rubicon Plains Etruria Tuscany Latium Rome Campania o Resources minerals especially iron timber grain Italy Population o Villanovan Culture ca 900700 BC northern European in culture settled mostly in Etruria o Cremated their dead and placed the remains in pots Urn field culture o Italic IndoEuropean speakers Latium and Campania o Latins west the language of Rome 0 OscanUmbrian north and east Sabines Samnites o Etruscans Etruria height ca 650450 0 Etruria mod Tuscany Metals esp iron metallurgy located in rich iron field developed into large wealthy communities early on trade widespread across Mediterranean Agriculture 0 Citystate culture c 700 BC Hilltop towns Loose federation Absolute monarchy king priest general judge resembles the Phoenicians more than Greek 0 Contact with Greeks trading heavily bringing out iron ore and exporting elite manufactured goods vases 0 Common culture Language doesn t fit into any language group reflected in myth and history scholars don t know of their origins either Villanovan or migration from Asia Social structure elite servile Religion n Polytheistic n Divine will manifested in every aspect of natural world a Famous for divination o Haruspicy reading entrails o Bronze liver from Piacenza o Greeks Magna Grecia from ca 800 BC Early Rome o Location 0 Bank of the Tiber 0 Salt route inland important commodity salt trade was incredibly important throughout antiquity Northsouth highway 7 hills most important is Palatine Marshy lowlands where the early peoples established their cemeteries o Across the river from Etruria Rome Foundations Myth and Archaeology o Myth Romulus and Remus twin boys 0 Descendants of Trojans on mother s side Sons of Mars Exposed by the prophecy that they will kill their father Raised by shepherd and protectednursed by wolf Romulus kills Remus fighting about authority in Rome 0 Founds Rome 753 BC o Archaeology 0 Villages 9th8th c BC Small farmsteads on the hills Cemeteries in the marshy valleys o hut of Romulus o Palatine Hill Rome The Monarchy 753510 BC o Myth or history o Seven kings beginning with Romulus o Little known about them beyond their names o Names and ethnicity o 2 kings with Sabine names 0 2 kings with Latin names 0 3 kings with Etruscan names the final three emphasizes the conquest of Etruscan expansion o Urbanization 7th c BC 0 O O O O 0 Village gt city 0 Forums drained gt public square 0 Temple of Capitoline Jupiter o Etruscan influence 7th6th c BC 0 Society 2 class system 0 Script received from Etruscans which becomes Latin 0 Architecture typical Etruscan architecture looks Greek but built on a high stylobate and more decoration on the inside o End of the Monarchy 510 BC 0 Tarquinius Superbus largely tyrannical Sextus Tarquinius also very tyrannical Lucretia raped by Sextus tells husband and then commits suicide Collatinus Tarquinius Lucretia s husband Brutus principle actor in ejecting Tarquinius o Lars Porsenna 0 Res Publica vs Res Privata monarchy vs republic o Libertas vs Regnum kingship to liberty Rome Republic 51027 BC o The Early Republican Constitution constantly changing we don t have much evidence from the time of the early republic at quite a disadvantage o Patricians until the 3rd c BC political control was in the hands of the patricians the few families who could trace their dissent back to the monarchy combo of Latin and Etruscan families 0 Magistracies 2 Consuls according to the Romans they stepped in when the kings were eradicated view them as limited kings had autocratic power for one year difficult to accomplish anything in that time limited by tenure and competition Praetor good deal of authority in all areas of Roman life began with just one and at most numerous we get 10 or 12 Imperium the official with this has the greatest possible authority second only to higher magistrates 0 Senate Exmagistrates consuls praetors and others comparison institution of the Greek council except with different functions Advise and consent where it got its clout advising other bodies Doesn t seem like a lot of authority but they had informal power worked behind the scenes 0 Centuriate Assembly comitia centuriata think Macedonia Elect senior magistrates Declare war and peace Court for capital cases where penalty was death Rome Conflict of the Orders ca 494287 BC o Crises and Compromises between Patricians and Plebians 0 Political monopoly 0 Abuse of power 0 Religious exclusivity 0 Debt amp land redistribution o 494 BC Tribunes 2 of the Plebs elected counterpart to the consuls Sacrosanctitas the tribunes are inviolable no one can attack them religious protection Auxiium power given to the tribune extending protection to a Plebian through ritual gesture Intercession power of the tribune to veto a decision made by a magistrate or enactment of a body of magistrates 470 BC Plebian Assembly comitia plebis tributa 0 Elect 2 tribunes and 2 aediles police 0 Court for noncapital offenses 449 BC Twelve Tables Roman laws are inscribed and displayed for the first time Lex Hortensia 287 BC named after Roman who proposed law gave Plebian assembly to enact laws pass decrees etc that had power and effect within Rome 0 Plebiscites O O O By 287 BC 0 Right of intermarriage 0 Access to all priesthoods o Abolition of debt slavery Roman Republic 1 Building an Empire Overview Rome and Latium Early Conflicts Oscans Etruscans Gauls Latin Wars 340338 BC Tools of Empire cf Alexander Samnite Wars Conquest of Magna Grecia ca 270 BC Carthage and the Punic Wars 264146 BC Rome and the Hellenistic East Rome and Latium Latin League 7th c to 338 BC 0 30 communities in Latium including Rome 0 Purpose defensive against the Etruscans and Gauls struggle between the Plains Dwellers with the Hills men in the Apennines Latin Rights cf with Greek citystates rights that every Roman enjoyed in Rome and in the other Latin citystates o Conubium right to intermarry o Commercium ability to own land in another Latin citystate ability to enter into a political contract with another citystate 0 us migrations the law of migration the ability to relocate and maintain citizenship in home citystate Treaty of Rome and Carthage 509 BC 0 Rome claims and Carthage recognizes Rome s control of Latium don t know if it is historical or part of tradition but in either event it suggests this perception on part of the Romans that they were entitled to control over Latium Battle at Lake Regillus 493 BC 0 Treaty of Cassius aka Cassian Treaty Roman consul 2 important things came from this Shared military defense Latin army added to Rome s Shared spoils from battle distributed among all participants Early Conflicts o Oscan Wars c 500400 BC 0 Volsci and Aequi Veii 396 BC 0 Control of salt o Gauls Po River Valley 0 Sack of Rome ca 387 BC 0 Brennus G vs Marcus Furius Camillus R Latin Wars 340338 BC o Cause Latin s request for parity with Rome rejected o Latium and Campania revolt o Consequences o Dissolution of the Latin League 0 Latium and Campania brought under Rome s control 0 Development of new tools for Empire Tools of Empire Municipia o Civitas optmo iure full Roman citizenship o Civitas sine suffragio citizenship without the vote o Colona plural coloniae o NonRomannonLatin peoples 0 New settlements of Romans Latins Italians o Settlers without Roman citizenship o Benefits for Rome 0 Pacify Latin demands for rights if you are a member of Municipia then you had citizenship 0 Integration into a federal system while respecting local conditions keep citystate citizenship while receiving Roman citizenship 0 Increase in population and military strength o Control of Central Italy 0 Samnites OscoUmbrian Highlands Don t look to different from Latins Wall painting from Samnite tomb shows an emphasis on military and combination of infantry round shield helmet javelin and cavalry Samnite Wars 326304 298290 BC o Via Appa 312264 BC main road designed to move the Roman army into the Apennines mtns o Appius Claudius Caecus o Censor o Battle at Caudine Forks 321 BC 0 Defeat for the Romans 0 Name of a route into the Apennines o Battle at Sentinium 295 BC smashing Roman success last major battle of the Wars Defeated o Samnites o Gauls o Etruscans Conquest of Magna Grecia o Greek colonies from 8th c BC o Tarentum 0 Leading Greek city in 3rd c BC 0 Provokes Rome in 282 BC 0 Calls in Pyrrhus of Epirus relative of Olympias famous general of the day 0 Pyrrhic Wars 280275 BC 0 Early successes Pyrrhic victories but at great expense 0 Battle at Beneventum 275 BC a draw o Significance of the Defeat of Pyrrhus 0 Demonstrated strength of Roman army 0 Rome came to control most all of Italy 0 Rome recognized by the Hellenistic kings Ptolemy II Philadelphus 273 BC Rome and Carthage o Modern Tunis Tunisia o Phoenician colony in political terms it was a citystate o Carthaginian Empire 0 North Africa 0 Sicily 0 Southern Spain o Maritime power naval and merchant trade Ally of Rome 509 BC o Punic Wars 264146 BC 0 Punicus Phoenician The First Punic War 264241 BC o Issue control of Sicily o Theater Sicily and North Africa o Birth of Roman navy turned naval warfare into infantry warfare o Corvus raven boarding plank o Aftermath Roman victory o Mare nostrum our sea 0 Corsica Sardinia islands obtained 0 Illyrian piracy making the sea safe for Romans really important because the Adriatic sea separated Italy from Greece but now they can get to Greece by water Second Punic War 218201 BC o Theaters Spain Italy Sicily o Hannibal Barca 0 Commander in Spain 0 Seeks to expand Carthaginian power 0 Begins the war o Battle at Cannae 216 BC horrific Roman defeat o Battle at Zama 202 BC 0 P Cornelius Scipio Africanus Roman general who defeats Hannibal Spain 197193 BC o Third Punic War 149146 BC Macedonian Wars 214146 BC o Players 0 Rome 0 Philip V r 221179 BC Hannibal o Perseus son of Philip V r 179166 BC o Aetolian League military organizations of Greek cities as a means of defending themselves 0 Achaean League o Significant Moments 0 Battle at Cynoscephalae 197 BC Philip restricted to Macedonia no access to the South Rome declares freedom and autonomy for Greece we ve heard that before every conquerors fav phrase o Treaty at Apamea Syria 188 BC Following defeat of Aetolian League and Antiochus III Antiochus cedes western Asia to Rome Beginning of the end of the Seleucid empire 0 Battle at Pydna 168 BC Rome defeats Perseus last of the Antigonid kings of Macedonia Perseus captured and taken in chains to Rome 0 148 BC Macedonia becomes a Roman province 0 146 BC Rome defeats the Achean League Secrets of Rome s Success o Roman look up notes PS PUNIC WARS Roman Republic 11 State and Society A Class Conscious Society o Senatorial Class senatores 0 1000000 sesterces 0 cf legionary s wages 1000 sesterces o Equestrians equites connected in some way with cavalry possessing sufficient wealth to maintain a horse 0 400000 sesterces o Commons plebs o Freeborn Roman citizens o Slaves The Senatorial Class o Selection 0 Equestrian Order 0 Wealth o Chosen by censors kept track of all Roman citizens and their property identified who should become part of the Equestrians o Exmagistrates cursus honorem those who chose the censors Successful military career identification of public man who is active in governance and in warfare o Patron patronus Patricians Marlon Brando in Godfather 0 Protector amp benefactor in exchange for support o Client clens Plebians 0 Political support in exchange for favors o Fides trust bond between the patron and his client heart of the relationship 0 Voluntary 0 Traditional The Senate o 300 currentformer magistrates o Nobies exconsuls o Novus homo new man first man in his family to become a senator o Senatus consutum decree of the senate advisory a response to questions put to the senate by magistrates or consuls for particular issues o Auctoritas 0 Foreign policy 0 Military assignments where the army would be sent with what objectives and commanded by whom Public expenditures 0 Etc including advisory decrees Equestrian Class o Recognition by the censors 0 Property 0 Battlefield court legislator o Patron private how he served his clients 0 Beneficia public good deeds done for the Roman state o Recommendation senator big boost O O o Roles 0 Senior officers in the army and cavalry o Pubicani contracts with the state to do important things like tax collectors mining outfitting the army roads public buildings 0 Trade banking manufacturing also important roles because senators were prohibited from entering into these contracts probably to prevent potential for abuse The Pursuit of Political Power o Public Service 0 Gloria glory won by public service 0 Virtus manliness as strength in the face of adversity o Dignitas public esteem good treatment of clients etc Amicita friendships Marriage also a good way to win public support Offices Cursus Honorem o Quaestor 30 years old Financial officers Aedile 36 years old Law and order Praetor 39 years old Judiciary Consul 42 years old Chief magistrates o Curule Magistrates stool refers to important chair that they sat on had more authority than the Quaestor Toga praetexta Accompanied by lictors attendants bearing the fasces wood pulls in a bundle bound in red leather with an axe head attached symbol that individuals have power over life and death 0 Controls collegiality a way to avoid possibility of tyranny annual all offices were only for one year scrutiny their conduct while in office Dictatorship O O O O Extraordinary magistrate with absolute authority for a period of 6 months Exception to Roman political principles Collegiality amp accountability not subject to scrutiny at end of reign 0 Appointment Senate passed a senatus consutum authorizing the consuls to nominate a dictator 0 Authority superior to magistrates 0 Provincial Administration Imperium Popui Romani Imperium of the Roman people Provinicia largest territorial amp administrative unit but the provinces were broken down into smaller units for extracting wealth Governor senatorial class and staff 0 Appointments for 1 year 0 Prorogation extension of term used often Lex provinciae 146 BC 0 Set of laws tailored for the organization and administration of a province 0 First applied to the Province of Africa after the defeat of Carthage Pubicani government contracts brought about wealth from the provinces often extorted Quaestio de repetundis 149122 BC law aimed at Pubicani who overstep their bounds procedure for trial went out of effect in 122 some 2 dozen cases and they were all acquitted Roman Slavery Servi sg Servus Legal status 0 Property Enslavement o bred at home child born to a slave was a slave o Captives of war nonItalians o Slave markets Freedmen liberti o Manumission 0 Continuing obligation to former master took the master s name 0 Citizens vote yes hold office no o Slave Occupations o 25 of population millions o Collective uses Agriculture Mining Galleys 0 Household slaves Tutors Accountants 0 Skilled craftsmen o Slaves and wealth o Treatment of Slaves o Expensive 1000 s of sesterces 0 Right to kill or mutilate o Slaves in collectivities by and large fared worse than skilled slaves or household slaves o Slave Resistance 0 Revolts eg the gladiator Spartacus 7371 BC 0 Fugitives branded 0 Low level resistance Slaves in Roman comedy Roman Republic 111 Transformation Decline amp Fall Overview Late Republican society changes Reforms of the brother Gracchi Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus 133 122BC Gaius Marius and Reforms of the Military ca 110100 BC Social War 9088 BC Sulla 13879 BC Pompey Crassus and Caesar 7844 BC Civil War 4944 BC Triumvirate of Antony Octavian and Lepidus 4331 BC o End of the Roman Republic 27 BC A Changing Elite o The enrichment of the Roman upperclasses 0 War and officeholding senators o Commerce and manufacturing equestrians o Contact with the Hellenistic East o The influence of Greek culture love of things Greek beginning 2nd c BC 0 Lavish lifestyle 0 Architecture 0 Religion Cults of Bacchus and Cybele became widely popular in Rome Bacchus is represented as a Fruit of the Loom guy and never officially realized as a state cult Cybele is represented as a Tyche goddess with the same crown of crenellations known as mother of the gods A Changing Underclass o Peasants rural Plebians 0 Early Republic Tenants of patricians or small landholders Parttime soldiers Patronclient relationship 0 LateRepublic Longterm volunteer soldier Relocated to Rome and other cities o Growth of an Urban Proletariat Factors Contributing to Instability o Decline in consensus about expansion of empire o Breakdown in unity among the patricians o Optmates Best Men patrician conservatives keeping to the old ways Populares Leaders of the People patricians who sought support from the Plebians ant the expense of the Senate o Corruption in Provinces considerable unrest in the provinces o Resentment of Italian allies 2nd class citizens who did not get Roman citizenship until late in the Republic 0 o Breakdown in patronclient relationship both rural Plebians were moving into the cities breaking the relationships with the country gentry a Patrician could no longer count on a collection from clients big voting group out there Tiberius Gracchus o Tribune 133 BC o Problem weakness of citizen militia 0 Property qualifications 3500 sesterces 1K sesterces was annual wage o Solution land reform o 300 acre limit 0 Public land to the landless peasants o Recipients and their descendants liable to military service o Opposition Senate o Tiberius murdered together with 100 s of his supporters Gaius Gracchus Tribune 123122 BC o Legislation 0 Judicial reforms to check power of the Senate 0 Law authorizing the sale of grain to Rome s poor at below market price 0 Proposed Roman citizenship for Italians failed o Senate opposed him passed a senatus consutum against him drove him to commit suicide and slaughtered 3000 of his followers Legacy of the Gracchi Recruitment problem unresolved Italians embittered Violence as political tool answer to any attempt to take power away from elite was murder o Optmates vs Populares Gaius Marius a Novus Homo o Elected Consul 6X 107 104100 BC very popular o Jugurthine Wars 112105 BC became popular in battle 0 Jugurtha king of Numidia 0 Modern Algeria and Tunisia 0 Berber North Africans o German Tribes Cimbri ampTeutones 113101 BC o Marian military reforms what we know as the Roman army 0 Standing professionalized army enlist for 16 yrs No property qualification State provided standardized training and equipment Legion 6000 men in 10 cohorts Retirement benefits for veterans 0 Roman citizenship for Italian veterans The Social War 9088 BC o Italian revolt o War between allies socus o Problem Roman citizenship wanted equality o Italian rebels establish a separate state 0 Capital at Corfinium o Italy south of the Po united in a single state Sulla 138 79 BC o Successful military career 0 Jugurthine war 0 Social war 0 Mithridates of Pontus Asia 8863 BC o Enemies Marius and Sulpicius Rufus o Deprived Sulla of command 0 Sulla led his army against Rome first inkling of the capacity of Roman commanders to use their armies against their own state 0 Regained his command in Asia o Returned to Rome from Asia 85 BC 0 Reign of terror against the elite o Proscriptions ca 2000 senators and equestrians list of the most vocal enemies who need to be executed Dictator 8279 BC 0 Increased Senate from ca 300 to ca 600 not good for the Senate too large too unwieldy to be effective 0 Weakened the power of the Tribune Big Men in Rome 7844 BC 0 O O O o Pompey Julius Caesar and Crassus the first Triumvirate informally Pompey amp Crassus vs the Senate Pompey 0 Quelled revolts in Spain 8073 BC Crassus 0 One of Rome s wealthiest men 0 Defeated slave army of Spartacus 73 71 BC 0 Frustrated with his senatorial career o Joint consulship of Pompey and Crassus 70BC o Pompey in the East 6762 BC 0 Suppression of piracy in the Aegean Brought all of Seleucid Asia under Roman control Almost doubled Rome s annual income Senate opposed Pompey s command Plebian Assembly confirmed it 0 O O Caesar o Political ally of Pompey and Crassus o Adopted Julius Caesar Octavianus Octavian as his heir daughter s grandson o Consul in 59 BC 0 Supported Pompey s arrangements in Asia 0 Supported appropriation of land of Pompey s veterans o Caesar in Gaul 5852 BC Collapse of the Partnership amp Civil War o Crassus killed fighting the Parthians battle at Carrhae 53 BC o Caesar in Gaul winning military success and political popularity o Pompey sides with Caesar s enemies 50 BC o Senate recalls Caesar 49 BC o Caesar marches his army across the Rubicon from Gaul into Italy and initiates Civil War 4944 BC 0 Rome Italy Spain Gaul Greece 0 Battle at Pharsalus in northern Greece 48 BC defeat of Pompey 0 Caesar installs his mistress Cleopatra wife of Ptolemy XIII as ruler of Egypt 48 BC Caesar Dictator Perpetuo o Triumphant return to Rome 45 BC o Reforms 0 Calendar 0 900 Senators gave clemency o Cancellation of debts 0 Distribution of land 0 Building program o Clementia for supporters of Pompey o Brutus and Cassius Ides of March 44 BC Triumvirate of Antony Octavian and Lepidus 4331 BC Marc Antony 0 General in Caesar s army 0 Most influential Roman following death of Caesar 0 Failed to punish Brutus and the other conspirators Octavian 0 Led Caesar s army against Antony o Defeated Antony in battle 0 Patched things up o Plebian Assembly grants Octavian Antony Lepidus dictatorial powers to restore the state 0 Proscription 4700 of their enemies 0 Measures against the Senate appointment of all magistrates 0 Death of Brutus and Cassius battle at PhilippiMacedonia 42 BC Dissolution of Triumvirate 31 BC o Lepidus forced out by Octavian in 36 BC o Pact of Brundisium in 40 BC 0 Octavian managed affairs in Rome and the West 0 Antony managed affairs in the East o Antony and Cleopatra o Involvement with Cleopatra VII from 41 BC 0 Divorced Octavia sister of Octavian in 32 BC o Octavian declared war against Cleopatra in 31 BC 0 Defeated Antony battle at Actium northern Greece 31 BC The End of the Republic Aug 27 BC o Octavian restores the Republic but in fact retains autocratic power o First of the Roman Emperors o Inaugurated the Pax Romana Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Princeps o Augustus Revered One 0 Imperial Ruler Cult o Princeps First Man o Imperium command of the Roman armies in the Empire


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