INTRO TO NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE
INTRO TO NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE NTR 312
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Adriana Beier on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NTR 312 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Lydia Steinman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/181387/ntr-312-university-of-texas-at-austin in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
NTR 312 Notes Lecture 1 120 0 Most abundant of the elements found in the body 0 hydrogen carbon nitrogen oxygen phosphorus and sulfur 0 Four of those elements make up 95 of matter CHON o 25 elements are found in the human body 0 The others are found in very small amounts 0 Electron valence shells o 1 shell 2 2quotd shell s 339d shell 18 o If outside shell isn t completely filled it will try to fulfill octetbonding with other atoms giving up electrons taking electrons 0 Three types of bonds 0 ionic covalent hydrogen 0 Water HO o Biomolecules o Carbohydrates and Lipids HOC 0 Proteins and Nucleotides HONC o Molecules that contain carbon are organic o Emergent Properties 0 Cell is the smallest functional unit of life 0 They have carbs proteins lipids water nucleotides 0 The body has trillions of cells 0 Functions of cells 0 access materials from external environment can transport metabolize and store these raw materials can excrete waste 000 can adapt to the environment like to keep their internal environment stable homeostasis 0 Food provides the raw material to allow cells to perform their functions 0 Cells organ systems 0 Epithelial cell epithelial tissue stomach gastrointestinal system 0 Homeostasis all organ systems working together to keep internal environment body stable 0 We re made up of 60 water 20 fat 15 protein 5 other carbohydrates vitamins minerals 0 Classes of nutrients o Carbs Proteins o Lipids fats o Vitamins 0 Minerals 0 Water 0 All regulate body processes except carbohydrates 0 Carbohydrates proteins and lipids are used for energy 0 Carbohydrates are 0 milk fruits and vegetables fiber whole wheat grains 0 Proteins are 0 Milk meats grains nuts seeds 0 Fats are 0 Meats oils olives avocados o Vitamins and minerals small molecules or individual elements o Vitamins are carbon based 0 Minerals can be small molecules or individual elements 0 Vitamins and minerals are in mostly all foods 0 Water 0 A medium for all chemical reactions 0 Energy measured in Kilocalories kcal o Kilocalorie the amount of heat energy used to raise one kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius o Kilocalories yield from nutrients I Lipids 9kcalgram I Carbohydrates 4kcalgram I Proteins 4kcalgram 0 Alcohol 0 Provides 7kcalgram o NOTa nutrient Lecture 2 123 0 Dietary standards set in 1997 o Nutrients I EAR estimated average requirement I RDA recommended dietary allowance I A adequate intake I UL Tolerable Upper Limit 0 Energy I EER estimated energy requirement I AM DR acceptable macronutrient distribution range 0 EAR the amount of nutrient needed or required by 50 of the population healthy population 0 RDA set high in the bell curve set where 98 of population s needs will be met two standard deviations above requirement 0 Different RDA for malesfemales39 39 quot quot quot 39 39 quot quot 0 Recommendations NOT requirements 0 Al very similar to RDA not enough scientific evidence to set the RDA Al is the expert estimate 0 For kids younger than 1 have A no RDA 0 Also other nutrients that have A not RDA because not enough research 0 UP highest level of dietary intake of nutrients that poses no threat 0 Not a recommendation for intake of a nutrient but is a biologically tolerant level 0 EER Daily kilocalories needed to maintain a healthy body weight 0 Set at 50 of the population 0 Use age gender weightheight activity level to determine the EER o AMDR Proportion of energy nutrients recommended 0 Carbohydrates 4565 of daily kilocalories 0 Proteins 1035 of daily kilocalories o Fats 2035 of daily kilocalories Diet and Health o If you eat too little you can become deficient in nutrients undernutrition o If you eat too much overnutrition you can develop heart disease diabetes cancer o In America there have been huge issues of obesity and over nutrition 0 Leading causes of death in US 2006 heart disease cancer stroke diabetes 0 All diet related even if you have predisposition 0 Lifestyle changes that can affect these chronic illnesses 0 Not smoking exercising eating healthier 0 Studies have proved that these changes in lifestyles helps with chronic illnesses 0 Found that a large part of heart disease was preventable 0 Lots of disparities in obesity depending on ethnic groups regions income populations 0 Higher levels of obesity in blacks and Hispanic populations in the south lower income populations 0 Evaluating nutrition information from research to headlines 0 Where did you get the information 0 Who conducted the research 0 How was the research funded o What was the experimental design 0 Has the research stood the test of time o Reputable Source of Nutrition Information on the Web websites ending in o gov o edu o org 0 com some are reputable I WebMD I Medscape I Universityhospital newsletter I Emedicine Lecture 3 125 Dr Steinman s husband Hypothesis a suggested explanation for a group of facts of phenomena Theory a coherent group of tested principles commonly regarded as correct that explain and predict something Scientific Answers 0 Empirical data observable and reproducible 0 Good research design 0 Proper interpretation of results media aren t very well trained to interpret evidence 0 Replication others should do the same study and get same results Establishing Scientific Facts 0 Not Testimonial anecdotal evidence 0 Maybe Expert opinion depending on credentials o Replication with wellperformed studies 0 Big claims require big proof 0 llShow me the evidence Two types of studies 0 Observation 0 Experimentation Source of Reference 0 Published 0 Peer reviewed journal 0 Author subject to conflict of interest Subjects 0 Humans Animals 0 How selected gtGeneralizability I Want a random sample 0 How many gtSensitivity 0 Ideal sample Large and random Method asked 0 llHow many cans or bottles of soft drinks do you drink per weekquot 0 llDo you usually drink sugarfree sodas regular sodas or similar amounts of eachquot Controlled Experiment 0 Needed to determine cause and effect 0 Ideal Control all variables and vary only one or a few 0 llRandomized Placebo Control Double Blindquot common for drug studies Factors Affecting Experiments with Humans o Placebo effect 0 Social desirability 0 Anonymous vs identified when giving self report o Unconscious behavior change 0 Compliance 0 Cognitive dissonance o Other facts affecting research 0 quotPublish or perish many professors have pressure about publishing research papers 0 Funding source 0 Publication bias 0 Case controlled study studying two different cases people with diabetes and people without it o Cohort Study everyone is normal over time we see if people have changed Lecture 4 127 0 4 Diet Planning Principles 0 Adequacy 0 Balance 0 Variety o Moderation o MyPlate is the new diet system implemented last year 0 Before then was always MyPyramid o Tells you what food groups you need to incorporate into your diet and what proportions o 5 groups grains proteins vegetables fruits dairy o Proposing that we eat nutrient dense foods I Ex Baked Potato more nutrient dense than potato chips I Potato chips have more lipids for same amount of calories you get more lipids I also less folic acid vitamin potassium and vitamin c in potato chips I Folic acid and vitamin c destroyed by heat 0 Nutrient dense foods will have high nutrients and lower kilocalories o MyPlate recommendations 0 Half of plate should come from fruits and vegetables 0 Half of our grain should come from whole grain sources 0 Trying to reduce sodium intake in our diet 0 We eat a lot of convenience foods canned foods 0 Drink more water and less sugary drinks 0 Grains o Carbohydrates proteins and maybe fat are all from grains 0 Iron and magnesium particularly found in grains 0 Fiber also found in grains helps with gastrointestinal tract I Fiber only in whole grain products I 3 parts of whole grains 0 Branoutside where fiber is from o Endosperm inside starch and protein 0 Germinside vitamins and minerals some fats I Sometimes we strip off bran and germ because they can sometimes go bad 0 But this strips off all vitamins and minerals o Refined grains have just the endosperm I When you refine grains sometimes we add back vitamins and minerals o Enrichment food manufacturers add back nutrients that were lost during processing required by law 0 Fortification food manufacturers add a nutrient that was not there before or there was very little of it 0 Ex orange juice originally contains no calcium 0 Functional Foods foods that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition of the food Lecture 5 130 Vegetables starchy and nonstarchy o Starchy potatoes legumes o NonStarchy green beans carrots 0 Vegetables come in various market forms frozen dry 0 Wide variety of nutrients carbs protein many vitamins and minerals 0 Also have a lot of fiber 0 Fiber helps feed the bacteria in the stomach Fruits citrus grapes berries watermelon pomes have a core with multiple seeds in it jupes fruits with one seed 0 Many forms frozen canned juice 0 Lots of carbs vitamins and minerals and fiber Protein Foods we want lean lowfat choices 0 Muscle meats poultry beef lamb pork eggs seafood nuts seeds legumes o Sausages and hot dogs are considered protein foods but contain lots of fat Dairy 0 Milk ice cream cheese yogurt 0 Nutrients provided are carbs protein fats vitamins and minerals Foods with added solid fatssugar o Pastries cookies doughnuts candy soft drinks sugar honey alcohol oilsfats 0 Obviously want to limit these 0 Very high in calories 0 These calories called llempty calories How much do you need of each food group O O O O Depends on age gender body size activity Ex Inactive Older Woman 1600 kcal I Grains 5 oz I Vegetables 2 cups I Fruits 15 cups I Milk 3 cups I Protein 5 oz When you agearen t active you don t need as many kilocalories Very Active Young Male 3200 kcal Recommendations make half of your grains whole vary your veggies 1 oz grains equivalents O 0000 O 3 cups of popcorn 1 cup of cold cereal Small tortilla V2 cup cooked cereal rice pasta 7 saltine crackers 1 slice bread 1 small muffin roll biscuit V2 cup vegetables equivalents O 0000 O 1 cup raw leafy vegetable V2 cup vegetable V2 cup beans legumes V2 cup juice Medium carrot Small ear corn Small tomato Small potato V2 cup fruit equivalents O O O O O 0 V2 cup fresh cooked frozen fruit V cup dried fruit V2 cup fruitjuice V2 small apple V2 banana Small orange 1 oz protein equivalents O O V cup cooked beans V2 oz nutsseeds o 1egg o cup tofu o 1 tablespoon of peanut butter 0 3 oz of meat fish poultry are equivalent to a deck of cards 0 1 cup dairy equivalent 0 1 cup milk 1 cup pudding 1 V2 oz hard cheese 2 slices processed cheese 000 2 cups cottage cheese 8 oz yogurt 0 1 V2 cups ice cream 0 We usually intake more grains and proteins than what are recommended but we don t meet recommendations for vegetables fruits and milk Lecture 6 21 0 Nutrition Labels 0 Required I Commonusual name I Name Address of Manufacturing I Net Contents I Nutrition Facts I Ingredients List 0 Nutrition Facts I Top serving size I Limit These Nutrients Total fat saturated and trans cholesterol sodium I Get enough of these nutrients vitamins Calcium iron I Bottom daily value 0 daily value is only based on 2000 kcal diet 0 Nutrient Claims 0 High 20 or more 0 Good Source of 1019 0 Low 5 or less 0 Reduced or less 25 less than a comparable food 0 Free a nutritionally trivial amount 0 Organic 95 of a food that is organic has to meet the requirements for pesticide use herbicide use preservatives antibiotics hormones irradiation I If it s organic then it shouldn t involve these things 0 Health Claim on food item must be approved by FDA and have scientific evidence behind it 0 Honey Nut Cheerios box states that it may lower cholesterol o StructureFunction Claim these don t require any scientific evidence states how a nutrient effects an organ system 0 Cereal box stating that it includes antioxidants including beta carotene to help support a healthy immune system Chapter 3 o Digestion we take a complex food break it down through mechanical and chemical action and absorb the simple nutrients Lecture 7 23 0 Digestion Secretion Absorption Motility o Secretion controlled by nervous system and hormones o Homeostasis body keeping internal environment stable 0 Cephalic Phase starts in the brain 0 Sensory stimulus I Saliva secretions I GI Tract o Motility 0 Starts from medulla oblongata o Vagus nerve part of parasympathetic nervous system stimulates another nervous system called the enteric nervous system 0 Enteric nervous system can work separately from the brain called a separate brain 0 Secretions o Autonomic Nervous System other part is peripheral nervous system has 2 divisions o Parasympathetic quotthe rest and digest nervous system 0 Sympathetic stimulates quotflight or fightquot response called quotthe accelerator I If sympathetic nervous system is stimulated digestion will be inhibited o Digestion o Mouth I Chemical breakdown o Saliva secretion saliva secreted even when you anticipate eating 0 Saliva made up of salts antimicrobial proteins enzymes I Enzymes amylase breaks down starch is the primary enzyme lingual lipase starts breaking down fats present in small amounts I Mechanical breakdown o Swallowing I Tongue goes up against soft palate 9nasal passage closes I Epiglottis blocks food from coming into the trachea o Esophagus I Peristalsis occurs throughout the GI tract 0 Muscles contracting in the esophagus pushing food down towards the stomach o Takes about 58 sec for a bolus of food to come down into the stomach I Lower esophageal sphincter o Allows food to get into the stomach and doesn t allow food to come back up 0 Gastric Phase the stomach expands as food enters initiated by the presence of food I Chemical action 0 Presence of proteins and chemicals in the stomach stimulates muscle contraction I Mechanical action I Gastric Secretions 0 Cells in the stomach walls are specialized o G cells secrete a hormone called gastrin gastrin travels in the blood and stimulates parietal cells Parietal cells secrete HCl very acidic O I HCI kills bacteria denatures proteins inactivates amylase from the saliva activates an enzyme in the chief cells 0 Chief Cells secretes pepsinogen but doesn t become active till it comes in contact with HCl then becomes pepsin o Goblet cells secrete mucus needs to be mucus layer because there are enzymes and strong acid that could be harmful to stomach I If mucus barrier breaks you can develop an ulcer I Muscular action of stomach o Mixes and grinds food with gastric juices 0 Through peristalsis food is pushed into the small intestine Lecture 8 26 I Digestion takes about 4 hrs to digest the food Gastric Reflux 0 Pressure on stomach lower esophageal sphincter food goes up heart burn o GERD change lifestyle to keep acids in stomach loose clothes sleep angle eat smaller 0 Can lead to cancer if not taken care of Pyloric Sphincter Allows foodchime to go into the small intestine in very small amounts 1 teaspoon per 30 sec Controlled by nerves and hormones like gastric motility I Small intestine Lot of mechanical and chemical breakdown Gastric primarily digests protein Small intestine digests protein and carbohydrates Starts in stomach chyme goes to stomach enzymes start and carbohydrates start to digest Duodenumfirst several inches after stomach bulk of digestion occurs here Jejunum leum Mechanical Breakdown 0 Duodenum peristalsis squeezing out toothpaste o Segmentation allows mixing of digestive juices and enzymes and increases food contact with the intestinal lining Chemical breakdown secretions 0 Liver I makes bile which emulsifies fats makes them soluble I bile stored in gall bladder I when fats are present bile is released from the liver and enzymes are released from the pancreas o Pancreas I Enzymes n z I y r I carbohydrates amylase o Hormones secreted by the small intestine I Presence of acid secretes Secretin 0 acts on the pancreas to make sodium bicarbonate I Presence of fats and proteins secretes CCK cholecystikinin o helps slow down gastric motility causes gall bladder to contract I Presence of carbohydrates secretes GIP gastric inhibitory peptide 0 causes insulin secretion 0 Intestinal wall I On the walls are intestinal folds each having villi I Each villi has microvilli where the enzymes are secreted o Secretes Maltase breaks down maltose into the individual units sucrase lactase and peptidase 0 Absorption small intestine and circulatory system 0 Occurs at the microvilli and then into the epithelial cells I Nutrient has to cross two membranes I It will then be absorbed by blood or lymph 0 Types of absorption across intestine I Diffusion Passive and Facilitated 0 From high concentration to low concentration 0 Lipids and water can easily pass through cell membrane I Active Transport I Endocytosis Lecture 9 28 0 Veins go from the tissues to the heart 0 Arteries go to the tissues from the heart 0 Exchange of waste products occurs in the capillaries 0 Liver figures out what nutrients are needed and sends them out o Lymphatic vessels from the digestive tract lead to the heart 0 Used to move fluids in extravascular phase 0 Sugars minerals water soluble vitamins amino acids small fatty acids all part of lymphatic system that flows into the blood 0 Lymph fluid is like the blood except that it doesn t have red blood cells 0 Also it doesn t have a pump like the heart 0 Lymphatic system is moved by 0 Compression o Muscular Contractions o Arterial Pulsations o AbsorptionElimination in the Large Intestine colon rectum o leocecal valve separates the small intestine from the large intestine 0 Some absorption 0 Water 0 Salts 0 Some vitamins produced from bacteria 0 Fermented fiber end products 0 Huge number of bacteria in the large intestine called normaflora o Bacteria typically don t grow in small intestine and stomach o Bacteria love fibers they break the fibers down 0 Bacteria in the large intestine grown during the infancy years and stay throughout your life 0 Prebiotics fibers that are food for bacteria basically all fibers o Probiotic the actual bacteria they replenish bacteria already in large intestine 0 Ex yogurt Chapter 4 o Carbohydrates that we consume come from plants 0 Plants quot 39 cau39 3939 inI 39 39 from gasand water 0 Carbohydrates 2 forms 0 Simple sugars I Monosaccharides and Disaccharides 0 Complex I Starch I Glycogen I Oligosaccharides I Fibers o Monosaccharides o 3 different monosaccharides glucose fructose galactose All have same number of CHO Different arrangements determine how sweet they are We use glucose in our body 000 Fructose 5 membered ring found in fruit honey and refined sugar I The sweetest one o Glucose 6 membered ring not found naturally o Galactose 6 membered ring found only in milk 0 Can make larger molecules from smaller ones through condensation reactions 0 Glucose Fructose Sucrose I Very sweet found in table sugar and honey 0 Glucose Glucose Maltose I Used as a flavoring agent 0 Glucose Galactose Lactose I Found in milk 0 Natural Sugars grains milk fruits 0 Americans consume about 20 teaspoons of sugar a day children about 25 0 High fructose corn syrup replaces most of sugar in food 0 Most of our sugar comes from soft drinks 0 Many aliases of sugar 0 Corn sweetener dextrose fruit juice concentrate malt syrup invert sugar molasses etc Lecture 10 210 0 Complex carbohydrates all made from glucose 0 Starch can be unbranched amylose and branched amylopectin 0 We find starches in plants Another complex carbohydrate is glycogen found in animals o In the liver and muscles 0 Our bodies use glucose as energy so we store it Last complex carbohydrate is cellulose a type of fiber 0 When animals die they use up the glycogen in their bodies so we don t receive any Sources of starch corn pasta legumes bread peas Tubers plants with underground stems like potatoes Fibers 0 Dietary Fiber bananas apples carrots legumes I Cellulose I Hemicellulose I Gumspectin I Resistant starch 0 Functional Fiber ice cream grape jelly food additives Metamucil I Cellulose I Hemicellulose I Gumspectin I Resistant starch I Psyllium extracted from the plantago plant 0 Bananas break down starch into sugars as they ripen o 3 different properties of fibers 0 Solubility capability of dissolving in water I Viscous dissolves in water I Nonviscous doesn t dissolve in water 0 23 of food will be nonviscous o Fermentability I Viscous fibers mainly broken down by bacteria in large intestine 0 Binding ability I Some fibers can bind minerals glucose cholesterol to delay absorption of these nutrients or prevent their absorption 0 Probiotic is bacteria 0 Viscoussoluble fibers are prebiotics 0 Negative Health Effects of Fibers 0 Excess intake I Intestinal gas I nterferes with mineral absorption I Blockage o Digestion of Carbohydrates o Mouth 0 No digestion of carbohydrates in stomach 0 Small intestine I Pancreas I Microvilli has enzymes maltase lactase sucrase which break down sugars into monosaccharides o Hydrolysis breaking a bond using water 0 Individuals with a lactase deficiency experience diarrhea and gas after consuming milk 0 Fermentation of Fibers in Colon o Hemicellulose pectinsgums resistant starch oligosaccharides I These are all fatty acids gas 0 Fatty acids are energy for cells colonic cell integrity inhibition cholesterol synthesis Lecture 11 213 0 Glucose Levels Homeostasis o Insulin down 0 Glucagon up 0 Action of Insulin anabolic o Pancreas 9 insulin 9 blood 9 acts on liver muscle or fat cells 0 Liver Turns glucose into glycogen but if full turns into fat 0 Muscle before insulin goes in it has to bind to muscle cells Used for resting muscle to allow glucose to go into cell Turns glucose into glycogen for storing 0 Fat cells has to bind to cells before turning into fat 0 Glycogenesis glucose 9 glycogen synthesis 0 Lipogenesis glucose 9 fat synthesis 0 Insulin also stimulates protein synthesis 0 Glucose goes into cell by facilitated diffusion by transport protein 0 Action of Glucagon catabolic o Acts on the liver that breaks glycogen to glucose 0 Liver can make glucose using glucagon Gluconeogenesis 0 Not enough insulin 0 Diabetes mellitus high blood sugar 0 Too much insulin 0 Hypoglycemia low blood sugar 0 Diabetes Mellitus o Decrease in insulin 9 hyperglycemia high blood glucose 0 2 types Type 1 and Type 2 0 Type 1 Diabetes autoimmune 0 Cause gt Insulin secreting cells of pancreas destroyed gt Possible environmental cause toxins o Incident gt Insulin injections 0 Type 2 Diabetes 95 of diabetics 0 Cause gt Typically in adults over age 45 gt Insulin resistance in tissues gt Insulin secretion decreased 0 Incidence 0 Symptoms of Diabetes 0 Dehydration 0 Excessive thirst polydipsia 0 Excessive hunger polyphagia o Fruity Breath 0 Pee a lot polyuria o Complications of Diabetes 0 Atherosclerosis buildup of plaque decrease blood flow and cause stroke gt Plaque breaks off and clot blood and cause flood o Neuropathy loses feeling in feet Break down of tissue infections Not just affect feet but also body 0 Gangrene infections 9 amputations o Retinopathy retina has hemorrhages and can cause blindness o Kidney Failure large and small blood vessels and possible dialysis o TreatmentGoalDiabetes 0 Diet low sugar and high carbs many doctors use either low fathigh carb diet whole natural foods 0 Exercise Number of insulin receptors increases 0 Medication Insulin Lecture 12 215 0 Sugars and Health 0 Dental Caries cavities foods that are sticky even bananas raisins all stick to the teeth and grow bacteria which eat away enamel 0 Nutrient deficiencies o Obesity there is a relationship between sugars and obesity excess calories 0 Adults consume average of 20 teaspoons of sugar kids consume 25 I Mainly from soft drinks high fructose corn syrup 0 Percent Obesity Rates 19762006 increasing for every age group 0 Related to the increase in consumption of soft drinks and fruit drinks with decrease in milk 0 Recommended Intake of Carbohydrates o AMDR 4565 total kcal o Added Sugars I American Heart Association 2009 0 Women no more than 100 kcalday 0 Men no more than 150 kcalday 0 Fiber I 38g men I 25g women 0 Food groups containing carbohydrates 0 Starch I Grains I Vegetables I Legumes nuts seeds 0 Sugars I Fruits I Milk 0 Fibers I Legumes nuts seeds I Grains whole I Fruits I Vegetables Chapter 5 o Lipids Triglycerides Phospholipids Sterols o 95 of all lipids come from triglycerides Triglycerides o Triglycerides made of o Glycerol backbone o 3 fatty acids 0 Triglycerides give lots of flavor to foods 0 Also used for energy for our bodies 0 We can store them in our fat cells 0 Fatty Acids are composed of carboxyl group hydrocarbon chain and methyl group 0 Always even number of carbons in fatty acid chain 0 Smallmedium number of carbons 212 found in dairy products and coconut oil 0 Longer number of carbons found in meat fish and vegetable oils 0 Fatty Acids differ in their solubility 0 Saturated no double bonds 120 I Tend to be solid at room temperature unless the fatty acid is short I Very stable I Beef fat butter I Have higher MP 0 Monounsaturated one double bond 181 I Tend to be liquid at room temperature solid at refrigerated temperatures I Stable from air 0 Polyunsaturated multiple double bonds 182 I Liquid at room and refrigerated temperature I Not stable tends to be broken down by air Lecture 13 217 I Fatty acids can vary in saturation number of double bonds Every fatty acid contains saturated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat 0 They have different proportions of each but solid fats contain more saturated fat and oils contain more polyunsaturated fat I Hydrogenation o Pumping Hydrogen into solid fat from liquid oil I Breaks the double bonds I Taking polyunsaturated oils and creating them into solid fats 0 Liquid Oils are cis unsaturated fatty acids 0 Solid Fats are saturated fatty acids and trans unsaturated fatty acids 0 quotpartially hydrogenated oilsquot will tell you if the food is hydrogenated I Cis hydrogens are on the same side of double bond o If you hydrogenate the cis form you get I Saturated Fat breaks the double bond and each carbon has 2 hydrogens I Trans unsaturated fatty acids hydrogens are on opposite sides of double bond Phospholipids glycerol backbone 2 fatty acids and polar head group which attracts water I Fatty acids don t have a charge and are immiscible in water hydrophobic I Phospholipids create miscelles 0 These are emulsifiers which digest fats and transport fats I Phospholipids also create cell membrane Sterols I Cholesterol bile sex hormones vitamin D cell membranes fat transport 0 Vitamin D can be created through exposure to the sun 0 Cordozol is an adrenal hormone I 93 of cholesterol in tissues and 7 in the blood I Spherical structure of lipids and proteins also contains cholesterol I Cholesterol helps create the cell membrane I About 20 of cholesterol in our body is from animals I Digestion of FatsPhospholipids 0 Minor Breakdown I Mouth I Stomach we extract a very small amount of gastric lipase 0 Major Breakdown I Small Intestine o Bile keeps lipids in suspension 0 Pancreatic Enzymes actually breakdown the fats I Action of Lipase o Triglyceride addition of lipase monoglyceride and 2 free fatty acids Lecture 14 220 0 Lipoprotein VLDL LDL HDL chylomicron o VLDL made up of triglycerides and cholesterol travels from liver to lipoprotein lipase I Lipoprotein lipase separates the cholesterol and triglycerides in where cholesterol is packaged into LDL 0 LDL made up of cholesterol travels from lipoprotein lipase to liver delivers cholesterol to the cells HDL picks up cholesterol from tissue cells and delivers it to the liver 0 Chylomicron 0 High LDL and Low HDL increase risk for heart disease 0 Some of LDL gets deposited on artery walls which creates plaque I Could create blood clot decrease blood flow 0 Low LDL and High HDL reduces risk for heart disease Lecture 15 222 0 Omega6 Fatty Acids 0 Diet 9Linoleic Acid essential18 Carbons and 2 double bonds I Cannot make it in our bodies must come from diet 0 Diet Arachidonic Acid 20 Carbons and 4 double bonds I Can make it from linoleic acid but very inefficient o Omega6 Eicosanoids I Can affect your blood pressure immunity and blood clotting o Omega3 Fatty Acids 3rd carbon from methyl end 0 Diet Alpha Linolenic Acid essential I flax seed oil soybean oil walnut oil canola oil I Cannot make in our bodies 0 Diet Eicosapentanoic Acid EPA Docosahexanoic Acid DHA I EPA 20 Carbons and 5 double bonds I DHA 22 Carbons and 6 double bonds I Both come from fatty fish 0 Omega3 Eicosanoids I Can affect your blood clotting blood pressure 0 Mackerel herring sardines salmon tuna all contain high amounts of fats I All cold water fish which need fat for insulation 0 Health Effects of Eicosanoids o Omega6 I Reduces blood cholesterol I Increases blood clotting o Omega3 I Reduces blood triglycerides I Decreases blood clotting I Antiinflammatory o Omega3 Fatty Acid supplements 0 Fish oil krill oil high in EPA algae oil high in DHA 0 Fish oil Increase bleeding time high gastric contaminated with heavy metals 0 Health Effects of Dietary Lipids 0 Dietary Cholesterol I From animal products I When you consume a certain amount of cholesterol the liver stops making as much I But for some individuals the liver keeps producing the same amount I Recommended amount is 300 mgday 0 Fatty Acids I Saturated increase LDL neutral for HDL 0 Meat dairy hydrogenated oils I Monounsaturated neutral affect on blood lipids 0 Vegetable oils I Polyunsaturated I Trans fatty Acids raise blood cholesterols as much as saturated fats tend to decrease HDL o Artificially produced from hydrogenated oils 0 Recommended Dietary Lipids 0 Total Fat I AMDR 2035 total kcals 0 Fatty Acids I More poly fatsmono fats Less saturatedtrans fats Saturated fats consume less than 10 of daily kcal Trans fats less than 1 of daily kcal 0 Dietary cholesterol I 300mg or less I If you have heart disease then 200 mg 0 Foods containing lipids o Meatsmeatalternatives
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