FUNDAMENTALS OF NUTRITION
FUNDAMENTALS OF NUTRITION NTR 306
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Adriana Beier on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NTR 306 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Lydia Steinman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see /class/181388/ntr-306-university-of-texas-at-austin in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
NTR 306 Review handout Exam 1 Chapter 1 1 Name the 6 classes of nutrients Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Minerals water 5933883 2 Define organic and inorganic List nutrients that are organic and inorganic a Organic A substance or molecule containing carboncarbon bonds or carbon hydrogen bonds carbohydrates lipids proteins b Inorganicnutrients which do not contain CARBON ex Water 3 Define essential a Nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot supply them in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs aka Indispensable nutrients 4 Which nutrients yield energy when broken down in the body a Carbohydrates b Fat c Protein 5 Define kilocalorie The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1kg of water 1 degree Celsiussame as the popular use of calorieunites by which energy in food is measured1000 calories 1kcl 6 What is the kilocalorie yield for 1 gram of carbohydrate protein lipids and alcohol a Carbohydrates 4 kcalgram b Fat 9 c Protein 4 d Alcohol 7 7 Calculate the kilocalorie content of a food based on the grams of carbohydrate protein and lipids Example A meal consists of 40 grams 9 of carbohydrates 20 grams of protein and 15 grams of fat How many kilocalories are in the meal 40 X 4 160 20 X 4 220 15x9 355 kcal 8 Calculate the percent of total kilocalories for carbohydrates proteins and fats in a food or meal Example A cup of 2 milk contains 120 calories 129 GHQ 89 protein 59 fat What is the kcal from fat in a cup of 2 milk 5X9 45 8X432 12X4 48 453248125 kcal 45125 369 36 NTR 306 Review handout Exam 1 9 Describe the following Dietary Reference Intakes a Estimated Average Requirement EAR the average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological in half the healthy people of a given agegender group Recommend Dietary Allowance RDA 98 of population covered goal for dietary intake by individuals average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet healthy living Adequate intake Al the average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion a value used as a guide for nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined Tolerable Upper Limit ULthe maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects Estimated Energy Requirement EER do not memorize formula Average dietary energy kcal intake that maintains energy balance and good health in a person of a given age gender weight height and level of physical activity Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges AMRD ranges of intakes for the energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce the risk of chronic diseases i Learn the recommended ranges forfat protein and carbohydrates Fat 2035 protein 1035 carb 4565 039 O Q S n 10 Briefly describe the following research designs and recognize appropriate uses and limitations refer to text Which design is the most powerful 5 Epidemiological studies Determine the incidence and distribution of diseases in a population Includes cross sectional case control and cohort studies Strengths can narrow down the list of possible causes can raise questions to pursue through other types of studies Weaknesses cannot control variables that may influence the development or the prevention of a disease cannot prove cause and effect 57 Laboratory based studies explore the effects of a specific variable on a tissue cell or molecule i Animal studies either conducted on animals ii In vitro studies or conducted in test tubes Strengths can control conditions can determined effects of a variable Weaknesses cannot apply results from test tubes or animals to human beings c Human Intervention studies aka clinical trials involve human beings who followa specified regimen i Double blind study both the subjects and the researchers do not know which subjects are in which group 1 Control versus experimental group a group of individuals similar in all possible respects to the experimental group except for the treatment ideally the control group receives a placebo while the experimental receives the real treatmentexperimental differs from control group in treatment receives real one Placebo an inert harmless medication given to provide comfort and hope a sham treatment used in controlled research studies lquot NTR 306 Review handout Exam 1 Strengths can control conditions for the most part can apply findings to some groups of human beings Weaknesses cannot generalize findings to all human beings cannot use certain treatments for clinical or ethical reasons What is a peer review of a scientific study A process in which a panel of scientists rigorously evaluates a research study to assure that the scientific method was followed Identify the leading causes of death that are nutrition lifestyle related 1 Heart disease 2 Cancer 3 Strokes 6diabetes Define overnutrition excess energy or nutrients and undernutrition deficient energy or nutrients Recognize modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with chronic illness and death Modifiable personal behaviors that can be changes ex Smoking physical inactivity Nonmodifiable cannot be changed ex Gender age genetics NTR 306 Chapter 2 Diet Planning wwe U39P 9 Review handout Exam 1 Describe the 4 principles used in diet planning that were discussed in class What are the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Define nutrient density and be able to recognize nutrient dense foods Figure 21 in text Define enriched What nutrients are added to enriched grains and flour Define fortified food and functional food Would a fortified food be considered a functional food read text about functional foods MyPyramid a 57 0 O D v Whatare quot quot quot39 39 Give examples of foods and food equivalents for each of the 5 food groups discussed in class Refer to lecture slides Grains be able to recognize whole grain products httpwww 39 39 39 quot 39 html Fruits Vegetables v Meat and Beans v Milk List foods from the Meat and Bean group that could be included on a vegetarian diet What food in the vegetable group is also in the meat and bean group Be able to evaluate and compare a sample diet to recommendations of the MyPyramid recommendations will be provided on the exam What are the MyPyramid recommendations for whole grains What are the nutritional differences between a whole grain and refined grain of foods that have y Give 39 discretionary kilocalories from lecture How much physical activity is recommended for general health benefits Refer to httpwwwmypyramidgovpyramidphysicalactivityhtml You are not responsible for the reading on the Exchange System Nutrition labeling 7 Be able to calculate kilocalories for fat protein and carbohydrates per serving 8 Define Daily Values Daily Value NTR 306 Review handout Exam 1 DV is based on a diet of how many kilocalories FT Calculate the amount of nutrient in grams gm milligrams mg from Daily value The Daily Value in gm or mg will be provided to you do not memorize the Daily Values i Refer to the example in Chapter 2 lecture slides Quaker Oat Squares 9 Define the following nutrient claims high good source of low reduced less light free organic 10 How does a health claim differ from a structurefunction claim 11Why is dietary fiber included under Total Carbohydrates on nutrition labels 12 In what order is the ingredient list arranged on nutrition labels NTR 306 Review handout Exam 1 Chapter 3 1 N 9 A Uquot 9 Explain digestion a mouth i enzymes ii chewing iii swallowing How is a food bolus directed to the esophagus b esophagus i peristalsis ii LES c stomach i secretions functions ii muscular action iii pyloric sphincter d small intestine i chemical secretions a from pancreas know functions b from liver function and when is it secreted into the small intestine c from epithelial cells of the intestinal wall ii peristalsis segmentation What are the functions of saliva in the mouth Define chyme Which nutrients take longerto digest in the GI tract Read section entitled Health and Regulation of the GI tract Describe the differences between the vascular blood and lymphatic lymph systems What are arteries veins and capillaries What is the first organ that receives nutrients from the digestive tract via the portal vein in the vascular system Does the lymph from the lymphatic system eventually empty into the blood vascular system Into what circulatory system are monosaccharides amino acids fat fragments short medium watersoluble vitamins minerals large fat fragments and fatsoluble vitamins absorbed What nutrients are absorbed in the large intestine Name an undigested component of food that is fermented by bacteria in the large intestine What are the major roles that bacteria play in the large intestine Recognize that bacteria produce some vitamins that can be used in the body Read section entitled Health and Regulation of the GI tract Name 2 systems that regulate the coordination of all digestive and absorptive processes Health and Regulation of the GI Tract section You do not need to know the individual hormones involved in digestionabsorption What is a probiotic and prebiotic Which dietary components act as prebiotics in the large intestine What dairy product described in the text contains probiotics Read section entitled Health and Regulation of the GI tract NTR 306 Review handout Exam 1 10 Describe the cause symptoms treatment of ulcers intestinal gas diverticulosis diverticulitis hemorrhoids diarrhea irritable bowel syndrome gastroesophageal reflux disorder GERD constipation Highlight 3 NTR 306 Review handout Exam 1 Chapter 4 A l 9 P Uquot 0 9 A O A A Carbohydrates are composed of what 3 elements How does a whole grain differ from a refined grain in structure and in nutritional composition Compare the 3 monosaccharides List food source of sugars natural and refined What is the source of most of the added sugars in the US diet If given a nutrition label be able to a Identify the aliases of sugar b Determine whether the food is a whole grain product c Determine whether the food is a good high source of fiber Compare and contrast complex carbohydrates a Starch types function and food sources b Glycogen where produced in the body function c Fibers function types food sources What is the difference between dietary fiber and functional fiber What common functional fiber is extracted from the plantago plant Describe the physiological properties of fibers What health effects positive and negative health do fibers have Refer to handout Of the dietary fibers discussed in class which ones would be considered a prebiotic Describe the action of enzymes that are involved in carbohydrate digestion Where are the enzymes produced To which circulatory system are monosaccharides absorbed Describe fermentation of fibers in the large intestine What are the beneficial health effects of shortchained fatty acids that are produced during fermentation How much energy is yielded from shortchained fatty acids Describe the cause symptoms and treatment of lactose intolerance Which dairy foods are lower in lactose compared to milk What is Lactaid What ethnic groups have a higher incidence of lactose intolerance Read section on lactose intolerance in text How does the body regulate blood glucose after and between meals a lnsulin where produced function mechanism of action on liver muscle and fat b Glucagon where produced function mechanism of action on liver Describe insulin resistance Describe the cause prevalence and treatment of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes NTR 306 15 Review handout Exam 1 Describe the symptoms and complications of diabetes 16 What is the glycemic index Recognize foods with a low high glycemic index A O N O N A N at N A Refer to lecture slide What are the health benefits of a diet that has a low in glycemic index Describe the health effects of sugar with respect to a dental caries b nutrient deficiencies c obesity Does sugar cause hyperactivity in children Describe the guidelines for carbohydrate intake including the AMDR for carbohydrates the Al for fiber and the American Heart Association 2009 recommendation for consuming added sugars Describe hypoglycemia Read section on hypoglycemia in text Describe the following alternative sweeteners kcal content safety issues a saccharine b aspartame c sucralose d sugaralcohols Compare stevia to sugar kcals sweetness Recognized that stevia is generally recognized as safequot and is not subject to intense scrutiny by the FDA Read section on artificial sweeteners Compare highfructose corn syrup to sucrose with regard to chemical composition and use in our society Highlight 4 Discuss the effect of soda consumption on weight gain Calculate carbohydrates of total kilocalories Convert kcal to grams and visa ve rsa NTR 306 Review handout Exam 1 Chapter 5 LIPIDS A l 9 P Uquot 9 9 What percentage of lipids in foods are triglycerides What is the chemical structure of triglycerides Fatty acids chain length In what types of foods are there predominantly shortchained fatty acids In what types of foods are there predominantly mediumchained fatty acids In what types of foods are there predominantly longchained fatty acids Compare short chained fatty acids to longchained fatty acids with regard to firmness solid liquid 510 575 Comparecontrast saturated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids with regard to structure stability and firmness Provide examples of oils fats containing saturated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids Describe the causes of rancidity in lipids Describe the process of hydrogenating vegetable oil What fatty acids are produced during hydrogenation Compare the chemical configurations of cis and trans fatty acids What common processed foods contain partially hydrogenated oils How does a phospholipid differ from a triglyceride in composition What are the functions of phospholipids in foods and our bodies In what foods are phospholipids found Are phospholipids essential Describe the functions of cholesterol in the body ls cholesterol broken down for energy In what foods is cholesterol found ls cholesterol essential Describe digestion and absorption of triglycerides in the small intestine lnto which circulatory system are the various fat fragments absorbed What is a chylomicron Compare the amount of protein cholesterol triglyceride in the 4 lipoproteins Know how and where each lipoprotein is produced and the function of each What is the function of lipoprotein lipase in the body Describe the lipoprotein profiles that indicate possible coronary artery disease What are the health effects of saturated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood cholesterol levels What are the health effects of eicosanoids made from omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids What foods provide omega 3 fatty acids Name three omega 3 fatty acid supplements on the market Describe the potential negative health effect of taking large amounts of fish oils Are omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids saturated monounsaturated or polyunsaturated NTR 306 Review handout Exam 1 15 Describe the effect of consuming high amounts of trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated oils on blood cholesterol levels 16 What is the AMDR for total fat in the diet What are the general dietary recommendations for decreasing risk for heart disease 17 Describe olestra chemical make up kcal vitamin absorption 18 Calculate fat by total kilocalories in a meal or diet Convert kilocalories to grams and visa versa
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