FUNDAMENTALS OF NUTRITION
FUNDAMENTALS OF NUTRITION NTR 306
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Adriana Beier on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NTR 306 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Kimberly Kline in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/181389/ntr-306-university-of-texas-at-austin in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Nutrition Notes 8292010 23300 PM Food Choices o Personal Preference o Habit o Ethnic Heritage or Tradition 0 among the strongest o 60 of US restaurants have an ethnic emphasis most commonly Chinese Italian or Mexican o Social Interactions Availability Convenience and Economy 0 gt80 of US consumers are eating homecooked meals at least three times a week o Positive and negative Associations o Emotions o Emotional comfort or discomfort o Values o Body Weight and Image o Nutrition and Health Benefits 0 Foods that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions are called functional foods Whole foods simplest functional food 0 Some foods have been modified to provide health benefits by lowering the fat contents etc o Manufactures have fortified foods by adding nutrients or phytochemicals that provide health benefits ie orange juice fortified with calcium to help build strong bones and margarine made with a plant sterol that lowers blood cholesterol The Nutrients o Skin is replaced entirely by new cells every 7 years c Your oldest red blood cell is only 120 days old and the entire lining of your digestive tract is renewed every 35 days Nutrient Compositions of Foods o Chemical analysis of a food is primarily composed of 95 water o Most of the solid materials are carbohydrates lipids and proteins 0 If all of these materials are removed a tiny residue of vitamins minerals and other compounds o Water carbohydrates lipids proteins vitamins and some of the minerals found in foods represent the six classes of nutrients substances the body uses for the growth maintenance and repair of its tissues Nutrient Composition of the Body o A healthy 150 lb body contains about 90 lbs of water and about 20 45 pounds of fat 0 The remaining pounds are mostly protein carbohydrates and the major minerals of the bones Chemical Composition of Nutrients o The simplest of all nutrients are the minerals 0 Each mineral is a chemical element its atoms are all alike Its identity never changes o Water is the next simplest nutrient 0 Water is composed of two elements hydrogen and oxygen 0 Minerals and water are inorganic nutrients meaning they do not contain carbon o The other four classes of nutrients carbohydrates lipids proteins and vitamins are more complex 0 In additions to hydrogen and oxygen they all contain carbon an element found in all living things Essential Nutrients o The body can only make some nutrients o The nutrients that foods must supply are essential nutrients o needed from outside the body normally from foods The EnergyYielding Nutrients Carbohydrate Fat and Protein o In the body three organic nutrients can be used to provide energy carbohydrate fat and protein o In contrast to these energyyielding nutrients vitamins minerals and water do not yield energy in the human body Energy Measured in kCalories o The energy released from carbohydrate fat and protein can be measured in caloriestiny units of energy so small that a single apple provides tens of thousands of them 0 Energy is expressed in 1000calories metric units known as kilocalories 9kcalories Energy from Foods c When completely broken down in the body a gram of carbohydrate yields about 4 kcalories of energy 0 A gram of protein also yields 4 kcalories o A gram of fat yields 9 kcalories Because fat provides more energy per gram it has a great energy density than either carbohydrate or protein 0 One other subtance that contributes energy Alcohol Unlike essential nutrients alcohol does not sustain life It actually interferes with the growth maintenance and repair of the body Its only common characteristic with nutrients is that it yields energy 7 kcalories per gram when metabolized in the body Energy in the Body c When the body uses carbohydrate fat or protein for energy the bonds between nutrient s atoms break As the bond breaks they release energy 0 Some of this energy is used as heat but some is used to send electrical impulses through the brain and nerves to synthesize body compounds and to move muscles If the body does not use the nutrients to fuel its current activities it converts them into storage compounds body fat to be used between meals and overnight when fresh energy supplies run low o Carbs fats and proteins also provide the raw materials for building the body s tissues and regulating its many activities 0 Protein s role as a fuel source is relatively minor compared with both the other two energyyielding nutrients and its other roles O The Vitamins o Vitamins are organic but they do not provide energy 0 They instead facilitate the release of energy from carbohydrate fat and protein and participate in numerous other activities throughout the body Each of the 13 vitamins has its own special roles to play Vitamins can only function if they are intact bc they are complex organic molecules they are vulnerable to destruction by heat light and chemical agents The Minerals o In the body some minerals are put together in orderly arrays in such structures as bones and teeth 0 Minerals are also found in the fluids of the body which influences fluid balance and distribution 0 THEY DO NOT YIELD ENERGY o Only 16 minerals are known to be essential to the human body o Because minerals are inorganic they are indestructible and need not to be handled with special care However they can be bound by substances that interfere with the body s ability to absorb them They can also be lost during foodrefining processes or during cooking when they leach into water that is discarded The Science of Nutrition o The science of nutrition is the study of the nutrients and other substances in foods and the body s handling of them 0 the foundation depends on several other sciences including biology biochemistry and physiology Science of nutrition growth spurt through the human genome o The integration of nutrition genomics and molecular biology has opened a whole new world of study called nutritional genomicsthe science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the interactions between diet and disease Publishing Research o The findings from a research study are submitted to a board of reviewers composed of other scientists who rigorously evaluate the O O O study to assure that the scientific method was followa process known as peer review Dietary Reference Intakes o Using the results of thousands of research studies nutrition experts have produced a set of standards that define the amounts of energy nutrients and other dietary components and physical activity that best support health These recommendations are called Dietary reference Intakes DRI Establishing Nutrient Recommendations o DRI committee goes about establishing the values that make up DRI 0 Estimated Average Requirements EAR 0 Recommended Dietary Allowances RDA o Adequate Intake AI Instead of RDA if not sufficient scientific evidence Reflects the average amount of a nutrient that a group of healthy people consumes o Tolerable Upper Intake Levels UL Establishing Energy Requirement EER o The energy recommendationcalled The Estimated Energy Requirementrepresents the average dietary energy intake kcalories per day that will maintain energy balance in a person who has a healthy body weight and level of physical activity 0 Because any amount in excess of energy needs will result in weight gain no upper level for energy has been determined Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges AMDR o The DRI Committee s determined cpmposition of diet that provides adequate energy and nutrients and reduces risk of chronic disease 0 45 to 65 kcalories from carbohydrate 20 to 35 kcalories from fat 10 to 35 kcalories from protein These values AAA are known as Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges AMDR Using Nutrient Recommendations o Recommendations are not minimum requirements or 9necesarily optimal intakes for all individuals 0 O O Comparing Nutrient Recommendations o FAO Food and Agriculture Organization and WHO World Health Organization are considered sufficient to maintain health in nearly all healthy people worldwide Nutrition Assessment o If the deficiency or excess is significant over time the person experiences symptoms of malnutrition o With a deficiency of energy the person may develop the symptoms of undernutrition With an excess of energy the person may become obese and vulnerable to diseases associated with overnutrition such as heart disease or diabetes 0 The person may experience hot flashes yellowing skin rapid heart rate low bood pressure or other symptoms o Malnutrition symptoms diarrhea skin rashes and fatigue Nutrition Assesment of Indivudals c To prepare a nutrition assessment a registered dietitian dietetic technician registered or other trained healthcare professional uses 0 Historical information o Anthropometric measurements 0 Physical examinations 0 Laboratory tests Historical information o Diet history can be taken in a 24 hour period 3 days or a week or more Anthropometric Measurements o A second technige that may help reveal nutrition problems is taking anthropometric measurements such as those of height and weight o Indicates patterns and trends Physical Examination o This examination requires skill because many physical signs reflect more than one nutrient deficiency or toxicityor even nonnutrition conditions Laboratory Tests o Blood or Urine samples o Most useful in uncovering early signs of malnutrition before symptoms appear Iron For example o The mineral iron can be used to illustrate the stages in the development of a nutrient deficiency and the assessment techniques useful in detection them o The overt or outward signs of an iron deficiency appear at the end of a long sequence of events o First the body has too little ironeither because iron is lacking in the person s diet a primary deficiency or because the person s body doesn t absorb enough excretes too much or uses iron because the person s body doesn t absorb enough excretes too much or uses iron inefficiently a secondary deficiency 0 Next the body begins to use up its stores of iron At this stage the deficiency can be described as a subclinical deficiency It exists as a covert condition an although it might be detected by laboratory tests outward signs are not yet apparent Finally the body s irons stores are exhausted It cannot make enough ironcontaining red blood cells to replace those that are aging and dying Nutrition Assesment of Populations National Health Goals o Healthy people is a program that identifies the nation s health priorities and guides policies that promote health and percent disease National Trends Obesity Diet and Health o Nutrition research has focused on chronic diseases associated with energy and nutrient excesses Chronic Diseases o Heart disease cancers strokes chronic lung accidens diabetes mellitus alzheimer s disease Pneumonia and influenza kidney disease blood infections Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases 0