SOS 171 - Week 3 Notes
SOS 171 - Week 3 Notes SOS 171
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kali Notetaker on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOS 171 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Pasqualetti in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 341 views. For similar materials see The Thread of Energy in Sustainability at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
SOS 171 Week 31 Review from 082715 0 Name and explain the principle energy transitions 0 Sun gt re wood gt coal fossil fuels solid liquid gas vapor 0 Fossil fuels Advantages Disadvantages 0 Fossil fuels gt nuclear 0 Nuclear 1940 s gt renewable We started with renewables and returning to renewables coming full circle 0 Fusion hydrogen 0 Plant and animal domestication o Humans can use animals to train plow the land and use as a source of food creates surplus an energy resource Cattle can convert inedible plants grass into food milk and beef 0 Surplus gt to specializing in other elds of study language pottery stars etc 0 Advantages of re 0 Protects humans at night from predators o Creates warmth o Allows to cook food makes it edible o Allowed humans to migrate out of Africa 0 Advantages of coal over wood 0 Higher energy density per gram pound ton etc more energy in it than wood 0 More easily transported for fuel More valuable per weight so it can be transported farther Economically viable Human Development and Population 0 Rise in population 0 Exponential growth is so powerful that it cannot be ignored The resources are unable to keep up with a population doubling at this rate 0 Example 2 increase per year How long would it take to double 35 years 1 doubling is 70 years o ZPG Zero Population Growth 0 Poor countries migrate to welloff countries 0 Increasing population is mainly coming from developing countries 85 Tragedy of the Commons 0 Occurs when individuals neglect the wellbeing of society or the group in the pursuit of personal gain o If no one has a responsibility for a resource example climate change pollution of the oceans degradation of forests then it will deteriorate 0 Additional examples related to energy Energy Use 0 BTU the amount of energy necessary to raise or lower the temperature of one pound of water one degree F Relationship between per Capita Energy Consumption and GDP 0 Energy demand growth has closely followed growth in per capita income in lowand middleincome economies whereas highincome economies can sustain GDP growth with little if any increase in energy consumption Quality of Life 0 As families have fewer children Kwhperson increase due to quality of life increasing Families increase due to no birth control no education more deaths 0 HDI Human Development Index Population and Demand 0 Rising energy demand accompanies rising population and improved quality of life 0 Although they are closely correlated the two can be de coupled SOS 171 Week 32 Review 090115 Tragedy of the Commons No one owns the common resource so no one takes responsibility for it o Exponential growth for energy and population 0 With increasing population the demand for energy goes up vise versa GDP vs Energy use developing countries need an increase in productivity and lifestyle energy use Developed countries can increase GDP without increasing energy use by much 0 Why are women having more children 0 The death rate is too high infant mortality 0 Now infant mortality has gone down but the fertility rate has not 0 USAID Spending money in developing countries to attempt to introduce improvements in lifestyle increasing health and energy use solar panels 0 HDl Human Development Index Measurement of quality of life Measures infant mortality education 0 What parts of the world are expected to grow most quickly and why Africa 0 No birth control 0 Infant mortality rates 0 Where in the world are we most likely to nd a highenergy use and a high HDI The United States 0 What country has low energy use and low HDI Kenya 0 What is the relationship between family size and energy available Large family low energy use Small family large energy use Energy at Ground Level 0 Food 0 Prevalence of Undernourishment Fewer people 187113 are undernourished The number has fallen by 100 million over the last decade and by 209 million since 199092 0 Food miles How far does the food travel from its origin Growing in your backyard 0 miles The farther the food comes from the greater the food miles the faster its moved the colder it needs to be the heavier it is the more expensive the more energy needed 0 Energy food chain that is often not considered Farms account for 4 of all energy consumed in the US The food system account for 17 refrigeration transportation packaging processing grocery stores It takes 3 calories of fossil fuels to produce 1 calorie of food energy on average 0 Ratio for beef 351 As the fuel prices go up the food prices go up Beef 14 pound Takes a lot of water land corn and BTU s Reliability 0 O 0 There are 300000km of power lines that are operated by 500 companies Arizona is apart of WECC Why is reliability of energy supply so important Power interruptions costs billions Natural gas pipelines 300000 miles
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