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by: Natalie Williamson


Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Sociology > SOC 354K > SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH ILLNESS
Natalie Williamson
GPA 3.91

Matthew Flynn

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Matthew Flynn
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Williamson on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 354K at University of Texas at Austin taught by Matthew Flynn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see /class/181409/soc-354k-university-of-texas-at-austin in Sociology at University of Texas at Austin.




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Date Created: 09/06/15
Midterm Study Guide Medical sociology A sub discipline of sociology that brings sociological perspectives theories and methods to the study of health illness and medical practice Sick role A patterned set of expectations defining the norms and values appropriate to being sick for both the sick person and others who interact with that person Sociology in medicine Applied research and analysis primarily motivated by a medical problem rather than a sociological problem Sociology of medicine Research and analysis of health and the medical environment from a sociological perspective Medicine of the species Trend in Western medicine that focuses primarily upon classifying diseases diagnosing and treating patients and finding cures Medicine of social spaces Trend in Western medicine that is mostly concerned with preventing diseases It takes place through government involvement in regulating the conduct of daily life especially public hygiene Epidemiological transition Describes a shift in the predominant diseases whether infectious or chronic and causes of mortality in a period Bioterrorism Takes place when people knowingly prepare biological agents or gases and use them to deliberately induce illness and death among other people Bioethics Area of study focused on ethical decisions and practices with respect to medical care research and human rights over their bodies Epidemiology The study of both the origin and distribution of health problems whether infectious chronic or resulting from unhealthy behaviors in a population through the collection of data from many different sources Case An episode of a disorder illness or injury involving a person Prevalence The total number of cases of a health disorder that exists at any given time Point prevalence The number of cases at a certain point in time usually a particular day or week Period prevalence The total number of cases during a specified period oftime usually a month or year Lifetime prevalence The number of people who have had the health problem at least once during their lifetime Incidence The number of new cases of a specific health disorder occurring within a given population during a stated period of time Crude rate The number of persons cases who have the characteristics being measured during a specific unit of time Mortality rate A measure usually annual computed by using the number of deaths in that year as the numerator and the total number of residents in a specific population as the denominator Age specific rates A type of rate used to show differences by age Age specific rates are computed in the same way as crude rates except the numerator and the denominator are confined to a specific age group Infant mortality rate A measure ofthe deaths of all infants in a geographical area under the age of one year It is traditionally used as an approximate indicator of a society s standard of living and quality of health care delivery Causal agents One of several types of substances or conditions which contact with may lead to infection The five types are 1 biological agents 2 nutritional agents 3 chemical agents 4 physical agents and 5 social agents Social environment Refers to actual living conditions such as poverty or crowding and also the norms values and attitudes that reflect a particular social and cultural context of living Pandemic An epidemic that has spread across multiple regions and continents in the world Social class A category or group of people who have approximately the same amount of wealth status and power in a society Socioeconomic status SES A measure of social position comprised ofthree components wealth social status and power It usually measured by three variables income occupational prestige and education Social gradient in mortality An observed phenomenon in which the highest social strata the upper class lives longer than the next highest the upper middle class and so on down the social scale until the lower class is reached Neighborhood disadvantage An area of research within medical sociology that focuses on unhealthy urban living conditions specifically how certain neighborhood conditions influence health and are distributed unequally throughout society Race The convergence of biological factors with geographic origins and multiple cultural economic political and legal variables Stress A heightened mind body reaction to stimuli inducing fear or anxiety in the individual quotLooking glass self Atheory that states that self concepts are the result of social interaction in which we see ourselves reflected in other people Face An image of selfthat is projected by the individual to other people Egoistic suicide One of Durkheim s types of suicide in which people become detached from society and suddenly on their own are overwhelmed by the resulting stress Anomic suicide One of Durkheim s types of suicide in which people suffer a sudden dislocation of normative systems where their norms and values are no longer relevant so that controls of society no longer restrain them from taking their lives Altruistic suicide One of Durkheim s types of suicide in which people feel themselves so strongly integrated into a demanding society that their only escape seems to be suicide General adaptation syndrome Atheory suggested by Selye in which prolonged stress consumes the body s defenses until a point of exhaustion is reached Life events Significant changes in a person s life experiences Includes events such as divorce marriage or losing one s job Chronic strains The relatively enduring conflicts problems and threats that many people face on a daily basis Includes various role strains such as role overload or conflict Social capital The social investments of individuals in society in terms of their membership in formal and informal groups networks and institutions Illness behavior Activity undertaken by a person who feels ill for the purpose of defining that illness and seeking relief from it Health behavior Activity undertaken by individuals for the purpose of maintaining or enhancing their health preventing health problems or achieving a positive body image Health lifestyles Collective patterns of health related behavior based on choices from options available to people according to their life chances Habitus Class related set of durable dispositions to act in particular ways The habitus serves as a cognitive map or set of perceptions that routinely guides and evaluates a person s choices and options Agency The process by which people critically evaluate and choose their course of action Social network The social relationships a person has during day to day interaction which serve as the normal avenue for the exchange of opinion information and affection Typically the social network is composed of family relatives and friends that comprise the individual s immediate social world Culture of poverty A phenomenon in which poverty over time influences the development of certain social and psychological traits among those immersed within it These traits include dependence fatalism inability to delay gratification and a lower value placed on health being sick is not especially unusual This in turn tends to reinforce the poor person s disadvantaged social position Disease An adverse physical state consisting of a physiological dysfunction within an individual


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