Soc.M175 (Sociology of Education)
Soc.M175 (Sociology of Education)
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SOC M175 Lecture Notes 51714 1140 PM 10714 Education the systematic formal transmission of skills knowledge beliefs values attitudes and norms Formal Education schooling when a society etc sets up a curriculum to educate young people In history most societies did not have formal education History of US school system dramatic increase in amount of schooling past century first schools 1600s private schools through 1840 still mostly private schools 1840s edu reform gt more of a public edu system by state Industrialization gt from family farms to schools family weren39t capable of socializing kids anymore Shift from families to Common School to educate and socialize First University Harvard Un 178 CA s ratified constitution gt state public system and universities UC system PrimaryEementary amp Middle JrH amp Secondary HS the o of kids who attended has gone up over time slower progression of mandatory attendance in HS 80 90 o graduate Post secondary everything after HS roughly 12 attend 14 complete Sociology of Education study of the ways society impacts education institutions and the ways education institutions impact individuals Terms Social Mobility movement from one social class econ level to another intergenerational change in status between parent and kid intragenerational change over course of lifetime Meritocracy social positions in occupational structure filled on basis of merit achievement not on ascribed criteria Equality of Opportunity a person39s chances to attain an education are unrelated to ascribed characteristics Achievement Ideology deeply ingrained belief in American society that society is open fair and full of equality of opportunity Social Reproduction reproduction of the inequality existing in society usually from one generation to the next Inequality quality of being unequaluneven social disparity unequal dist of opportunity Stratification processes by which scarce hierarchically organized resources are unequally allocated to individuals groups positions Socioeconomic Origins gtEducation gtSocioeconomic Position Attainment gt SE Origin Factors A College Education is a natural dividing line in US Education Factors Gender Race Parents Income Parents education Parents job status siblings Intact families Ability HS classes Track Parents Teachers expectations Friends plans Aspirations 1 09 14 Week 1 Thursday The Role of Education in US Society Civic Vocational Roles Historical Trends in Educational Attainment slow growth in edu attainment across 20th cent from 74 years median to 138 years high school completion went from 19 to 80 o over century those wo high school edu were marginalized Reasons Underlying Edu Expansion public institutions providing more edu and requiring attendance state universities NY and CA and primarysecondary schools tech changes increasing demand for more educated workers occupational status and economic returns associated w college increasing dramatically life styles and life chances more distinct between more and ess educated peope FILM John Dewey 1899 book to reform schooling children went outside to learn schools had a zoo swimming pool kids exercised their bodies too had kids change classes to decrease boredom in a NY school all the teaching in english although students spoke all different languages some schools taught in home language people saw going to school as a means of getting a job not as enjoying learning 1920ish IQ test invented used it to assess kids in public schools to determine capacity of edu used it to determine where people would be sent for work thought IQ tests could determine quality of people by ethnicity school progression mirrored historica social progression Role of Edu historically in order of progression Unclear Roe what are we preparing them to do Civic Roe enlighten them better our society morally enlightened Dewey T Jefferson amp Americanize the immigrants to make a national identityculture Vocationa helped kids specialize in their future job sorting people by intelligence ability Meritocracyl Reproductive is IQ an equitable sorting device is it meritocratic or reproductive reprod class backgrounds into the next gen CIVIC Role of Education Emile Durkheim function of edu is to socialize and integrate individuals into larger society years of schooling are important to their moral formation role of schools not families to teach about societies and moral forces sef inquiry leads to personally contrived moral ideas believes society together creates moral rules so society can function indiv satisfaction occurs when indivs submit to rules today there39s an informal curriculum of teaching kids to comply with moral rules VOCATIONAL role of education Grubb amp Lazerson Tenants of the education gospel 1 Promote Vocationalism 0 form of schooling shifted to prep for economic roles in society 0 information age high tech age changing the nature of work 0 race for personal advancement competition squeezed out moral civic role 2 National and Individual Objectives 0 important for US to have educated work force push from the na on 0 individual want to get ahead version of the American Dream 0 education gives a fair race idea 3 Ritual of Critique and Reaffirmation 0 critical idea that education system isn39t doing well enough need for reform o reaffirmation that education has potential faith in education reform p12 Education Coalition buys into the Tenants economic reformers social reformers politicians poicy makers educators Academics businesses Creating workers parents amp children Critique of Vocationalism 1 schools are not preparing students to be workers 0 still overly academic not vocational enough can39t meet the needs of modern workplace 2 schools are preparing students to be workers but are undermining academic rigor Lives on the Boundaries by Mike Rose 3 Balance of Public and Private Purposes 0 private purposes means to get ahead vs public purpose civic democratic role 4 Education is a panacea o a dumping ground whatever problem society might have education will fix it poverty sickness inequality etc 5 Creating new forms of inequality 0 ie ability grouping segregation tracking etc Vocational role of schooling changed the way inequality was present Vocationalism sponsored greater equity as there is increased access to the rewards in society However greater access does not mean equal access to all people Grub p225 Discussion Question 12 SOC M175 Lecture Notes 51714 1140 PM 11414 Week 2 The Role of Education in US Society MeritocracyReproduction Meritocracy system in occupational structure based on merit or achievement only Allows for social mobility to occur Reproduction reproduction of the social inequality between generations Meritocratic social mobility Reproductive Immobiity Social Mobility 1 Max Weber All communities are arranged such that rewards symbolic and material are distributed Rewards include distribution of property honor status social groups power Such a distribution is unequal Role of education allows for the opportunity of social mobility and social reproduction Open society a lot of movement Closed society not a lot of movement 2 Sorokin Social Mobility transition of an individual from one social position to another 2 types of social mobility 1 horizontal transition across social groups on same level Ex move jobs but they are pretty much the same amount of reward structure such as same pay not moving across of reward distribution 2 vertical transition across social strata Ex someone gets a promotion or demotion with different rewards There has never been a society that is completely closed and there has never been a society where there is no resistance to the transition for movement Vertical Mobility 1 Ascending upward mobility moving up classes Ex child of miner becomes a physician 2 Descending downward mobility moving down classes Ex getting let go from a job and taking a lower paying job somewhere else Also Vertical Mobility Characterized by 1 Intensiveness how many strata do you cross Is it a slight movement up or down or is it intensive 2 Generality the number of individuals that have crossed or have been mobile in the system in some period of time Both vary by society and within a society over time There is no perpetual trend of an increase or decrease of both School is primarily a testing to see if individuals can perform certain functions selecting the people who should be granted access to the desirable positions and distributing agency distribute the scarce resources to those that deserve them School influence the degree of mobility Individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds can attain high social positions through school Non taented individuals can also move down Open society low persistence across generation lots of mobility low inequality Closed high persistence across generation ex physician parent will have a high status child low mobility lots of inequality Argues overall schools are pushing more of a closed society Meritocratic Functional Reproductive Conflict Theory Functiona rational society and people are selected to perform roles that they are best suited to perform Inequality serves a function to motivate people Confict those in power explicitly try to maintain their advantage Purposeful action of those people Functionalist Theory of Inequality 1 Talcott Parsons Why would society have unequal rewards High material incentives and rewards are necessary to motivate people to perform well Inequality in outcomes is functional rational and efficient 2 Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore No society is classless Requirements faced by society in placing and motivating individuals in the hierarchical social structure necessitates inequality Some positions are more functionally important than others and require specialized skills These skills are in short supply because talent is scares and costly to develop Ex you cannot pay a clerk at a supermarket the same as a heart surgeon because the surgeon wont feel motivated to perform at their best Qualifications 1 Inherent capacity cognitive and non cognitive personal abilities and motivation 2 Training education Both are necessary but the scarcity might apply in one or the other Rewards that contribute to subsistence comfort humor social status and prestige ego The positions that have the best rewards have the highest rank in society and require the most schooling and talent Social inequality is a devise to ensure that those with the inherent capacity and abilities will be motivated to pursue those highly valued occupations They will be motivated by monetary rewards Unequal rewards in positions but there is in a meritocracy equal opportunities to attain those rewards Critique of Functionalist Theory Functional importance cannot be specified Extent to which inequality reflects achievement is exaggerated What knowledge do we really have about inherent capacity Ex inherited wealth influences this The more rigid a society the less obvious to determine ones inherent capacty What are the sacrifices involved in the training period Ex parents sometimes pay tuition Surrendering of earnings to pay off student loans Alternative rewards other than economic possible to induce training Future positions must carry some economic inducement but other rewards are present intrinsic work satisfaction that reflects ones capacity Conflict and power are underemphasized Conflict theorists Ideological justification of existing patterns of inequality Functionalists state that social inequality is functional and inevitable Historically there has never been a systematic method to promote a tradition otherwise Functionalist theory helps describe why there is inequality at all Conflict Theory of Inequality Karl Marx Schools function to integrate individuals into an unjust society Schools serve to reproduce the inequality Does education socialize students to accept inequality Conflict Theory and the Sociology of Education Bowles and Gintis Schools integrate individuals into an inequitable system while simultaneously legitimizing that inequality Schools socialize students to reproduce inequality Ex students of working class families will be taught to obtain jobs of the working class Curriculum 1 Formal skills being learned 2 Hidden values attitudes principles offered by teachers Students by virtue of their social class backgrounds are assumed to occupy the same class positions of their parents Differential achievements occur from differential expectations by social groups Schools train the wealthy to take up the high economic positions while training the poor to take the bottom position Meritocratic system open society social mobility functional orientation equality of opportunity Reproductive system closed society no social mobility conflict unequal opportunities Thursday 11614 Meritocratic Reproductive Capital Acquisition Interqenerational Transmission Human Capital Meritocracy Social Reproduction open society closed society Weber social mobility immobility Weber Sorokin Functional Conflict Theory Parsons Davis and Moore Marx Bowles and Gintis Equality of opportunity inequality of opportunity Meritocracy vs Social Reproduction Acquisition of capital Intergenerational Transmission of Capital Achievement Ascription Blau and Duncan 4 Forms of Capital Physical non human assets Human skills abilities Cultural cultural background dispositions skills to navigate social world Social networks of influence connections Education facilitates acquisition of Capital kin s Capita gt Edu gt offspring Capital Intergenerational Loop from parents to children and from children to parents Physical Capita Adam Smith material non human assets machines buildings instruments land that allows people to generate a profit revenue Human Capital Gary Becker39s book Human Capital consists of knowledge skills and ability people have or acquire to enhance their productivity people invest in their human capital through education training bc they think there will be an economic return Human capital is not transferable grows at a faster rate than other forms of capital education is an investment in human capital tuition on the job training migration expenditures yoga diets shelter psychological costs of getting education training etc Human Capital Scholarly Assumptions the economic system is fair and competitive individuals are utilitymaximizers individuals have perfect knowledge of outcomes invest in schooling bc you know it39s going to yield a higher economic return and take a lifetime perspective when making choices Education gt knowledge skills gt labor productivity gt labor market rewards earnings Cultural Capita Pierre Bourdieu 1973 the general cultural background knowledge disposition and skills that are passed from one generation to the next individuals are stratified in society and possess different amounts of social capital art literature opera theatre manners etiquette schools reward these kinds of activities and these perspectives success in education system is largely dictated by extent to which people have absorbed elite cultural practices these kids are thought of as the ones who should succeed in schools teachers communicate more easily with them they get more assistance perceived as more intelligent although schools still hold on to the belief that they run by meritocracy students who are most likely to get something from education are least likely to benefit from it Negative selection ex kids who take vitamins are the least likely to benefit bc they have the best nutrition we see this pattern over and over in education system Cultural Linguistic Capital Bernstein working class kids have a more Restricted linguistic Code middle class kids have more Elaborated Code WC kids are at a disadvantage restricted code works well when there39s a lot of shared understanding but not in many other situations WC assume everyone understands already more detail in the Elaborated Code MC parents can correct their kids speech capital Social Capital James Coleman resource of social relationships an alternative explanation for social action least tangible form doesn39t exist unless there39s multiple people relationships shared understanding Social Network there are class differences A Economic utility maximizer actor critique B Socioogica socialized actor critique Critique A individual actions are shaped redirected constrained by social contexts norms relationships trust organizations etc Critique B What39s the motivation for the action doesn39t reside in the individual but in the structures relations between actors Forms of Social Capital Obigations Expectations pS102 of article high level of outstanding obligations you have more social capital people owe you reciprocity is expected Information Channels S104 info acquisition is costly so info is a form of social capital ex an older sibling tells you what classes to take job networks know somebody some programs do this formally amp directly AVID tutoring SAT prep courses Social Norms when individuals forgo self interest for the interest of the community volunteering in school classroom sacrifices for the betterment of community capital for the community and the relations among members Diagrams on slides social networks without or with closure closure closed loop of info between actors more information shared more relationships Human capital without Social capital isn39t enough for the kids to benefit ex parents are educated but aren39t present enough to pass it on to their kids ex pS110 social capital without human capital parents bought 2 of their kids textbooks so they could learn alongside the kids and help them p S109 social human cultural John Mill learned from his dad Latin before he went to school Status Attainment Tradition social origins parents SES gt Edu Attainment gt Social Destinations adult SES Blau and Duncan39s model on slides Famous model Father39s Education and Occupation are social origin Respondent39s education amp first job Occupation as adult Week 2 continued C MeritocraticReproductive Status Attainment Tradition Blau amp Duncan Figure 1 week 2 slides you can actually estimate these variables and how the role of schooling affects status attainment Take data do a quantitative analysis and try to get evidence to whether there something other than social origin that39s impacting education and social destination Relationship with 1 arrow direct effect Multiple arrows leading from one variable to another indirect effect Larger coefficient represent stronger associations Ex 859gt756 Main factor upward mobility bc large association between people39s education and the ultimate job they hold Also main factor in the reproduction of status from generation to generation due to indirect effect of X 9 U 9 Y affect of social origins is transmitted There is room for mobility through education social destination jobs socia origin family background in this model fathers education and occupation Education years of schooling Fig 1 simplified path of how destination depends on origins and education summary of Blau amp Duncan model Social oriigns impact education which impacts social destination etc Proportion of education variance that contributes to reproduction For some segment of the population knowing social origins will predict where they will end up as adults However other factors U influence education 9 lots of mobility going on acgt b path is stronger through the education system than compared to just social origins determining social destination ucgt ac based off of coefficients from Blau and Duncan model Ex of social origins 9 social destination parents own a store and let their son work there Or if a parent39s wealth is passed on to their child Wisconsin Model of Status Attainment Bau and Duncan model gets expanded over time Finding those social and psychological variables explained a large part of the relation between social origins to social destination Those with supportive families amp higher class backgrounds 9 higher teachers expectations 9 influences how students perceive themselves and what they should achieve Higher classes have parents who encourage their students more parenta encouragement directly influenced children39s aspirations Socioeconomic status 9 parental encouragement 9 personal aspirations for achievement Relationship between Class and Education 51714 1140 PM 12114 Educational Disparities by Social Class Relationship between social class and education Family incomefinancial capital Family human cultural and social capital Family size and structure Neighborhoods Readings Reardon The Widening Academic Achievement Gap between Smith amp Jeanne Consequences MacLeod Aint No Makin It Regression Equation yi a BXi Ei i number of individuals y years of edu X variable that influences y E all the factors not included in the equation After regression run y a b1X1 simple regression model a predicted years of schooling b predicted change in years of schooling T Clasi Education 9 Class 2 Relationship between Class and Education Family Income Family Income and Children39s Life Chances Higher rates of infant mortality teenage pregnancy crime poverty etc trends in income inequality 19182007 Share of Income Accruing to 10 Highest Income Families 19182007 50 45 W as 5 E I 8 40 2 i quot6 9 35 to c I 30 Excluding Capital Gains 250 Including Capital Gains 0 I I I I I I I I I I 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Source Piketty amp Saez 2009 httpIwwweconberkeIeyedusaezTabFig2007xIs Increasing income inequality Hun l39enenhgeofClildIeuAoes3to6uilSebchd School Readiness Skis by Poverty Status 2007 I Ihhovcoovenylrcsliud Isenoupovenyncanon I III so no 70 so 2 3 so to n N I0 0 lhmgtaal cuntbzllanylet Vlmsnane Iixunluliauool scuehcscnounuauusuln ampamp9jiu dQ jijamp 1cOjamphj Ijdamp1 jhj139Lhf ampdf111ampdampUampBjj i Alli m II n39 ATABANK Chidren from higher class families are more likely to facilitate the development of these skills Ex preschool wealthiest top 20 of families spend 5X as much as the poorest families on kind of preschool education having better books Reading Scores K3 by Economic Status 2006 NCES Lowest 20 of family income have the lowest reading scores lt middle 60 lt highest 20 Math scores same pattern Higher income 9 higher SAT scores in reading writing and math very systematic linear relationship income achievement reading gaps 19402001 cohorts Trend in 9010 Income Gap in Reading 19402001 Cohorts 150 125 Study TALENT 100 O NLS HSampB 075 NLSY79 NELS Add Health Prospects NLSY97 ELS SECCYD ECLSK ECLSB Quartic Fitted Trend 050 025 Average Difference in Standardized Test Scores Between 90th amp 10th Income Percentile Families Iooooo cocoon P o o I I I I I I I I 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Cohort Birth Year Income achievement gaps in reading and math have increased over time Reardons conclusion the gaps are widening between the top of the income distribution and the bottom over time Why There is changes in family investment pattens There is increasing income inequality 9 different family resources to invest in their children39s educational resources tutoring extra curriculars 9 different levels of achievments income achievement math gaps 19402001 cohorts Trend in 9010 Income Gap in Math 19402001 Cohorts g 3 150 O 1 E Iquot O 6 LI xi an pA 1 E C1 0 Study 13 5 0 TALENT D o 5 100 39 h E NL3 9 F O HSampB 3 g Q 0 NLSY79 5 3 75 O NELS 5 5 0 Add Health 8 Prospects E 05 5 C NLSY97 93 5 O ELS 2 o D 03 O SECCYD g 5 Q25 39 O ECLSK as an 5 E O ECLS B 3 g 0 00 Quartic Fitted Trend I I I I I I I 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Cohort Birth Year High school dropout rates by family income Low income drop outs gt middle income gt high income Immediate College Attendance Rates by Family Income Among High School Completers High income attendancegt middle income gt low income Fig 7 College completion high income 53 gt low income 11 Fig 9 Percentage of HS Class of 1992 Enrolled in Various Postsecondary Institutions parents who were in the top quartile were more likely to have children to go directly into a 4 year college Economic Background of Students at 146 Top Colleges Richest Quartile choose elite colleges Relationship between Class and Education Family Income Why Money Matters 1 Direct Effects money facilitates educational success nutrition safe and clean environment vitamins as a fetus Investment o Children from low incomes 9 low birth rates lack of health insurance bad nutrition 9 learning disabilities missing school 0 Parental Income 9 Children39s Education 2 Indirect Effects Human cultural capital 0 Non monetary investments Income 69 Capital 9 Education Family structure size o Same arrow diagram but with family structure 3 Spurious Effects Children education 6 2 variables ex genes 9 Parents income Relationship between Class and Education Family Human Capital The more education the parents achieve 9 the higher education their children achieve Parents Education 9 Kids Education Y A a b1x1 x1 parents education FIGURE 2 College Education Runs in The Family The w111Iltzlgv of slutlinls who lt 3939uIla1lv from l39olr quotvr c39oIe es iiiiI4amI as pu39vIlquot 1Imalion illI l39 amplh39 LEVEL STUDENTS WHO OF PARENTAL GRADUATED EDUCATION COLLEGE High school dropollt 59 Iligh school graduate 39 133 o Some College 257 Bachelor393939s degree 494 Mastcrls clcg1 cc 654 Professional degree a 733 O I T1 OCIO F8116 Note Figures are for adults who were high school sophomores in 1990 and reflect educational attainment as of 2000 Source National Center for Education Statistics 2007 Table 313 with each level of parental education there is an increase in the likelihood that kids graduate college themselves College Degree Completion by Parents Education 2000 C At least one parent attended college I Neither parent attended college 709b 61 609 o 509 o O 39 36 o 30 quot0 25 Pc rcentagc 22 o 18 o 209 o 9 10 390 1 Top Income Middle Income Bottom Income Looking at both education and income of parents as inputs Y a b1X1 b2X2 Blau amp Duncan39s Model of Status Attainment FIGURE 1 Path coef cients in basic model of the process of stratification Father 5 859 R d I educat1on e n em 5 V 310 U e ucation 516 X W First Father39s Z24 813 Job occ 39 stronger effect in father39s education than father39s occupation on influencing the respondent39s education college educated parents foster academic achievement throughout their children39s lives They provide support encouragement expectations and advice in educational pursuits Relationship between Class and Education Family Cultural and Social Capital Social Class and Cultural Capital Paul Willis 0 Learning to Labor How working class kids end up in working class jobs 0 Counter cuture oppose school knowledge and authority 0 Non conformist behavior 0 Sef defeating resistance resisting culture and environment Thinks that individuals do not passively respond to the socioeconomic weight coming down on them The kids thought The most likely place they will end up is in a working class position so why bother in school 0 Perpetuates the system they don39t do well in school 9 working class jobs as adults Social Reproduction Theories Willis How much autonomy they prescribe these individuals more autonomy Deterministic autonomy Bourdieu Deterministic Autonomy more deterministic Educational system legitimates this process of valuing some cultural capital over others Bowles and Gintis Deterministic Autonomy very deterministic take Marxist theory and apply to educational setting students lack control over this entire process especially working class kids who lack control over their environment which is modeled by the kinds of positions they will hold as adults resembles the relations of production and the authority and power in capitalism talk about how classes are oriented differently for working class kids versus upper class 9 perpetuates deterministic model MacLeod Deterministic Autonomy near the center of both he wants to make a really strong argument for social reproduction and believes deterministic factors influence children but that there is also autonomy the boys react to the structure that they are faced with and he sees a lot of self defeating resistance from the boys he studies Social Class Cultural Capital and Social Reproduction Jay MacLeod Ain39t No Makin It Social immobility in the land of opportunity Sample of teenage boys Hallway Hangers and the Brothers Distinction between aspirations and expectations Study results schoos reinforce social inequality while pretending to do the opposite Haway Hangers white lower class distinctive culture tough and masculine pg 28 good grades in school leads to ostracism while time in school leads to disrespect theres a lot of brotherhood and cohesion between these boys based on street culture Pg 36 Nobody learns anything from school around here all it is is how to survive and have money in your pocket The Brothers mostly black lower class strive to fulfill socially approved roles McLeod s Study Respondents Low family income Low family capital Role models with low aspirations Low expectations Alcoholism and drug abuse in parents 85 single parent families Low income neighborhood isolated and over crowded crime racism He wants to distinguish the aspirations and expectations aspirations preferences that are relatively unaffected by constraints Hallway Hangers have aspirations that differ greatly from expectations things they would really want to do if there was no barriers to them doing them expectations things they expect to achieve and so take into account their own perceived capabilities and opportunities Results Pg 62 pessimism uncertainty 0 expectations are a result of what they see the opportunity structure offers them As a group they blamed the system but individually they would blame themselves for the constraints that they face 0 Very limited role models they see jail and that the job market does not reward talent o HH counter culture and self defeating resistance in school Think that the teachers hold low expectations for them 0 Brothers conformity compliance to school setting 0 Source of variation pg128 9 for the HH to accept the achievement ideology is to admit that their parents are lazy Because they are white and male and supposedly would be advantaged where as the Brothers are black and are racially discriminated against Brothers see raical barriers as influencing their parents positions but that there may be more opportunities for them Race analogy The Hallway Hangers believe a strong finish given their handicap is out of the question and drop out of the race before it begins p81 McLeod buys into the cultural capital arugments how that perpetuates the class society Teachers expectations influence the opportunities of students success Blau Duncan a stratified society offers some certain advantages and others disadvantages MacLeod Aint No Makin It Components to social reproduction 0 Educational system Tracking influences students from teachers expecations schools evaluation of different cultural capital 0 Leveled aspirations and pessimistic expectations They don39t believe that they can actually achieve what they aspire to do they find sef respect via the counter culture aspirations are limited by societal constraints 0 Belief in the achievement ideology they come to accept their own position as legitimate They believe that if they really tried hard then they could work their way out of the lower class position Generally most employment janitorial work cooks cleaners jobs unstable a lot of movement in and out of prison a lot of drugs not much family stability aheidisucaedu Review Brother39s attainment more positive than the HH Juan wanted a house job and good life Achievement dropped out of college and was fired from job Levels of attainment don39t match what they aspire for themselves but their outcomes are better than the HH MacLoed thinks there is a link between aspirations and attainment Regression Equation YA a b1x1 b2X2 b3X3 b4X4 b5X5 b6x6 b7x7 b8x8 b9x9 Inputs for attainment b parameters that increase or decrease with x values X1 parents income X2 culture X3 parents education X4 parents expectations X5 teachers expectations X6 kids cognitive ability X7 kid39s expectations X8 family structure X9 neighborhood poverty There are a lot of inputs that impact attainment and achievement different experiences yield different identities if the system is not working then you work outside the system and achieve your identity in other ways Educational Disparities By Social Class 51714 1140 PM 12814 13014 Readings Lareau Harding Social Class and Cultural Capital Annette Lareau Not only does class affect adolescent culture it affects relations between schools and families Looks at parenting methods they vary by social class and race Contrasts franticbusy middle class families managing work extra curriculars with lower class families that have more leisure time and less structure but more economic hardship Describes social processes in schools by which class patterns are reproduced o 1 Hidden Curriculum The degree to which students understand the unwritten curriculum of social rules and behavior Middleupper class knows rules better than lower class o 2Cassroom Interaction The degree to which authority relationships in schools resembles those of the home environment o 3 parental involvement in school setting Theories regarding variation in parental involvement with school 0 1 Culture of Poverty ex working in lower class families don39t value education as much as middleupper class families o 2 Cultural Capital by virtue of the position in culture middle class children have more opportunities for networking than lower class families o 3 Institutional Discrimination Schools make middleupper class parents more welcome than lower class families 9 difference in parental involvement across schools Research Questions o What do schools ask of parents And does social class influence teachers expectations Active promotion of parental invovlvement across schools and classes Urge to communicate concerns read to children enforcement of rules Didn39t see any differential requests from teachers to parents by class 0 How do parents respond to schools requests And does this vary by social class background Responses to requests were much higher at the uppermiddle class compared to lower Uppermiddle class high level of attendance of events easy informal natural interaction between teachers and parents especially with academic matters active role of parents in monitoring students success in school Contrast working class low level of attendance in school events low level of contact to discuss students educational pursuits interactions with teachers were more awkward and uncomfortable less active role in monitoring students performance Factors structuring parents participation 0 1 Educational capabilities of the parents family human capital uppermiddle class parents mostly had college degrees vs working class parents low level of educationp295 If the parents don39t feel confident helping their student then they expect the teacher to do so o 2 Information about Schooling uppermiddle class have more knowledge about school They can talk about the academic track and what their leading too Additiona Evidence culture and parental involvement o higher social class parents talk to their children more and ask them more questions about their needs and interests lower class talk less to their child39s and don39t stimulate their child39s curiosity or pursuit for higher education higher social class read to their children more and then ask their kids questions about what they read comprehension 0 higher social class parents gave 6 encouraging comments for every 1 reprimand while lower class parents did 2 Culture and student involvement o Students from working class families were less likely to ask questions in class than those from middleupper class From Chicago tribune Kid39s may see their parents advocating for them and so they may start advocating for themselves Wisconsin Model 0 Quantitative approach Blau and Duncan and expansion Mostly variables as if they were cultural capital Those variables explained a large portion of the relationships between social origin and education etc Parents Educ9 parents encourage9 eduasp of student 9 Educ Attain Teachers encouragement T Relationship Between Class and Education Family Size bigger families have kids who do worse in school Explanations 1 Confluence Model Zajonc family intellectual environment 2 Resource Dilution Blake Child quantity competes with child quality 3 Spurious no causal association Guo Van Wey Family Size and Configuration Confluence Model first born children achieve higher on educational exams There is intellectual stimulation being first born They mainly have adult influence in their early years bc there are no other kids around highly intellectual environment can occur with siblings who have a five year difference more likely to have an intellectual environment with a smaller family fewer kids Zanjonc first borns who have siblings with a five year difference then they both do better compared to only children Older one can tutor the young so they have intellectual stimulation Family Size and Configuration Resource Dilution children with more intellectual resources excel more children means that more resources are diluted across the family and so each child benefits less Bake spending resources are divided as well parents have a fixed amount of time energy money to invest in their children If there are more kids then they have to divide up those limited resources across those children Family Size and Configuration Relationship is Spurious Reationship actually doesn39t exist if you take into account other factors Ex social class 9 family size amp educational attainment Or education pushing families families who have more kids are less educationally motivated than families who have less kids Relationship Between Class and Education Family Structure whether kids grow up with both one or no parents Children from lower class backgrounds more likely to live in single parent household growing up with a single parent negatively impacts educational attainment Family structure 9 educational attainment Growing up with a Single Parent Sara McLanahan amp Gary Sandefur Do children who grow up with a single mother or mother and stepfather do worse than children with similar known characteristics who grow up with both biological parents 0 Document the role of incomeparenting styles 0 Children who grow up with one biological parent are worse off compared to children who grow up with one biological parent 0 They do worse off in school and occupational attainment Reasons for Lower Education Among Single Parent Families 0 1 economic position mother only families are more likely to be poorpoverty more extreme Job instability o 2 Child rearing practices amp parent chid relationships Children attend to be not as close to their fathers when they are not at home Parental authority structure tends to be weaker Socio emotiona problems depression anxiety in kids and mothers Lower educational attainments and aspirations single parent homes o 3 Spurious Summary economic factors income differences job stability child rearing practices Association between 2 variables influencing family structure and kids education also family structure influences kids education Would children with divorced parents have done better had their parents stayed together Birth2 lo Umnarri0I ll0lI1ors Ionlinuc to Rise n l Il39l39m39lNI ill39 lIII 39l ul391uIn I1ltII39 7 quotu u39lt39l1i II394I1 Imrn lm1 ill haw lllllllill39l lI l Inulln39 PERCENTAGE OF BIRTHS TO UNMARRIED MOTHERS BY RACEETHNICITY 80 70 60 50 HISPANIC 40 ALL RACES 30 VVH ITE 20 10 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2006 SIlI39 39 I9101960 139aIa I Pntllrtl and Ba 1rI I 3000 19602004 data VIl 739 ns lIlI1I39 2005 2005Il1 birlI lain U1rlin and 011015 2007 2006 pr39 iII1iI11I 139 bit 1 data I I39 U1rlin and 01mrs 2007 well educated mothers are increasingly postponing child birth and marriage When they have children they tend to be married coincides with women increasing in the work force and increase use of birth control Less educated women are postponing marriage less economic value but still having more children 9 less educated women are more likely to have unintended pregnancies and single parent households Relationship Between Class and Education Neighborhoods Figure 4 Year 2000 Income Distributions in Southern Los Angeles County California O I I O O O CO O O O O C C U C C C C O 0 C 0 O OOOOO O0 COCO to O0 OOOOO 00 IIIIII 00 OOOOO co IIIII C I 000 O0 2 39 39 39 MiddleHigh Income 39 High Income Note For graphical purposes the northern and sparsely population region of LA count39 is not shown It was and will l1OW 39E1 be included in the LA1 ANS design People of similar class tend to segregate together different resources impact child education Figure 3 Year 2000 Income Distributiolls in Cook County Illinois Low Income LowI Jliddle Income up Mixed Income lI MiddleHigh Income High Income Trends in Family Income Inequality and Family Income Segregation by Race 100 Largest Metropolitan Areas 197020052009 046 024 O Inequality 0 44 O Segregation 0 21 I X 1 a 2 C2 042 013 g D SD cg 3 9 2 f040 015 9 3 I lt6 C an I 8 E f 038 012 on D J g E U E 036 009 0 I 8 O I 034 J 006 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1970 1980 1990 2000 20101970 1980 1990 2000 20101970 19801990 2000 2010 1970 19801990 2000 2010 All Families White Black Hispanic Authors Harding Reardon rising inequality is associated with rising segregation in income Increase in inequality associated with increase in neighborhood segregation as well Freedom Writers kids face different experiences by class and area Neighborhoods Poverty and Children39s We Beinq 1 Are children who grow up in poor neighborhoods worse off than other ch dren Study poverty level crime residential turnover 2 Are disparities in children39s welfare by neighborhood poverty level due to differences in families characteristics or do neighborhood conditions themselves play a role 3 What mechanisms link neighborhoods with concentrated poverty to poorer outcomes for children Neighborhood environment institutions schools social organizationsinteractions social capital labor market marriage markets normative environment General Environmental Links 1 establishments environmenthealth what kinds of stores are in the neighborhood healthy grocery stores etc 0 pollution air quality sitting on a highway 9 poor health 2 ResourcesInstitutions quality of the schools libraries parks impacts socialization of the youth 3 Social organization Interaction there are shared expectations social control positive environment and to what degree does the neighborhood have the capacity to regulate behavior Collective efficacy Collective socialization Social isolation Social disorganization characteristics of low SES neighborhoods poverty lots of immigrants harder to establish social capitalties social capital facilitates school success 4 Normative Environment or cultural concentrated poverty norm of deviance 9 social isolation lower inner city residents are isolated from norms of middle class America 9 violence Contrast supportive low class communities ex high immigrant population that helps one another 5 Markets constraints and opportunities in neighborhoods ex inner city Detroit people have to go outside the community to seek jobs high unemployment McCLeod if adolescence don39t see very many job opportunities for their family it impacts the way they view their investment in their educa on Harding et al Y educational outcomes fNE VX NxExV X variables interact in complex way N neighborhood context e individual exposure V individual response to neighborhood context X other variables Selection of residents into neighborhoods another factor influencing kids education 0 People choose very carefully the type of neighborhoods they want to live in Potential Endogeneity spurious associations we observe this association but it s not real Ex neighborhoods parents choose where to live but this is associated with parenting styles 0 We have all sorts of explanations in data but you should always question to what degree the association is real or if there is something else linking both of these factors 0 Observational studies children living in poorer neighborhoods tend to have poorer outcomes 0 Effects of more affluent neighbors have more of an impact than having lower socioeconomic status neighbors 0 Experimental studies low income residents are given a particular voucher to move into a higher income neighborhood Results neighborhoods have some impact on outcomes Discussion Questions 41 How might recent changes in family structure impact the influence of family background on educational achievement 42 Discuss the ways that residential segregation contributes to educational inequalities Educational Disparities 51714 1140 PM Midterm Week 14 At least five readings in midterm Link transitions Citing McLeod 1989 Author Date Lecture 020414 Brand 020414 For specific citationsdirect quotes McLeaod 1989 p62 Don39t need works cited page Define Concepts used Don39t be redundant A paper reflect insightfulness and integrative of material Don39t just summarize the readings but integrate them together and build on them to show how they support the argument that you are making and why you believe it is important Outline 1 Thesis A B C II Etc Educational Disparities by Race and Ethnicity Authors Orfield Condron Telles Nisbett Race in the US If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time who still questions the power of our democracy tonight is your answer President Barack Obama 2008 after being elected president Election of Obama may start new trends Overview of Discussion Statistics on the racialethnic composition of the US Statistics on educational achievementattainment by raceethnicity Mechanisms explaining the relationship between race and education Structural disadvantage 0 Race 9 Class 9 Education 0 Class can be replaced with Income segregation immigrationlanguage Discriminationprejudice CulturalBehavioral Genetic Statistics on RacialEthnic Composition 2000 and 2010 consensus Population by Hispanic or Latino Origin and by Race for the US Hispanic population has increased Muti racia number of people have increased Percentage of Major Race Groups Reporting Multiple Races 2010 Most likely among American Indian and Alaska Native US and California 2010 Race Data Caifornia has more Hispanics US 200405 School Year 55 students white 205 Hispanic 169 black 45 Asain California School year 47 Hispanic 30 White 77 Black 11 o Asain Educational Achievement and Attainment by Race School Readiness Skills Hispanic children tend to have the lowest school readiness skills 15 of Hispanic 36 year olds could recognize all letters of the alphabet compared to 43 of asains and 36 white Chidren whose mother39s home language was English perform better A lot of differences in Hispanics are due to language lack of English Reading Scores Hispanic kids have roughly same level as black kids Asains have the highest level Comparison of Income and BlackWhite achievement Reading Gaps Reardon article Back white gaps decrease over time Math Scores k3 by Race 2006 Gaps slightly widening over time in early years of education SAT Scores by Race White highest for reading Asian highest for math HispanicBlack lowest scores for both SAT Math gt 600 whites 20 Asians 34 Blacks 3 Hispanics 7 Native Americans 9 SAT Verbal gt 600 Whites 8 Asians 10 Blacks 2 Hispanics 3 Native Americans 3 Large gap between whiteAsians and all others Student GPA by RaceEthnicity highest Asians gt Whites gt HispanicsBlacks lowest Percentages Enrolled in Different Tracks by RaceEthnicity BacksHispanics take the least college prep classes Track Placement 6 Race 69 AchievementMeasure Abiity Academic Aspirations some schools offer more college prep classes than others High School Dropouts Been a decline across the population Sti some gaps with Hispanics gt Blacks gt Whites for high school drop outs In general immigrants are more likely to drop out Percentage High Schools Drop Outs 1624 year olds 1990 and 2009 All races have dropped their level of drop outs over the years Sti Hispanics most likely to drop out Percentage with Backeor39s Degree In general all races have increased Asian highest Greater proportion of HispanicsBlacks drop out of college Why Lack of academic preparation Lack of income or having to work simultaneous Educational Attainment Age 25 Increase in HS and college degree completion in whites The gap has grown between whites and blacks over time UCLA Undergraduate students by ethnicity 39 Asian 35 White 15 Hispanic 4 Black International 4 Unknown 5 Graduate Students Whites 40 Asian 20 Hispanic Black International Unknown With each higher level of education there is a shift in participation by race Faculty 75 white 14 Asain 3 Black 6 Hispanic At higher levels of educational attainment the racia ethnic contribution shifts All Faculty have PhD s Mechanisms Structural Disadvantage Race and Class Race 9 Class 9 Educational Performance lr Educational Attainment O2O614 Mechanisms Structural Disadvantage Race and Class An American Dilemma Except for a small minority enjoying upper or middle class status the masses of American Negroes in the rural South and in the segregated slum quarters in Southern and Northern cities are destitute They own little property even their household goods are mostly inadequate and dilapidated Their incomes are not only low but irregular They live from day to day and have scant security for the future Gunnar Myrdal 1944 Freedom is Not Enouqh quotBut freedom is not enough You do not wipe away the scars of centuries by saying Now you are free to go where you want do as you desire and choose the leaders you please T You do not take a person who for years has been hobbled by chains and liberate him bring him up to the starting line of a race and then say You are fee to compete with all the othersquot and still believe that you have been completely fair We seek not just freedom but opportunity not just legal equity but human ability not just equality as a right and theory but equality as a fact To this end equal opportunity is essential but not enough Lyndon Johnson 1965 Racial Disadvantagg Job conditions income employment status job security occupational status working conditions Neighborhoods residential conditions Health and health care Family structure Pg 100 Nisbet All of the problems of lower ses people are often exasberated among backspoor prenatal care hunger deficiency fetal alcohol syndrome pollution poor neighborhoods Waqe Gap by Race and Sex For every dollar that a white man earns a black man earns 75 cents Same level for Hispanic and Black men until the 196039s and then the wage gap has increased Black women are more likely than black men to earn college degrees All women shifting upward in their wages across this period a lot of movement of women into the labor market White men still at top for wage Race and Class Declining Significance of Race William Julius Wilson Decline in overt oppression from whites to suppress blacks 0 Movement in the creation of proverty stricken ghettos and the vast underclass of blacks 0 Race fundamentally shaped the class distribution of whites and blacks New set of obstacles emerged from shifts in the economy and legal system Jobs Source of inequality subordinate class positions of blacks compared to whites While racism is still present class is a more significant in creating inequality between races Race and Wealth Wealth accumulation and intergenerational support Dalton Conley 0 Black family income was 67 of white family income black family wealth was 9 of white family wealth Nisbet pg 101 0 Race and property are intimately linked in America Wealth accumulation depends heavily on intergenerational transmission Sedimentation of racial inequality Melvin Oliver and Thomas Shapiro o Wealth is one indicator of material disparities that show institutionalized racism bc blacks were in the past unable to accumulate wealth while whites were o Blacks had this cumulative disadvantage whereas whites had a cumulative advantage Race and Wealth Disparities Southeast Los Angeles Beverly Hills Wealth is disproportionally accumulated through property ownership parents passing homes onto their children Whites own more property Mechanisms Structural Disadvantage Segregation and Resource Ineguality a Residential and BetweenSchool Segregation Black White Residential Segregation History of legally sanctioned racial discrimination resulting in residential segregation Past neighborhoods were very segregated 192039s violence by whites to control borders of black ghettos Legally sanctioned segregation Federal housing policies compounded these discriminatory actions WW2 second black migration to the north White migration to the suburbs and blacks to the cities 9 more segregation Residential segregation today Blacks are still segregated from whites at all socioeconomic levels Segregation rises when there is a difference between socioeconomic class Residential Segregation in Los Angeles Compton Black community Northridge Santa Monica white community Segregation and Concentrated Poverty httpwwwumicheduawraceseghtm Racial Seqreqation in Los Anqeles Percent Black dark green a lot Racial Seqreqation in New York Percent Black dark green a lot Same in Chicago and Detroit Freeway railroad tracks streets separate different races School Segregation Very linked to residential segregation Legal history of US segregated schools More segregation Plessy vs Ferguson 1896 schools endorced separate but equal 9 minorities were denied access to opportunities Desegregation Mendez et al vs Westminister School District 1947 segregation of Mexican and MexicanAmerican students was unconstitutional Case was a precursor to Brown vs Board of Education case Early Deseqreqation in California School Seqreqation Legal history of US segregated schools cont Brown vs Board of Education 1954 outlawed school segregation but didn39t work in practice bc people still segregated 0 Brown II 1955 allowed immigration School Deseqreqation Little Rock Arkansas 1957 students initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school School Seqreqation Legal history of US segregated schools cont Miliken V Bradley 1974 not going to have specific remedies to desegregate schools Missouri v Jenkins 1995 affirm significant re segregation Meredith v Jefferson County Schools 2007 race could no longer be used as a signaling factor for integration policies resistance to racial integration Deseqreqation Efforts in LAUSD Rudy pittman was part of the first group of black students bused to the Valley39s Birmingham High Now he teaches at Frost Middle School in Granada Hills Segregation has been on the rise in US schools Back White School Seqreqation 2000 Probability that a black student will attend schools with a white student Red most segregated Yeow least segregated Protmbilit that A black Studquot has white classnmtc S L 39s2tharI1Ljr T Ztl edI339i1s 4r39rltgt aI 39 aII LBf39339 1cre1nan 80 2 no rara av no black 3939uC 3391rS 1ur 1 2 E391iifE 1i i39fj d f39n1r39n tl 9 T Al w39 rl l1m 1 39E2 nl ff Illiilil tn p l 1 l l l l after period of modest desegregation in 1980s schools have now become more segregated American students attend school heavily segregated by race Segregated by race in schools Resources minority schools lack textbooks less Extra curricular programs and schools have poorer physical conditions overcrowded higher turnover rates 9 more disorder throughout school year understaffed maybe less qualified teachers Teacher Attributes poorer minority student bodies have lower educated teachers and lower certificationfewer years of experience 9 more disadvantaged educaUon Student Body Composition White schools dominated by middle class Black and Hispanic schools dominated by poorer children Classmates come from socioeconomic disadvantage 9 hinder student learning peers influence Orfield pg196 unequal opportunities and experiences Access to resources and connections to institutions prefer uppermiddle class better resources between school segregation has been on the rise due to demographic shifts in certain areas School characteristics and achievement concentrated poverty 9 lower academic achievements fewer family resources violence joblessness poverty health issues family issues fewer school resources lower expectations limited activites peer pressure against academic achievement peers support deviant behavior less college prep programs 9 higher drop out rates fewer attend college low academic achievement Cond n relationship between school characteristics and achievement Recent research has shown that school factors influence black white achievement gap while non school factors drive socioeconomic achievement Schoo factors are important for racial differences and achievement and less so for class differences and achievement Black white disparities grow more so during the school years Cass gaps in achievement grow mostly during the summer months Schoo quality differences make the most impact on the most disadvantaged students negative selection students who would most likely benefit from schools with resources teacher attributes student body composition are least likely to get it Segregation within schools tracking program different friendship networks within the same schools teachers tailor instruction school grouping tracking black and Hispanic place in lower level tracking than white students lower group placement inhibits learning while hirer group learning promotes learning Mechanisms Structural Disadvantage Segregation and Resource Inequality b Resource Inequality US Education System is Failing Black Students MSNBC Report 2010 51714 1140 PM Review Proposed explanations for understanding correlations between race and ethnicity and educational achievement and attainment 1 Structural Class Race 9 Class 9 Education SegregationResource Inequality Immigrationlanguage Discriminationprejudice 2 Cultural 3 Genetics Mechanisms Structural Disadvantage Seg gation and Resource Inequality a Residential and Between Schoo Segregation only 47 a African American males graduate from high school 2010 Due to lack of resources ex in Detroit Black males are less likely to have access to early education resources tutors Relationship Between School Characteristics and Educational Achievement Condron school factors play an important role in generating blackwhite achievement gap while non schoo factors primarily drive social class 0 The blackwhite achievement disparities grow mostly during the school year while class gaps widen mostly during the summer There is something that happens within schools that exasperates racial inequalities but there is some equalizing factor that occurs in the summer that influence class inequality School resources matter the most for the most disadvantaged students 9 pattern of negative selection c Within Schoo Segregation teachers tailor instruction differently depending on track systems Whiteasain students 9 higher track classes instruction within those classes differs 9 impacts student achievement achievement influences placement across tracks but actual track placement has impact on student achievement Mechanisms Structural Disadvantage Immigrant StatusLanguage Barriers La Times 020209 Mexican Immigrant student story at UCLA no financial aid money is tight commutes two hours illegal immigrant parents don39t participate language barriers in elementary school Generations of Exclusion Eddie Telles and Vilma Ortiz Documenting the extent to which Mexican Americans have been excluded from the American mainstream Look at intermarriage residential segregation ethnic identity language barriers Look across generations at life experiences Findings 0 1 Assimilation linguistically Mexican americans assimilate to mainstream America well Second generation pick up language well However they live in Hispanic neighrborhoods Assimilation has occurred but more slowly compared to the European assimilation experience 0 2 Economic Progress they have made economic strides between 1 and 2 generation but stops after 2 generation Poverty remains high from gt2 generations 345 Low SES 0 3 Educational Attainment peek around second generation But declines for the 3 and 4 generation 1 Parental Status and Resources pg274 2 CulturalSocial Disadvantages parents inability to communicate in English about academic matters with teachers 9 impact educational attainment of next generation 3 Residential and school segregation racial disparities and educational achievement linked to ethnic differences Increased immigration 9 increased segregation Under funding in schools restrict progress in educational achievement 4 Persistent Discrimination punitive immigration policies reliance on cheap MexicanAmerican labor have made immigration more difficult across the generations Discrimination against MexicanAmericans in education and policies Why does cap off at second generation American Dream ideology dies down with each generation By second generation the parents are born in America so the parental restrictions that occurred to the first generation don39t apply 9 second generation appears to have a big boost in educationaleconomic achievement Afterwards the 345generations level of in achievement Mechanisms Structural Disadvantage Discrimination Racial Discrimination Discrimination is the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individual and groups because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons 0 Racial discrimination refers to differential treatment on the basis of race that disadvantages a racial group 0 Types of Discrimination 0 Institutional resulting from the normal opporations of institutions withint society ex schools 0 Statistical judgements made about a person made on discrete racial characteristics on race ethnicity and identities there are ideas about a person based on race averages across the group 0 Total all discrimination in past and present Discimination 1 Pervasiveness How wide spread the discrimination is Sporadic European Immigrants vs universal blacks more destructive 2 Recipient Response how people respond to discrimination that they encounter either motivated or unmotivated Do you ask for a bigger aid give up or just try to compete FOR A FAIR SELECTION EVERYBODY HAS To TAKE THE SAME EXAM PLEASE CLIM 8 THAT THE E some kinds of tasks are stacked against certain competitors others are faced with certain advantages Peggy Macintosh white priviledge whites are taught not to recognize white priviledge daily advantages from being white Opposite Mechanisms Behavioral Cultural Norms one explanation for discrimination culture different groups have different cultures Cultural Norms John Ogbu s theory of oppositional culture o Rather than just view structural aspectgenetics behavioral aspect this theory says that there is some adjacency and the ways in which some groups contribute to their own demise do to oppositional view of schooling 0 SES only explains a third of the whiteblack gap in educational achievement 0 Involuntary minorities resist school goals signify their antagonism towards the majority group through resistance 2 Academic achievement associated with acting white negatively sanctioned by students black peers among black students 9 underachievement in school 2 Effort does not pay off historical experiences of disadvantages teaches this lesson Challenges to Ogbu s Theory 0 Needs fuller account of class how well structural factors controlled Made assumption that because he was looking at a single geographic area in Ohio that it can be applied across nation In reality areas differ If we adequately control for wealth then differences might be more do to class than race Cultural capital differs 0 Black educational payoff educational opportunities in reality are increasing Blacks earning a HS degree increases earnings by 500 and by 150 for earning a college degree from American Community Survey 2005 Earnings by Race and Educational Attainment 2029 year old males 0 Black pro schoo attitudes evidence supports that Black students do maintain proschool attitudes compared to white students of similar social classes Ex Hallway hangers vs the brothers How do students evaluate their potential return for their educational investment When do they think education pays off Asian Model Minority Status High parental educational levels Strong cultural beliefs of benefits of education Heterogeneity of Asian population 0 Not all Asian populations are the same with education Broad sweeping categorizations obscure this variation Lew Burden of acting neither white nor black Mechanisms Genetic When whites average 100 on IQ tests blacks average 85 Genes to not totally explain this difference Nisbet Authorthere s structural and cultural factors that influence learning Genes don39t fully explain differences across racial groups Why Evidence Studies 0 1 Stereotype Threats Blacks do better on IQ tests when they are told that Black and Whites perform the same beforehand If the test taker makes some comment in a negative way then that negatively impacts their performance 0 2 Types of IQ whites and blacks differ in prior knowledge schooling environment 0 3 European Ancestry no difference in IQ between more or less European Blacks Phenotype trumphs genotype o 4 Across Generations and Time Blacks have IQ equal to that of whites in the 195039s Level of schooling has changed rapidly over that period and genes cannot change that rapidly 9 shows environmental factors o 5 Raised in Different Contexts adoption studies one black child is raised in white vs black household Children39s IQ is based on the household they were raised in rather than due to genes Regression Equation Y Educational achievementattainment A Y a x1b1 x2b2 x3b3 x4b4 x5b5 x6b6 x7b7 x8b8 x9b9 x10b10 x11b11 x12b12 X1 parental incomepoverty status economic status X2 familycultural capital ex networks X3 parental education X4 parents expectations X5 teachers expectations X6 ability X7 kids aspirations X8 family structure ex single parent household vs double parent X9 family size number of siblings X10 neighborhoods characteristics segregation X11 school tracking segregation different resources tracking X12 race Discussion Questions 51 Reflect on Horace Mann39s statement Education then beyond all other devices of human origin is a great equalizer of conditions of men Do you agree with him How can this statement be evaluated in the face of racial and ethnic educational disparities we have discussed this week 52 Reflect on the analogy of the race by Ellis Cose as it pertains to racialethnic disparities in educational attainment 53 Why should school factors play a more important role in generating the blackwhite achievement gap while non schoo factors primarily drive social class inequah es Next time Educational Disparities c By SexGender Soc of Ed Week 6B Educational Disparities Sex amp Gender Statistics on educational achievement attainment by gender higher levels of school readiness by sex females have a higher o in every category but not by much Early Achievement by Sex almost complete equality across genders Reading Achievement by Sex females slightly higher K12 Math Achievement by Sex males slightly higher Males far more likely to repeat a grade in all races 39 behavioral differences are a factor o High School Dropouts by Gender 11 o men 7 women by race hispanics most then blacks then whites least girls get higher grades in all major subjects including mathscience this might have to do with non cognitive skills psychosocial skills how girls behave and how teachers perceive them girls outpace boys in terms of APhonors extracurriculars except sports Historical Trends for Schooling Attainment college completion rates by sex women now outpaced men starting in 1980 Across ALL races women earn more college degrees now largest difference among blacks then hispanics then native american then white then asian some evidence of advantage for women in master39s degrees 60 almost to 50 for doctoral law medicine dentistry ucla 555 women 445 men undergraduate ucla faculty 71 male 29 female has to do with age there are many older generations professing when it was mostly males getting graduate degrees Explanations for gender differences in educational attainment and achievement Allocation of family resources pre1960s sons favored over daughters particularly in lower SES families in higher SES families daughters and sons equally favored in terms of resources after 1960s this changed desirability of education changed stimulated shift in family resources toward girls particularly in lower educated families growing vulnerability of sons particularly sons of absent fathers up till 1990s schools criticized for favoring boys NOW criticized for favoring girs psychosocial aspect has something to do with this Differential Incentives 1 Intellectual and Social Development 2 Marriage Market Returns 3 Labor Market Returns changes in labor market opportunities equality another incentive changes in later chid bearing and marrying allow women greater incen ve Increasing Employment among women labor market returns famiy reated reasons increasing proportions of women who have later first birth they39re increasingly employed before first birth couples increasingly have dual income gt increasing incentive for educa on increasing job instability in US manufacturing men women have to enter paid labor force Yet a large sex gap in wages remains education does not explain the sex gap in wages the narrowing of the wage gap is due to men39s declining wages not women39s increasing wages still narrowing now about 92 cents for every male dollar women get paid far less than men at each level of education What explains the Sex Gap in wages women39s fewer years of seniority and overall employment and the intermittency of labor market attachment married women tend to participate in labor force more intermittently than men chidbearing thus they get paid less depreciation of skills lost wages due to seniority etc with each kid women39s wages go down 5 and job is less stable while men39s goes up per child and job is more stable Discrimination present when employers see different characteristics for different groups demographics suspected wage discrimination direct base wage job position on likelihood of leaving the job women seen as more likely Occupational Segregation women with same education potential are steered toward lower responsibility jobs Anomaly of Women39s Achievement Pollyanna hypothesis discrimination is eroding over time so the investment in education is getting better each generation the gaps were bigger for my grandmother idea Differential Reference Group whats your reference group is it other women at lower edu levels is it men at the same level of edu your relative status looks very different depending on whom you compare to Sex Role Socialization women have a motivation for achievement that is from childhood meet the approval of others and behave o socialized into certain gender roles women behave better from kindergarden on and that facilitates getting further educa on Sex separation and gender role socialization differences in the fields men and women enter where do gender differences begin children creates their peer cultures early on with their own norms spacial separation in primary schools between boys and girls kids learn gendered roles that last until adulthood oftentimes learn what it means to be a boy or a girl boys have active rough competitive play toughness independence while girls are more relational intimate emotional supportive more concerned with appearance Intersection between gender and race 021814 Continued Week 6 Education begins equal in achievement at young ages but then education completion rates are greater for women than men Social Construction of Gender Roles 1 Play Boys games tend to be large groups complex competitive goal directive Girls games tend to be smaller groupings more intimate focused on enjoying themselves 2 Friendship Patterns Boys tend to have groups of friends Girls tend to have more exclusive smaller binary relationships 9 more social skills ease sense of disclosure 3 Extracurricular Activities Boys endurance competitiveness sports toughness Girls more academic appearance related 4 Determinants of Popularity what makes them popular in school Boys funny cool athletic sef presentation skills some ways clothes and hairstyle toughness defiance of authority having a pretty girlfriend Academic performance becomes less important as boys get older Girls physical appearance being pretty dating popular boys status is attached to them high social class background who they are dating academic performance Both idealized models of masculinity and femininity Why men and women enter different occupations Girs more social jobs perceive work family conflict during child bearing years and look for flexible jobs that accommodates for the family Boys jobs involving physical contact higher value in money power and prestige Work family conflict isn39t as evident Women are moving into fields that were previously dominated by men Gender Differences in Educational Specialization Legewie and DiPrete Despire the striking reversal of the gender gap in educational attainment and the near gender parity in math performance women still pursue science technology engineering and mathematics STEM degrees at much lower rates than their male peers do Fig 1 Gender Gap in Bachelor Degrees Figure 1 Gender Gap in Bachelor Degrees Awarded by Field of Study 19692007 215 E 3 E to E U 5 E 9 E 2 E 2390 9 Ti 05 8 8 33 0 395 g AIFieds g inclnonscience FemaleAdvantage 0 E quotF MaleAd ta van ge Mathematics and Statistics P u I 1 39 39 390 quot quotquot quot o 39 39 quot Physical Scieneesand SciTech a J 439 fr 39 quot39 39 39 39 39 quot 39 39 39 Engheering and Engin Tech o 39 oquot 39 quot quot l l l 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year S0u7 ce Digest of Educational Statistics 2009 Table 268 299 303 305 312 and 313 Gender Gap in STEM 1 Timing in gap emergence 9 High School years 8 grade gender gap towards science and engineering with boys taking higher level classes in those fields Boys are twice as likely to work in those fields in middle school 9 Predicts the gap in high school Boys are more likely to continue to take those classes in high school 2 Variation Across Schools Schools that have STEM orientation 9 lower gender gap Equalizes disparities Increase in the STEM curriculum in any schools 9 diminishes gender gap Intersection between Gender and Race Degree gap is greater for black and Hispanic men than women Anne Fergesun Bad Boys black males from low income poverty community how they are labeled as future criminals and unsalvageable by teachers 9 shows how particular groups of boys can be disadvantaged by virtue of being a particular race Discussion Questions What has led women to surpass men in college completion How might the increase in women39s educational attainment affect women39s position in the labor market Compare educational disparities by sex to disparities by race and by class How do disparities by gender and race intersect 51714 1140 PM Soc of Ed Week 7A Explanations for Gender Differences in Education Sex Separation and Gender Role Socialization Social Construction of Gender Roles 1 Types of Play boys large groups competitive complex goa oriented girls small groups intimate more independent activities enjoyment rather than competition 2 Friendship Patterns boys groups of friends girls more exclusive binary relationships greater social skills emotional intimacy 3 Extracurricular Activities boys endurance competitiveness sports toughness girls more academic more involving appearance 4 Determinants of Popularity boys athletics funny cool toughness defiance of authority academic performance was positive in elementary more negative in high school girls being pretty esteem tied to appearance status is attached to them not achieved academic performance almost always positive for girls Girls tend to be more interested in jobs that are social intrinsic rewards girls perceive there will be a workfamily conflict during their lifetime look for flexible jobs boys tend to be more interested in physical jobs abstract concepts extrinsic rewards work famiy conflict almost nonexistent Gender Differences in Educational Specialization Legewie and DiPrete STEM fields still mainly men huge advantage Gender Gap in STEM Fields 1 Timing in emergence of the gap 8th grade there39s already a gender gap more than 2X as likely to take higher level classes in STEM mostly the high school years 2 Variation across schools much lower gender gap in schools that have a sciencetech orientation Intersection Between Gender amp Race gender gap varies by race last lecture Thursday Stratification between and within schools Readings Kozol Jonathon Savage Inequalities Lauen Douglass Lee and S Michael Gaddis Exposure to classroom poverty and test score achievement Contextual Effects or Selection Ability is not just the product of birth Ability is stretched or stunted by the family that you live with and the neighborhood you live in by the school you go to and the poverty or the richness of your surroundings It is the product of a hundred unseen forces playing upon the little infant the child and finally the man Lyndon B Johnson Schedule Revenues and expenditures for elementary and secondary education in the US Stratification between schools Example of Los Angeles schools near UCLA Savage Inequalities Causal effects of school context Revenues and Expenditures Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education 2005 Total 4885 billion State SOU FCGS 470 Local sources 439 Federal sources 91 Taxes and appropriations 382 Current charges 26 Other local sources 32 Other current spending 53 Pupil support services 52 Instructional staff support 39 47 General administration 19 School administration 55 Support Services 343 Instruction 605 Operation and maintenance 94 Pupil transportation 42 Other and nonspeci ed suppor services 34 NY NJ DC VT CT MA DE AK PA RI VY ME MD XVI NH MI OH VV HI 11 VA IN United States MN NE ND OR CA MT GA IA C 0 M0 KS L391 NM XV1 SC AR TX FL SD 39C39 KY AI TN N39 OK MS ID AZ UT In 2005 m m m m m mmm mmm mmm mmm mmm mmm m mmm mmm mm mm 7 iii 7 mm 7 56 7555 7504 mm mm 39 mm mm mm mm 94 93 926 9005 8997 8944 8891 8798 8701 8662 8282 8159 8115 8067 8058 8028 7972 7730 7717 7706 605 580 7150 10910 10830 10552 10371 10255 10106 9815 9744 48 11835 11572 11267 14119 13800 12979 2000 4000 6000 8000 the US spent about 8800 per student Highest New York 14000 per student Lowest New Jersey 5000 per student Greater expenses on students due to different community funds School inequalities the wealthier districts on average spend three times as much per pupil in public systems compared to the disadvantaged districts 10000 12000 14000 16000 schools have different characteristics whether they have more or less public funds High economic status and neighborhoods positive affect individual outcome and poverty negatively affects student39s outcomes School Attended 9Famiy Background 9 Student Achievement Schools resources Student body composition peer networks Example Stratification between Schools in Los Angeles near UCLA All public schools Within District Differences Los Angeles Garfield High School I 00 80 60 40 20 0 Per pupil LAUSD district spending 8908 201011 Emergency credential teachers 17 Freered lunch 90 ESL 36 Academic performance index rank 310 Median neighborhood home price East Los Angeles 435000 in 2007 220000 in 2012 Spending is based on Different budgeting practices schools allocate funds and distribute them differently Factors Influencing Within District Differences 1 School Size ex principles teachers costs are fixed and based off of enrolled students 2 Physical Plant different schools have different requirements to maintain the physical structure of the buildings and landscaping 3 Uneven Salaries How much do they pay school administration and teachers More wealthy neighborhoods spend more on teachers with more experience and less experienced teachers tend to exist in lower class neighborhoods and get paid less 4 Investments Computer labs books tends to exist in wealthier neighborhoods 5 Special Needs Students additional resources are provided to students that need them 6 Magnet Special education programs Schools get more money if they have these types of programs 7 Discretionary Funds locally allocated Schools can submit a proposal that they want to improve some facet of the school Wealthier schools utilize this bc they are more organized etc Los Angeles Dorsey High School I O0 80 60 40 20 Per pupil LAUSD district spending 8908 201011 Emergency credential teachers 40 Freered lunch 67 ESL 20 Academic performance index rank 310 Median neighborhood home price Mid Los Angeles 560000 in 2007 285000 in 2012 Los Angeles University High School I O0 80 60 40 20 O Per pupil LAUSD district spending 8908 201011 Emergency credential teachers 23 lack enough teachers that are credentialed so they assign emergency credentials to people in the process of becoming a teacher Freered unch65 ESL 21 Academic performance index rank 410 Median neighborhood home price WestwoodBel Air 2200000 in 2007 1500000 in 2012 As the home prices in the neighborhood increased the less chance that there are kids attending local schools 80 go else where Los Angeles Palisades Charter High School I00 80 60 40 20 O Per pupil LAUSD district spending 8908 201011 Emergency credential teachers 4 Freered lunch 21 ESL 6 Academic performance index rank 810 Median neighborhood home price Pacific Palisades 2900000 in 2007 2000000 in 2012 within the palisades roughly 50 attend public school and the other 50 attend private schools Between District Differences there is more money donated by families that is not accounted for Santa Monica High School I00 80 60 40 20 O Per pupil SMMUSD district spending 10149 Emergency credential teachers 1 Freered lunch 22 ESL 7 Academic performance index rank 710 Median neighborhood home price Santa Monica 1900000 in 2007 1600000 in 2012 Beverly Hills High School I00 so so 40 2o O v lt lt2 c ltzgtquot bL Per pupil BHUSD district spending 10 11000 Emergency credential teachers 0 Freered lunch 3 ESL 6 Academic performance index rank 910 Median neighborhood home price Beverly Hills 5250000in 2007 3600000 in 2012 PublicPrivate Differences Crossroads School Santa Monica Per pupil Tuition 28710 in 200708 Emergency credential teachers 0 Teacherstudent ratio 81 Operating budget 37 million Immediate college attendance 98100 Harvard Westlake Bel Air Holmby Hills Per pupil Tuition 30350 in 201112 Emergency credential teachers 0 Teacherstudent ratio 81 Operating budget 54 million Average SAT Verbal 694 Math 701 Writing 713 Why private school Networking Differentiating children and affirming high status 022014 Savage Inequalities The shock of going from one of the poorest schools to one of the wealthiest cannot be overstated He visited schools around the countries and saw disparities between rich and poor Observations take place in schools with the lowest per capita spending 3000 in New Jersey to highest per capita spending 15000 in Long Island Low student spending Property taxes shape inequality across districts Dependent on the tax value of ones home and are deductible Home owners get a substantial portion of the money that they spend on taxes 9 increases their wealth and thus increases the gap between the riches and poorest So the rich have more money to invest in schools Federal subsidy for an unequal education Equal dollars per student may not result in equal educational opportunities To what extent do students receive equal resources 9 Negative selection the students that are most likely to receive resources are the ones who need those resources the least Pg 38 Top spending districts get the most resources for their students Districts that face the toughest challenges are the ones that receive the fewest resources Reproduction of inequalities Pattern of negative selection East St Louis dangerous residents have high proportion of poverty 75 on welfare 98 black community a lot of crime deviance teen age pregnancy physical and mental health conditions few jobs a lot of pollution hazardous living conditions children are growing up in burnt up housingp37 lacking city resources lacking medical care Schools are over crowded unsanitary lacking resources Pg24 teachers are running out of chalk and paper and their pay checks are arriving two weeks late Pg 37 Pg 27 Gifted children are everywherebut it39s lost in the poverty Quantitative Evidence as to BetweenSchool Inequalities Evidence isn39t clear whether higher spending 9 high academic achievement Kondron instructional spending teachers resources etc leads to the highest impact on educational achievement ocial Class tudent Achievement 15 School Attended Race Student Achievement Q School Attended Schoo ResourcesStudent Composition Inequaities between schools have an impact on racial disparities in student achievement gt Social Class Student Achievement School Attended gt School resourcesStudent compositon Lauen and Gaddis Carefuy accounts for the bias omitted for students family backgrounds influencing educational achievement High poverty classrooms decrease student achievement on math scores pg 946 they think that the estimates found in other studies on classroom poverty and in between student disparities by school are not factoring other background variables 0 w 1 C 1 co VT 9 I F 41 Li 3 T5 0 quot quot quoti WJ 26 W 739 O N 1 O O O 4 O 3 4 5 6 7 8 Grade 1 g9 High Poverty Classroom Low Poverty Classroom FIG 2 Math score by classroom poverty and grade Each box contains the 25th 75th percentile with the white line in each box at the median Whiskers indicate the 5th J n39 L nL1 Discussion Questions 71 To what extent do you think differences in spending across school districts account for between district variation in test scores in the state of California What other factors influence differences in achievement 5quot 72 Kozol writes Affluent people it has often been observed seldom lack for arguments to deny to others the advantages that they enjoyquot p 135 Do you agree or disagree and if so why or why not 51714 1140 PM III Stratification between and within schools A Between Schools B Within Schools Segregation Within Schools Reardon amount of spending from higher income distribution 9 better educa on Segregation tracking within schools as more and more students were attending schools the administrators were deciding how to sort them to prepare them for jobs How do we best educate students to best prepare them for occupational roles Students are segregated within the classroom and outside the classroom by class race appearance popularity factors etc Students make friends with other students in their classes and so the segregated distribution of class 9 segregation outside of classes When there39s a larger population there39s more opportunity to segregate Readings Hallinan Maureen quotTrackingquot Oakes Jeannie quotThe Distribution of Knowledgequot Gamoran Adam 3915 Ability Grouping Equitable Lucas Samuel and Mark Berends Race and Track Location in US Public Schools B Stratification within Schools Definition and theory of tracking Statistics on tracking in US schools Tracking in practice Definition and Theory of Tracking Practice of assigning students to instructional groups on the basis of ability In primary schools ability grouping within classrooms 9 early tracking as students enter secondary schools middlehigh school Secondary schools academic track advancedhonors occupationalvocational track college prep track less advanced than honors regularbasic track To what degree these exist depends on the school Theory of Tracking Tailor instruction to ability level Promoting cognitive development 9 in theory this benefits all students theory separate but equal For most proponents of tracking appears efficient If they have a narrower range of student performance it makes it easier to narrow the curriculum Why is this problematic 2 Tasks of Schools Competing 1 Accommodate different abilities want to offer differentiated education so that different levels of abilities learning styles etc can be accommodated 2 Provide equal educational opportunity for all students critics argue that differentiation benefits mostly students assigned to high level courses and reproduces socioeconomic and racial inequalities that exist in larger societies Students at lower levels tend to benefit from mixed ability grouping and do better when there39s more differentiation However higher level students do worse Evidence suggests that track placement is separate and unequal It provides different experiences and leads to different outcomes Statistics on Tracking tracking is widespread 85 o 86 o of schools offer tracking courses Most schools report that students have open access to these courses provided that they have taken the prerequisite courses Especially for math and science the track starts early in order to progress to the upper level courses So students who start late get behind Once you begin these tracks in some ways your stuck Once you start early on it begins to impact your courses later on and it is very hard to change the pattern 9 impacts college aspirations and achievements Factors influencing Tracking Placement in US schools 70 60 50 40 30 20 IO O teachers recommendations have the most influence when students make the transition to middlehigh school in 40 of schools over three quarters of 10 graders who took high ability math also took high ability English Relatively high correlation only 14 of schools indicate that students move to a high ability level math or English class Percentage of 10quot Graders Taking Specific Math Courses Minority schools had more students in low track math classes than compared to all schools Minority schools had less students enrolled in higher and average track math classes than compared to all schools students in minority schools are more likely to be in low track classes and less likely to be in high track classes Partly due to accessibility because minority schools do offer fewer high track classes Percentage of 10quot Graders Taking Specific English Courses Minority schools have roughly the same number of students enrolled in lower track English classes as the number of students from all schools Minority schools have more students on average tracks Minority schools have less students in high track English classes Track Placement by Individual Race and School Racial Composition Fig 1 College prep Probability by School Diversity and Student Race Now we consider how school racial composition affects whites and blacks differently as diversity increases the proportion of white students taking college prep classes increases and the proportion of black students taking college prep decreases Whites in racially diverse schools crowd out blacks out of college prep curriculum More diverse schools blacks are more likely to be in lower tracks than whites Lucas and Berends give a few possible explanations for this 1 Cultural i ogbue argument burden of acting white is more salient in diverse schools blacks are less likely to take higher classes bc acting white looks bad don39t think this is true 2 Between school inequality in curriculum i The level of instruction in racially segregated black schools even in the higher tracks is low There is differentiation occurring in lower school but the higher track classes structure and material is similar to what is occurring in more lower track classes in more diverse schools 3 Discrimination 0 Tracking becomes a segregated devise in diverse schools More white students take upper level classes to sef segregate from non white students Non back parents may push faculty to segregate according to race Tracking Problem of Implementation All are critics of tracking Hallinan on Tracking her view in the far right tab under each number Proponents 1 Tracks determined by ability which makes them homogenous little variation o Assignment is based on both academic and nonacademic ability class race other expectations of students Effects are heterogeneous o Lower socioeconomic and minority students are in lower ability tracks o Schools vary in the factors influencing track placement there is no universal ability that predicts track placement 2 Tracking is an effective teaching mechanism 0 Tracking facilitates high ability student learning Tracking provides no advantage for the achievement of middle ability students tracking limits low ability learning 3 Low ability students are difficult to teach because they are not motivated to learn so we need to separate students from the high ability students who are motivate to learn so that it won39t dampen their success o The quality and quantity of instruction decreases for lower ability tracks Different things going on in lower ability tracks that limit instruction and the tracking itself limits ability and motivation Not Low ability 9 motivation 9 track Actually reciprocal causation story where track actually impacts low ability and motivation also Critics 1 Track assignments are permanent 9 unequal very little ability to move up Tracking goes against the idea that people at any point of their life can pull themselves up and achieve a higher level 0 Generally permanent but some permeability 14 students often move around in tracks 48 movement sometimes occurs 2 Tracking limits the college options of low track students 0 Yes lower track students are less well prepared incentivized for college 3 Tracking has a negative effect on the sef esteem of low track students 0 Yes tracking conveys to low track students a lower sense of achievement sef worth social status and conveys a message to them about their ability level that it39s low and continually gets reinforced over the years 4 Tracking segregates students by class and race 0 yes tracking tends to be highly correlated with race and class and thus segregation occurs within schools pg219 tracking currently happensprovides fewer opportunities for lower ability students than higher abiityTracking discriminatesand disadvantages lower ability students Hallinan on Modifying the Negative Consequences of Tracking doesn39t have a problem about the theory of tracking but has a problem with how it is implemented calls for reform Segregation o Hallinan thinks that this will occur to some extent even if the criteria is changed But she thinks there should be more purposeful integration outside of the classroom in their activities etc Social Hierarchy o Idea that lower status can create negative consequences by decreasing motivation and effort for low track students So we should broaden basis for social support by publicly acknowledging the achievement of students within their track so that their motivation and effort increases or maintains a higher level Track Heterogeneity 0 There should be some flexible tracking process that preserves the homogeneity across groups Slower Achievement of students in low tracks 0 School administrators should find better ways to deal with disciplinary problems so that not so much classroom time is spent dealing with those problems and so teachers can teach more Teachers should alter their assumptions about ability by race class etc and should teach more interesting curriculum Negative socia psychoogica consequences 0 Schools should make efforts to communicate positive message about meaning for each track within schools Flexible track placement Avoid segregation in non track classes and other social activities and eliminate racism Soc of Ed Week 8B Tracking Problem of Implementation Jeannie Oakes hypothesis tracking structures different opportunities for students 39 differential distribution of instruction across tracks high track students their success is facilitated opposite for lower tracks 39 differential distribution of teachers expectations actions 39 tracking reflects cass race inequalities of society she looks at dif classrooms and what they were like for students High Track classes critical thinking drawing conclusions synthesizing analyzing etc differences in classrooms have important implications for students involved vocational focus in lower tracks college postsecondary focus in higher tracks Inequitable Tracking Adam Gamoran hypothesis 39 ability grouping is one of the most common responses to groups with different abilities asks what are the criteria for grouping 39 argues there is an inequality of effective instruction ability grouping furthers the inequality Criteria for Grouping 39 1 Not truepure abiity students are divided on measured ability amp on perceived performance 39 2 Separation occurs along the lines of class and race partly because of the recommendations and perceptions of students Inequality of effective instruction differentiated by track 39 Teachers are tracked higher paid regarded teachers are in higher tracks Cycle of low expectations 39 Emphasis in instruction what are the teachers focusing on in each track Inequality widens over time discussion time envisionment critical thinking revision of content and homework vary by track increasing with higher tracks asks in mixed tracks it lowers from higher tracks levels 1 How does tracking affect the overall level of achievement in school ie productivity eg mean test score 2 How does tracking affect the distribution of achievement in school ie inequality high track students do better with tracking low track students do worse within a track environment there39s greater inequality productivity looks the same whether it s mixed or tracked but inequality is greater with tracks Ex Test Range 60140 School A no track mean 100 Standard Deviation is smaller more homogeneity School B tracking mean 100 SD is larger more heterogeneity depends on how you look at the data can support or refute tracking as effective Suggestions for Reform Tracking Gamoran on Reform 1 Reduce use of tracking should use mixed ability grouping whenever you can and teach teachers how to instruct mixed ability students 2 Where used improve it have student flexibility in tracking assignments offer tutorials also teacher flexibility in tracking the most experienced shouldn39t always be in higher tracks implement higher standards for lower tracks 3 Provide professional development for teachers to help them meet the needs of all students 51714 1140 PM Final Essay Use information from across the entire quarter IV Effects of Education on Socioeconomic Outcomes IV Effects of Education on Life Outcomes Readings Hout Michael 2012 Social and Economic Returns to College Education in the United States Kingston Paul et al 2003 quotWhy Education Matters Brand Jennie E and Yu Xie 2010 quotWho Benefits Most from College Evidence for Negative Selection in Heterogeneous Economic Returns to Higher Education Today lecture focus highlighted X 9 Economic returns to educational attainment Statistics Causal effects economic motives and social processes 0 Better paying jobs Non economic returns to educational attainment Marriage Fertility Family structure Health and well being Attitudes Civic engagement Education is Associated with a Broad Array of Life Outcomes Educational attainment linked to 9 Socioeconomic Attainment amount of occupations that people hold amount time they spend in poverty 9 Family 9 Health 9 Attitudes 9 Civic Engagement Statistics on Educational Attainment Current Population Survey 2007 Age 25 and Over over 80 of US population have HS degree roughly 50 are going to some post secondary schooling over a quarter nearing on thirty percent complete a college degree about 110 complete an advanced degree Statistics on Economic Returns to Educational Attainment Age 18 and over No HS degree earnings are 20000 with HS degree 30000 College degree 50000 acts as motivation to finish up degree and graduate Prof degree highest pay and doctorate degree a little lower Earnings by Educational Attainment by Sex 2006 Larger returns at each level for men and smaller returns for women at eachlevelofeduca on Earnings by Educational Attainment by Race 2006 Men age 18 and over white men receive the highest levels of return at each level of education Asain lower at each levels and blacks have the lowest returns Whitegt Asiangt Hispanic gt Blacks Women much more equality across racial and ethnic groups than that for men Each level of educational attainment signifies greater levels of economic returns There is an interaction between race and sex influencing occupational earnings Vertical stratification how much school you have by credentials and horizontal stratification especially for advanced degrees differences in a level what type of college did they attend and are there differences in occupational returns within a level of educational attainment Greater selectivity of colleges is associated with income returns More selective colleges 9 higher pay Breaking points HS degree Masters degree Prof degree From King or Hower reading 12 100 39 3 9 9 E 2 g I 8 75 0 un E 6 3 3 2 gs n E 3 g 50 2 3 3 cannu 0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I lt11 1112 HS SC AA BA MA PhD Prof lt11 1112 HS SC AA BA MA PhD Prof 1 200 100 w 3 g n 3 100 E 50 g 0 339 3 g 3 2 22 I 25 3 55 3 3 2 125 I I I I I I I 1 I 525 I I I I I I I I I lt11 1112 HS SC AA BA MA PhD Prof lt11 1112 HS SC AA BA MA PhD Prof Years of education Years of education Xn Men Women Figure 1 Occupational earnings score personal earnings family income and unemployment by years of education and gender United States 20072009 Incomes were adjusted for in ation using the consumer price index for urban households CPI U and are expressed in 2009 dollars on a ratio scale ie doublings from 12500 to 25000 to 50000 to 100000 appear as equal intervals Key to education labels lt11 010 years completed 1112 11 or 12 years completed but no diploma HS high school diploma SC some college AA twoyear degree BA four year degree IVIA master s degree PhD doctoral degree Prof professional degree eg JD MD DDS Source author s calculations from the US Census Bureau s iMzm l1 C39m39rem Poplllarion Sltwqy persons 3054 years old see King et al 2010 occupational earning scores is an indicator of occupational status status increases with each level of schooling people with more of less education tend to marry people with similar education 9 inequality Statistics on Economic Returns to Educational Attainment Trends Source Bureau of Labor Statistics Charting the US Labor Market in 2006 Median weekly earnings of fulltime workers workers 25 years old amp older 2006 dollars Real median weekly earnings for college graduates have tended up over time 11l l College graduate S1 lfxjofu i H Some coIege or essoctele degree I 39 SfI13 0 6 39 Lam than high school ail e 6 211 w w v w v v 7 v v V late 7039s8039s difference between college educated and less educated is less bc there has been a growth in pay for college educated workers Those without a high school degree have been increasingly marginalized Overall only college graduates have experienced growth in median earnings High school drop outs have seen a decline by 20 100000 90000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 llian Falnily lnom 2004 tlnllars 9 6D 6 6 40 4 4 49 49 00 0 0 0 x9 x9 x9 x9 x9 x9 x9 x9 x9 You 90 Median Falnily Income of 39lulis Ages 3039 with Various Levels of Educational Aellievelnenl 19642005 quotL zgt 99 Q0 06 99 00 0 0 Note All men and women ages 3039 iI1ClldiI1gII10S will no personal income are included in these estimates Source Broorings labulalions qfdala from the lmma Social and Econonzic Supplement to the CPS 19652006 more education have more likely to have 2 earners that have more education and greater economic returns Reardon increasing income inequality someways related to increasing educational inequality Differences in learning by educational level Statistics on Economic Returns to Educational Attainment California Table 1 Californians with a college education are significantly better off Lifetime outcomes 2010 Less than High College BA High School School No BA or more Yea rs Unemployed 07 years 4 yea rs 04 years 15 years Years Employed 7 years 25 years 3 years 68 years Earnings 2564 380000 856000 340000 1340000 Income 2564 400000 1073000 377000 1511000 Yea rs in Poverty 48 years 59 years 17 years 39 years Years on Cash Aid 37 years 28 years 09 years 21 years Incarcerated 15 years 09 years 05 years 08 years Income 40 less from individuals with less than a high school degree compared to those with a high school degree BA or more big income boost over the life course and fewer years in poverty Table 2 The advantage of a college education has grown in the past 5 years Growth in Advantage Relative to High School Graduation Between 20052010 College No BA or more Years Unemployed 2 months 9 months Years Employed 9 months 16 years Earnings 2564 32000 112000 Income 2564 21000 60000 Years in Poverty 3 months 10 months Years on Cash Aid 1 month 4 months Advantage to more education has increased from 20052010 Table 3 College Education The Million Dollar Pay Off Income Relative to NH White with a High School Diploma 2010 Less than High College BA High School School No BA or more Native Born Non Hispanic White 416000 0 431000 1921000 Non Hispanic Black 749000 322000 73000 1169000 Asia n Paci c Islander 491000 230000 259000 1525000 Hispanic Latino 508000 186000 176000 1178000 Foreign Born Non Hispanic White 594000 195000 458000 1754000 Asia nPaci c Islander 626000 437000 194000 731000 Hispanic Latino 572000 257000 31000 602000 Income relative to non hispanic whites earnings gap between Asians and non hispanic blacks compared to non hispanic whites Summary of Statistics Most statistics in tables Bivariate associations looking at education and relation to career factors without looking at other variables can39t say causal effect Social scientists have long recognized that these observed correlations don39t represent causal associations unless they take into effect other observed factors such as family background parents incomeeducation family structure race other demographic factors immigrant status residence neighborhoods tracking schools observed ability and non observed variables personality 9 influence ability that individuals attend higher levels of education and also influences career outcomes and ability to earn higher income Conventional wisdom most of these associations are upwardly biased These associations in the tables look higher than they actually are because of these other variables not being taken into account The estimates are larger than the true effects are If we fully accounted for all the factors that influence selection into higher education ex motivation work ethic self control discipine then the association would be lower Economic Returns to Educational Attainment Causal Effects Economic Motives and Social Processes Simplified Path Diagram Education and Socioeconomic Attainment Measured Factors 2 social class indicators race schools 9 education 9 Socioeconomic Attainment T Unobserved factors eg motivation work ethic Selection Bias people are selected into going into these levels of higher education and it39s influencing the outcomes Heterogeneous Effects of Education Jennie Brand and Yu Xie Two forms of selection bias 0 Pretreatment heterogeneity Pre existing differences between individuals who do and do not complete college that influence whether they go to college and their future socioeconomic outcomes attainment Differences can be family background ability achievement in school types of schools etc They bias the association between later achievement and education because of the perceived association 0 Treatment effect heterogeneity Differences between individuals who do and do not complete college in the benefit that they would receive from college About heterogeneity in the effects based on those characteristics Who benefits the most 0 Positive Selection Individuals who are most likely to attend college benefit most from college those come from more advantaged backgrounds have higher ability higher achievement people who benefit the most Based on a rational choice model individuals make decisions about whether or not to go and get further schooling based on some kind of cost benefit analysis People would pursue a higher education only if they are more likely to receive more lifetime earnings Individuals can self select into higher education on this basis 0 Negative Selection Individuals who are least likely to attend college benefit most from college Based more on sociological theory 0 Two Reasons for Negative Selection 1 Differential selection mechanisms differential decision making processes to attend college This rational choice framework differs by socioeconomic background A lot of research indicates that the decision to attend college is influenced by a lot of other factors other than the potential costs and benefits or the costs and benefits differ There is a lot of non economic factors that influence college attainment social norms circumstances etc family background parents level of education that influence college attainment 2 Y a b1x1 b2x2 b3X3 b4x4 b9X9 y years of schooling x1 family backgrounds X2 cultural capitaX9 child ability 2 Differential earnings prospects refer to hypothetical model diagram there are different effects on different segments on the population and those different segments correspond whether they are likely or unlikely to go to college Regression Predicting College Completion Table A1 Logit Models Predicting College Completion for the Generation of Estimated Propensity Scores NLSY WLS Variables Men Women Men Women Black 651 208 268 256 Hispanic 792 1100 P 326 Parents income 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 Parents incomez 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 Mother s education 363 407 334 200 162 137 092 109 Mother s education2 020 021 017 018 Downloaded from asrsagepubcom by guest on August 28 2011 continued statistical significane NLSY national longitudinal survey of youth Table A1 continued NLSY WLS Variables Men Women Men Women 007 006 004 005 Father39s education 124 072 088 055 037 036 017 017 Intact family 281 507 073 025 236 230 169 185 Number of siblings 089 123 018 067 051 050 021 025 Rural residence 066 098 099 667 251 225 143 150 Availability of college 419 065 092 092 239 228 099 106 Iewish 1999 1280 1387 1032 609 409 Class rank 028 027 002 003 Mental ability 1984 1514 023 018 298 239 004 005 Mental abilityz 386 305 218 176 College track 603 514 618 693 196 199 132 003 Teachers enc 438 565 L107 L117 Parents enc 996 1323 L130 L146 Friends plans 992 645 946 723 209 204 101 116 high social background individuals are more likely to go to college even though they don39t take a costbenefit analysis They don39t question if they will go or not its expected College is a cultural expected outcome and thus less exclusively Contrast individuals from non educated backgrounds may use a cost benefit analysis and make the more rational decision College education is more of a novelty and may need a stronger motivation to achieve these kinds of rewards if they go Hypothetical Model Origins Education and Destinations refer to diagram Probability of going to college based on social origins those people who get less education there is a strong relationship between social origins and occupational destination For those who go to college the differences across social origins disappear in terms of occupational destination College education equalizes family backgrounds Once you go there is less differentiation in occupational destinations Those who are more disadvantaged get a greater benefit from going to college than compared to the more advantaged Because the people that come from more disadvantaged backgrounds and don39t get a college education 9 marginalized and is increasingly problematic in the labor market negative selection Figure 1 HLM of Economic Returns to College NLSY Men Women negative slope evidence for negative selection If your in a higher stratum more likely to go to college Refer to diagrams Results are not that strong but not indicating positive selection The effect is greater relative to have they not gone Career Returns to Education Education is a strong predictor of most career outcomes Earnings wages wealth Occupational status howt reading Physical job characteristics 0 Manual labor vs non manual labor Psychosocial job characteristics 0 Amount of autonomy authority intellectual demands related to getting more schooling Job security displacement 0 Education is related to the likelihood that they will loose their jobs and to what degree will they recover 030614 Thursday Lecture Effects of College on Career and Family 17 Again clip Assortative Mating people of similar levels of education marry each other 0 this phenom has increased over time as women attain more levels of education Factors affecting assortative marriagg educational attainment o a trait of desirability of partners learn it quickly marriage and schooling occur roughly at the same time which affects the pool of candidates age at marriage 0 effect of time gap after schooling is more consequential for marrying different levels of education bc if you wait till after college to meet someone the educational distribution is wider not as likely that they have college degree too 0 people wait to marry with the thought that they want to see how well their spouse does in the labor market 0 might increase assortative mating by earnings rather than educa on decline in marriage and marriage selectivity overall societal decHne o decline in marriage increases marriage selectivity marital unions look more similar in traits educational attainment one of the traits women39s labor force participation 0 increases in LFP have altered expectations for marriage what makes a potential spouse has altered has become more symmetrical now both look for partners with good job prospects bc women attain more education income inequality and social distance 0 inequality has increased substantially in US may have reduced likelihood of educational marriage 0 increased social distance across groups educational homogamy increases as a resutthere s less intermixing of people from different SES 0 increasing educational homogamy increases income inequaity it s a cycle Education and Fertility fertility is highest for high school dropouts in the teens and twenties among educated the fertility pattern has shifted to later ages peak in early 30s for women with college degree and up overall there are higher levels of children among those with college degree since 1995 0 still less kids as you earn higher education though Explanations of Educational Differences in Fertility 1 Cultural Norms dif norms of success varied by background childbearing increasingly becomes a vehicle where disadvantaged women feel they39ve achieved success 2 Opportunity Costs Economic Incentives when making familycareer decisions women have lots of demands on their time women with higher wagesjobs have more of a cost when considering having kids 3 Labor Market Conditions for men and women decoupling between marriage and fertility among ess edu women strong association between marriage fertility among higher educated women Why in the past women with less education tend to choose men with less education as partners women with less edu see ess edu men as not so economically sound today women worry they39ll have to support the less edu men don39t want that responsibility marriageabe men are scarce marriage has become a luxury good among disadvantaged women and men we see a pattern of greater effects among those less likely to go to college Education and Family Structure o of children living with 2 parents has gone WAY down since 1940 college degree adults more likely to stay together than those without high school diploma Education and Health education strongly predicts a person39s heath longevity up to 7 years more in life expectancy for each educational level Happiness and Health happiness and health tend to correlate together based on education only 40 of post bac degreed people are happy access to health care is a contributing factor empoyer sponsored health insurance decreases for the lesser educated employees 40 o for no HS diploma to 88 for post BA is there causality or is it a selection effect there are a lot of potential unobserved factors one of them is Health saying it impacts the amount of education people get which affect people39s heath cyce Education and Attitudes education brings about enlightenment we should have an educated citizenry lots of criticism on this connection to attitudes educated people are more in tune to social desirabilities and will respond on surveys how they think enlightenment looks ikebut not in practice 0 more likely to support general principles of equality but not more likely to endorse equal pursuits 51714 1140 PM 031114 Recap Family 9 Education 9 Family MarriageFertility Childhood health 9 Education 9 later health Education and Civic Engagement Civic engagement unpaid work or involvement with organizations ex meals on wheels political participation campaigning America39s commitment to civic engagement is valued Civic participation is linked to personal rewards occupational well functioning neighborhoods more vibrant democracy individual happiness Education role prepares Americans to be civically active Civic returns continue to offer justification for civic duties Schools encourage students to volunteer Education influences a higher level of long term civic engagement Relationship Between Education and Civic Engagement 1 Civic norms and responsibilities Individuals learn norms greater recognition of collective interests 2 Skills and resources educated individuals are more able to engage in civic activities 3 Strategic mobilization the actual civic groups encourage or discourage targeted individuals based on certain demographic characteristics Higher educated people are more likely to be asked to participate Individuals tend to participate more when they are asked 4 Income and occupational status Education is linked to higher income and occupational status Higher income and job status is linked to high civic engagement 5 Selection bias it could be that there is some unobserved factors that influence both selection into higher education and civic engagement 9 some spurious association Ex more educated parents are more likely to volunteer and so children are also more likely to get more education and from watching their parents they are more likely to be involved in civic engagement as well Could be result of family circumstances motivation ability etc Ex Education parents 9 civic parents 9 civic participation Education children S there is variation in effects Similar pattern of negative selection with civic involvement and education Students from more disadvantaged backgrounds that are least likely to attend college are most likely to benefit from civic engagement but least likely to do it Why Education Matters Kingston et al 2003 1 Allocation education is a sorting device used by gatekeepers to identify desired groups and exclude others Education sorts out the most able and they achieve in all of these different facets of life And this is one means by which we see an association with education and all of these different outcomes Ex credentials in labor market serve as a signal for employers to sort through applicants Provides some signal as a measure of productivity personal characteristics class disposition 2 Socialization About causal impact in argument that education transforms capacities of individuals Enhances intellectual ability knowledge and shapes their social views This impacts them throughout their lives and enforces itself People that are taught to learn continue learning throughout their lives and aquire info 3 Cognitive ability Causation and selection story There is a complex interplay between cognitive effect in schooling Ability influences schooling and schooling influences ability 4 Class There is a complex interaction between class and education so that class origins impact education and education impacts class destinations Class origins family 9 education 9 class destination 9 ksociaeconomic outcomes Mt there is no single factor that fully explains why education matters for these particular outcomes Discussion Questions 91 Consider your decision to attend college What factors influenced this decision Did you engage in a cost benefit analysis ie did you weigh the costs of going to college in terms of tuition and expenses as well as foregone earnings against the anticipated future returns To what degree did you go to college because it was expected of you a cultural norm What do you expect your future economic and occupational outcomes to be as a result of attending and graduating from UCLA 92 Why is a pattern of negative selection in returns to college important for social inequality in the US 93 How might increases in educational homogamy influence patterns of social inequality in family background and the socioeconomic trajectories of future generations 94 Why is it important that ess educated individuals are less likely to engage in political and social activities How might this influence overall social inequality V Educational Changes and Reforms Educational Reforms tries to bring about some movement within society Readings 3quot Duncan and Murname The American Dream Then and Now 3quot Nibsett Improving the Schools 5quot Series of articles from The American Prospect Educational Reforms Primary and secondary school reforms 0 Money class size and teachers The degree in which funding matters for schools Many claim that US public schools are underfunded but we still spend more than most countries Despite this the US still lacks behind the schools of other rich countries in reading math and science Reason the US is marked by high levels of inequality in achievement Our average looks relatively low bc there39s high and low performers Many school districts have a lot of money spent but poor outcomes Leads to more investigation about whether more money will lead to better achievement Grubb greatest inequalities lie in factors other than money Putting more money into a school alone without other changes wont eradicate inequality within America39s schools Money buys more resources Smaller class effects are generally weak Smaller classes tend to have a larger impact for more disadvantaged students Which are more likely in larger classes negative selection Students who have smaller classes tend to benefit the least from them Teachers experience matters to some degree in student performance It is especially important for students to have a really good 1 grade teacher Evidence is weak for other associations Often when you give more money to schoolsdistricts the money isn39t distributed equally among students It may not reach students that need those resources the most 0 School choice Vouchers and charters Idea behind school choice is to produce excellence through competition Vouchers permit parents or guardians to select whatever school they want for their children It will force schools to compete and become better schools to attract students Threatens public schools with a loss of resources if they fail to attract enough students Accountability is to the marketplace Studies have not found improvement in student achievement due to vouchers Students who decide to take part in this system are likely to have performed well anyways Reproduction of inequality if education is a commodity then those with more wealth can buy the best education for their children 9 further privatization of schools and contributes to inequality Charter school publicly funded school governed by a charter It exempts school from rules and regulations but charter must meet accountability standards They are able to devise their own curriculum Schools charter is reviewed every 35 years and can be revoked if standards and guidelines not met 6 all public schools are charter schools In certain circumstances charter schools demonstrate higher academic performance Others have found littleno evidence Kozol charter schools more segregated for the upper class and targeted 9 race and class separation charter schools perpetuating inequality bc attracts certain kind of students and helps them perform better 0 Detracking programs Tracking contributes to inequality Detracking programs ex AVID takes students out of ow track classes and places them in higher track classes Goal is to motivate and prepare students to prepare for college and hold students accountable to high achievement Raise expectations for students provide support and assume that they will rise to the challenge Avid graduates 91 planned on attending college Discourse practices of ethnic minorities and low income groups acts as a disadvantage bc lack of hidden curriculum AVID teaches students these skills by teaching them study skills active leadership and other skills to facilitate their success in HS and their transition into college 0 Standards based reform NCLB No Child Left Behind Since the 198039s the education reform in the US has been driven by academic standards about what students should know and be able to do The US has been falling behind internationally in achievement on math reading and science Everyone will receive a meaningful HS diploma so that they reach a certain standard These standards are chosen based on political discussions about what degree individuals should be ready to perform economically for the labor market 1 need clear standards 2quot how we measure them to see if students are performing those standards 3 accountability that pushes everyone to work together to achieve those standards Ex tests to see if students are meeting those standards 9 promoted or held back in grade Ex HS graduation exit exam Movement 9 NCLB 0 Comprehensive reform and instructional technologies Broad critique of conventional primary and secondary school reforms o Our impoverished view of educational reform 0 Real utopias Post secondary school 0 Affirmative action o Expansion of higher education 0 State funds and college affordability Discussion College Tuition 32 E g 16 VI 3 O C 1 00 III 0 U 3 8 39L Private 4year 2year Public 4year 54 391 I I I 3939 39 2year 1980 1 990 2000 201 0 Year Figure 2 Full cost of attending college by year sector a11d type of institution Notes Full cost includes average total charges tuition fees room and board for fullyear fulltime attendance See Figure 1 caption for information on in ation adjustments The dotted lines show 30year trends at a constant rate of increase 116 per year for public two year colleges and 226 for the other three Source US Dep Educ 2011 table 2 39 College Tuition 200910 Average private college tuition 26273 Average public resident college tuition 7020 Public College Tuition Comparison 200607 3 Penn State 12164 1 Botltoloy 7800 1 Rutgers 9958 0 Texas 7800 1 Michigan 9723 0 UClA 7143 1 MassochusdllsAmIorsI 1 WiscoIIsiII6370 39595 1 Iowa 6135 0 Minnesota Twin Cities D wagivm 5985 3 397 a Nebraska 5 967 C quot39 5quotquot 396 u UNC Chapel Hill 5 033 D ComocIian8362 D Ammoguybs 1 Virginia 8043 Tuition at US News Best 25 Colleges 200809 2 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII39IIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIlIIIIIII39II xx 39 2 six 4xx 39 y yx v 1 Chi OOIII horn 399 N panicn at tans lhhlfhto 1 outdo8 In an Alanna Ct nods M A Rutyou Alli urnuuy IDJuli ICQIFK 1 quotquot quotquotquot quot39 quot vn xvr I Mhw lrst III Paying for than state universities 810 umn adjusted Ir In ation unnuwrutuouv Cats on both ocean 2 sun oupuu4 have nun charm In mum wot Auuqp uuuu root In klcan umugnnuuc own 0 punts 390 OIOCduct LCCDC3910 IO 6 000 33 2 f 8 sum Cu 0 Y 1 1 I Y Y Y I 1 v V 1 v v 1 Y 1 1 90 3 91 96 d l33 3903 390C Mr flir 93 3 Z 97 3973 0 3903 3905 3907 05 40 llto D9cC gun cut covet1 1 lQthou on dndul394v 399 Y Lvnnonu Hwy51 33900 HI Irnnavo Coosvopc noonso vvc Iconno can0qI I 1394quot0 Iv U9 II 039 s 4o 39I v39p39 Pu I ln counts 3979 Cal 392 I5IMm cucoon vvuzh mom on quotma mnac 101 wainvi In man UL has Fvnnuni baiguh 6 2L C0 0 Cal Slain nut 363 EH00 I5 laid 339 on sum Vuvlh I096 Slain 500 17 smoom Studr139 mu 3096 Mn 10 UNno C017 mount IMO bounces 73 39 slriokobl vv4u39p1 two spams cockdo Slur Unvoovuly thanNI 00 Contents Pravnot tuchuu Amu and uohr rs1uMo ata acu o cantr ano oa nuum n prcqrarns an 0 can uIn zrtuumn ch 23 C pJIO quotcant ktuscd cu usuch Sluxbrt oruzuuoul Alum Tutu4 uumlmoul um j 1amp0 faint and um Alana facal and Id Mum varlti n oIaaI39upn 39 oo39g sumo u angt0143 Haw 4014ughvvg y guy paguns n A n UCLA Students Protest 32 Increase in Student Fees Nov 18 2009 Discussion Questions 1 101 Which proposed or existing educational reforms would you support and why 1 102 Do you agree with scholars who assert that the underlying structure of society must be reformed for there to be real change in the educational system Sociology of Education Conclusions Key Questions to Reflect On 0 Does the U educational system romote socioeconomic opportunities and or maintain sogoeoonomic inequalities in How much equality of opportunity is mere 1 Does education equalize opportunities or widen the gaps between the advantaged and the disadvantaged D How likely is it that individuals end up in the same social stratum as their parents cl How does one39s dass race or nder oonstrain his or her ability to seanre societal rewards via educational system El What role do schools serve in allocating members of each new generation to strata in society 1 What oonsequenoes does increased schooling have for life chances 1 What can we do to ameliorate socioeconomic inequalities in access to education 51714 1140 PM 51714 1140 PM
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