Anthropology 33 - Lectures 10&11 (05/13/14-05/15/14)
Anthropology 33 - Lectures 10&11 (05/13/14-05/15/14)
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Date Created: 05/18/14
Lecture 10 051314 How categories get perpetuated Categorizeclassify putting people into groups based on differences Standardize de ne what it means to be a part of that group Institutionalize create higher power that makes the groups a norm Discipline and Control teach people how to t into the group Surveillance always being watched by authority gures Selfdiscipline discipline yourself due to desire to t in and feel included Reproduction of ideology pass on the group norms once you have learned them Socialization in Language Discrimination o Linking speech style to character or identity o Ex Simba speaks with white middleclass voice Hyenas speak with bad grammar and Mexican accent 0 Foreign or improper language considered bad untrustworthy gt taught to children at young age Language ideology set of bias social practices and assumptions that are part of greater power construct People depend on ideologies without close analysis or awareness of underlying assumptions Constantly learn to interpret systematic signs through social in uence Differences in pronunciations of words carry the potential for positive or negative judgments Perpetuated by media and institutions throughout our lives Standard mainstream accent becomes considered natural gt just how it s always been so it can t be changed Proponents of the standard want to suppress any variations Social lndexicality ideologies about language and language users that suggest something about a person s character personality intellect or other personal traits o AKA stereotyping or making conclusions about people based on assumptions o Over time people will speak more alike over more territory of the world o Institutions maintain status quo as means of control and differentiation IN REALITY gt There is no such thing as not having an accent or standard grammar 0 Standard is an ideal promoted by institutions that no one ever really reaches Process of Language Standardization 1 Selection of way of speaking as standard Fixing conventions about proper ways to speak Codi cation into dictionaries and grammar books Distribution by institutions schools libraries of ces etc Maintenance of standard Elaboration of standard through specialized registers Prestige given to standard speakers valued above others C quot39gt Continued in next ecture Lecture 11 051514 Pidgin contact vernacular no native speakers mixed language with elements of two native languages less complex Creole second generation pidgin gt more complex grammar and larger vocabulary Dialect regional and social variations of a language due to physical or social separation Slang vocabulary of a dialect o Everyone speaks at least one dialect and has an accent Social indexicality when the way a person speaks indexes points to an assumption about their personal traits 0 Ex Smell cigarette smoke gt assume that person doesn t care about their own health or the health of others Discipline and Punishment o Standard ideologies inform and regulate the practices of society gt practice reinforces standard o Out group practices are considered as obstacles or limitations o In group practices are considered possibilities and opportunities The Standardizers who perpetuates the standard o Descriptivism describes language and how language works linguistic anthropology o Prescriptivism insists on establishing and maintaining how people should or should not use language 1 Education o word gap students from lowerincome families learn 30 million less words by age 3 than their peers o De cit model puts blame on chid s lack of verbal stimulation at home rather than faults of education system c Convinces children who can t perform by standard that they are not as smart 0 Ex lfyou judge a sh by its ability to climb a tree standard it will live its life thinking it is stupid Ebonics AfricanAmerican vernacular english 0 Want to use Ebonics are a bridge to learning standard English 0 Recognized as having its own systematic rules and grammarjust like all natural speech varieties 2 Mass Media o Includes radio television news and social media 0 Ex Trayvon Martin gt people see a teen in a hoodie at night and they assume they are dangerous gangsters 0 Entertainment Ex Alladin and Jasmine speak American English gt Jaffar and his bird have accents 3 Corporate Institutions o Groups that follow standard have more occupational and economic opportunity o Ex White males with a criminal record are more likely to be hired than black males wo a record 4 Government public sphere o Language discrimination is just a cover for deep historical hatred for certain groups 0 US government started on foundation of homogenization and separation of races 0 John Jay we are people from same ancestors same religion same language and same government o Slaves were not granted true personhood Three fths clause o John Adams sought to create standard American English I Eloquence necessary for participation in political affairs gt requires education I Education was not available to blacks Plessy vs Ferguson separate but equal never really equal Jim Crow Laws segregation laws I Cut off possibility of selfreliance through education and professionalism I Cut off access to standard English and literacy events I Made black people dependent on social welfare systems O O