Biological Basis of Psychology
Biological Basis of Psychology
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Date Created: 05/18/14
Tuesday May 13 2014 Biopsychology Week 7 Lecture 9 Cognitive Neuroscience continued methods of cognitive neuroscience Electroencephalography EEG the recording of electrical activity along the scalp measures voltage fluctuations which signal ERP eventrelated potentials Epileptic Seizure Activity the EEG goes crazy large amplitudes etc Electrophysiological Studies ERP event reated potentials record EEG while subject is presented stimuli performing task recording the sum of the electrical activity of millions of neurons underneath the electrode on the scalp Cortical Basis potential at scalp records pyramidal cells synapse location tend to all be oriented upwards toward the scalp Records the postsynaptic potentials and activity excitatory EPSPs or inhibitory lPSPs graphing electrical signals going up tend to be negative going down tend to be more positive measures electrical activity in the synapse ERP recording electroencephalogram EEG time ocked to the stimuli when presented with a stimulus the EEG looks random without pattern ERP tries to pull out the patterns by repeating the same stimulus many many times They take those trials of the EEG taken during the stimulus is presented many times and averages those EEG graphs Turns it into an Averaged ERP waveform signal averaging of a little less than half a second of brain activity during the presentation of the same picture Steps to recognizing a picture Tuesday May 13 2014 sensory processinggt feature extractiongt discrimination gt recognition gt decision each one of these points have a particular electrical signature ie first positive wave spike is when visual cortex is putting together visual input P1 component occurs in the first 100 millisecond time point feature extraction organizing light is in the negative N1 wave then discrimination occurs in the P2 positive wave this is when the guy who can t discriminate manmade objects brain fail recognition a negative wave then the decision is the longer negative P3 wave Has high temporal resolution useful for studying diversion of attention millisecond processes ERP eventrelated potential method Advantage more direct measure of neural activity high temporal resolution seeing things as they occur within milliseconds disadvantage poor spatial resolution Difficult to determine exactly where in the brain the signals are originating from To try to avoid these disadvantages do the fMRI same time as the EEG to get good temporal and spatial resolutions Lecture 10 Development and Neuroplasticity Brain at age 5 you have many more neurons than you need then it starts to prune down those neurons not being used until age 25 Brain Development As evolutionary development progresses in mammals from rats to humans the brain increases in size the association cortex expands and fissures have become more prevalent allowing for greater corticalsurface association cortex much much larger in humans than other mammals Tuesday May 13 2014 As prenatal development progresses in humans from 10 weeks after conception to 41 weeks the brain undergoes a similar progression in size in the expansion of association cortex and in the proliferation of fissures KNOW cell migration most neurons are formed in the ventricular layer through mitotic division These neurons then migrate the their intended destination In primates by the time of birth most of these neurons have completed their migration KNOW differentiation where neurons first arrive they appear no different than any other organ cell However once they arrive particular genes begin to express themselves and the neurons begin to acquire their distinctive appearance and connectivity development of Purkinje neurons in the human cerebellum for motor control motor movement Neuronal death a crucial part of brain development particularly during the embryonic stage Many more neurons and synapses too many dendrites are formed than is necessary synaptic density the number of synapses per given volume of neurons continues to grow after birth For the visual cortex this peaks at about 1 year of age while the growth of synapses in the prefrontal cortex peaks between 4 to 5 years of age The pruning of these synapses continues through adolescence into adulthood development of the prefrontal cortex in humans the prefrontal cortex is the last brain region to fully develop in childhood and it is the first brain region to deteriorate in old age last to develop and first to decay perseveration the uncontrollable repetition of a response due to lack of inhibitory control Diagnosed through a Wisconsin cardsorting task change the rule of organizing cards patient with prefrontal damage will find this difficult Keep relying on the first rule they learned Often observed in young children before age of 4 years cognition development closely parallels the development of the prefrontal cortex prefrontal cortex is critical for the functioning of many tasks but its common role in many of these tasks is to Tuesday May 13 2014 1 keep information in mind for a shot period of time working memory short term memory Helps with conversing with someone 2 Plan and execute a sequence of actions 3 Inhibit responses that may not be appropriate given the context of the current situation sometimes gets messed up while you re intoxicated Effects of Experience on Brain Development the use it or lose it principle monocular deprivation studies in cats most visual cortex cills become in ocular as the two eyes are stimulated by experience They block the eyes in one eye of a cat then look at responsiveness of the visual cortex after the eye is unblocked when one eye is deprived of input during development the cat will become blind in that one eye and the sensitivity of the other eye becomes stronger This does no happen if the cat is an adult Ironically when both eyes are deprived the effect is much less because both eyes are matched in their competition for connections The mozart effect people overinterpreting the effects of experience on the brain brain enhancement programs big in late 90 s early 2000 s A study of spatial reasoning looked at effects of music on college students Effect was really really small measured memory 10 minutes later This became a huge news item made statements about listening to Mozart music made kids smarter study was not valid because it was conducted on college studies and the effect only lasted for 10 minutes and it only applied to a special form of spatial reasoning Weren t able to replicate the effects again Music training studies showed that children who went through extensive music training early on had effect on structural brain development neurogenesis the growth of new neurons In human adults this is known to occur in the sub ventricular zone of the lateral ventricles where they migrate to the olfactory bulb and in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus Tuesday May 13 2014 adult neural stem cells are selfrenewing multi potent cells that generate into all the main types of neurons within the nervous system stem cell research help with spinal cord injuries parkinson s disease Reorganization of the brain neuroplasticity the ability of the brain to reorganize itself This can occur during development in response to an injury and form everyday learning phantom limb sensation feelings of sensation in amputated limbs Developmental Disorders Lecture 10 Development amp Neuroplasticity Continued Developmental disorders Autism 1 impairments in social interactions 2 impairments in communication 3 restricted interest and repetitive behaviors other possible characteristics high prevalence of mental retardation motor problems sleep and eating disorders Prevalence 60250 out of 10000 with 4 times as many boys than girls causes no known causes except a strong genetic influence likely polygenic large degree of heritability in autism Neuropathology neuroanatomical studies strongly suggest that alterations of brain development occur shortly after conception Many structural abnormalities haven been reported in the brains of autistic individuals but this may be confounded with mental retardation Prognosis no known cure Autistic Savants rare Tuesday May 13 2014 sometimes autistic individuals with one or more areas of expertise ability or brilliance Rates of prevalence have varied from 1 to 10 of people diagnosed with autism Down Syndrome a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21 st chromosome This extra chromosome is the result of an accident that happens during ovulation of the egg before fertilization probably during recombination stage of meiosis The prevalence is about 15 out of 10000 births but is much more frequent in older women older than 35 symptoms physical differences including a flattening of the skull and nose amond shaped eyes shortened limbs poor muscle tone and a protruding tongue It is also characterized by mild to severe mental retardation and a tendency towards concrete thinking and naivet Williams Syndrome similar to down syndrome but characteristics distinctive facial characteristics elfin like severe mental retardation extremely impaired spatial ability hyperverbal very good language and music skills pleasant dispositions very sociable prevalence 1 out of 10000 to 20000 Causes a known genetic mutation the deletion of about 26 genes on one allele of chromosome 7 including a gene that codes for elastin which is associated with connective tissue abnormalities and cardiovascular disease The disorder stems from a sperm or egg cell that by chance suffers a loss of those genes Neuropathology neuroanatomical studies strongly suggest that gray matter reductions in visual and parietal cortex but intact frontal lobe temporal lobes and cerebellum prognosis no known cure Tuesday May 13 2014 Both Williams and Down syndrome can have severe disabilities but down syndrome kids will typically state simple facts while William s subject will be much more imaginative and detailed about it Lecture 11 Brain Damage Brain tumors a brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division symptoms of tumors can develop very slowly but eventually they can include neurologic signs elevated intracranial pressure and epilepsy meningiomas encapsulated tumors underneath the skull between the meninges that are almost always benign do not grow into the surrounding tissue These tumors can often be removed successfully with surgery Malignant tumors are cancerous and they grow diffusely into the surrounding tissue Many of these are metastatic they were transported the bloodstream from another part of the body These tumors generally require surgery followed by radiotherapy andor chemotherapy and depending on the primary tumor the prognosis is generally poor Closed head injuries a closed nonmissile head injury is one in which the skull is not penetrated or broken Common causes of head injury are traffic accidents home and occupational accidents falls assaults and most leading cause Bicycle Accidents brain injuries may occur over a wide area or in a small focal area common symptoms loss of consciousness confusion drowsiness personality change seizures nausea headache and a lucid interval during which a patient appears conscious only to deteriorate later contusions happen when the brain slams agains the skull causing bleeding inside the brain mild concussions often do not result in any damage however a slightly greater injury can be associated with both anterograde and retrograde amnesia inability to remember event beforeafter injury The amount of time that the amnesia is Tuesday May 13 2014 present depends on the severity of the injury In some cases the patients may develop post concussion syndrome which can include memory problems dizziness and depression closed head injuries studies being done in the NFL Strokes A stroke also known as cerebrovascular accident CVA is an acute neurological injury in which the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted This can create a cascade of chemical events that can cause brain cells to die or to be seriously damaged strokes are the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability in the US and western Europe the risk factors include old age female gender high blood pressure diabetes high cholesterol cigarette smoking migraines and thrompbophilia a hemorrhagic stroke or cerebral hemorrhage is a form of stroke that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures of bleeds in an ischemic stroke which is the cause of approximately 80 of strokes a blood vessel becomes occluded and the blood supply to part of the brain is totally or partially blocked EpHepsy a chronic neurological disorder that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures The electrical waveforms EEG recorded during a seizure reflect abnormal excessive and synchronized neural activity across the brain Epilepsy has been linked to over 70 genes and it can have many other causes including viruses tumors and other forms of brain damage many varieties of epilepsies partial seizures does not involve the entire brain simple partial seizures seizures that are restricted to the sensory or motor areas of the brain complex partial seizure seizures that are restricted to the temporal lobe also called temporal lobe epilepsy The symptoms can range from convulsive repetitive behaviors to auras and strong feelings of d ja vu Tuesday May 13 2014 generalized seizures does involve the entire brain Some begin in a very focal area and then spread throughout the brain petit mal seizures seizures that produce symptoms that include a disruption in consciousness a vacant look and fluttering eyelids grand mal seizures seizures that produce symptoms that include a loss in consciousness a loss in equilibrium and violent convulsions Korsakoff s Syndrome associated with thiamine vitamin B deficiency as a result of chronic alcoholism or severe malnutrition common symptoms include ataxia apathy tremors paralysis of eye muscles coma retrograde and anterograde amnesia lack of insight into condition and confabulation making stuff up treatment involves replacing thiamine and providing proper nutrition and hydration If successful signs of recovery will show within two years but recovery is often incomplete The more severe the brain damage and amnesia the less likely the patient will respond to treatment Multiple Sclerosis an auto immune disease that is characterized by the degeneration of myelin resulting in neuronal death and the formation of plaques hardenings in brain and spinal cord disruption in fast saltatory conductance sometimes loss of conductance altogether results in weakness paralysis or spasms impaired coordination visual problems etc Huntington s Disease a rare inherited neurological disorder Obvious symptoms abnormal body movements called chorea a lack of coordination also affects a number of mental abilities and personality changes These physical symptoms develop around age 40 but can occur at any age Being a genetic disorder there is currently no cure IO Tuesday May 13 2014 Parkinson s Disease characterized by muscle rigidity tremor a slowing of physical movement bradykinesia and in extreme cases a loss of physical movement akinesia The primary symptoms are the results of excessive muscle contraction normally caused by the insufficient formation and action of dopamine which is produced in the substantial nigra and projected to the basal ganglia Secondary symptoms may include highlevel cognitive dysfunction and subtle language PD is both chronic and progressive A PET scan showing decreased levels of dopamine in the basal ganglia of a PD patient before treatment compared to a normal subject and the increased levels after treatment of Ldopa Video of tremoring man Alzheimer s Disease a neurodegenerative disease and it is the most common type of dementia the most striking early symptom is a loss of memory which usually manifests as minor forgetfulness that becomes steadily more pronounced As the disorder progresses other cognitive impairments occur including deficits in language object recognition reasoning and planning the disease consists principally of neuronal loss of atrophy together with the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles the ultimate cause of the disease is unknown although genetic factors are known to be important
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