First Week of Notes
First Week of Notes Chem 111-21
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CHEM 2311 P1
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anastasia Keelor on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 111-21 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Tye in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
August 25th 2015 CHAPTER 1 90 naturally occurring pure elements Pure Compound Pure thing of 2 elements Chemical Formula Combination of the symbols of all elements in a substance A pure substance that can only be broken down into other pure substances by a chemical change Space filling Shows the outer boundaries of molecules in 3D space Lewis Dot Structure Shows the chemical formula of a molecule CHAPTER 2 Energy can be converted to different forms but never destroyed During a chemical reaction mass is conserved Law of Multiple Proportions 0 When 2 elements combine to form the compound they do in a simple ratio of small whole numbers Percentage of mass of an element in a compound is always the same no matter how the compound is created Electron 0 Symbol e 0 Charge 1 O Discovered by M Faraday W Crookes 0 Properties described in 1897 Proton 0 Symbol p 0 Charge 1 Neutron 0 Symbol n0 0 Charge 0 August 27th 2015 If an atom was the size of the Astrodome then the nucleus would be the size of a marble on the 50 yard line Atomic Number The number of protons in an atom of a certain element represented by the symbol Z Atoms are electrically neutral 0 protons electrons Mass Number Number of protons and neutrons is represented by the symbol a Isotopes 0 Same number protons different number of neutrons 0 Used for nuclear power generation 39 Specifically Uranium235 and Uranium 238 Mass Number is the number of protons and neutrons 0 A 100g Sodium Chloride 39337g sodium 60663g chlorine due to the different masses of the two elements 0 Atomic weight abundance isotope 100 Mass Isotope Abundance Isotope2 100 Mass Isotope2 September 1 2015 0 Periodic Table A chart in which the elements are organized 0 Anatomy of the periodic table 0 Metals O Nonmetals O Metalloids 0 1912 columns and last six are the main group in the periodic table 0 Alkali Metals 1st column of periodic table 0 Alkaline Metals 2rld column 0 Halogens 2rld to last column 0 Noble Gases Last column 0 Transition Metals 0 Compound Types and the Periodic Table 0 Nonmetal NonmetalMolecular O Metalloid NonmetalMolecular I One exception is NH4 and nonmetals It is an ionic bond 0 Metal NonmetalsIonic 0 Molecular Compound 0 Distinct molecules with a distinct compound 0 Gaps in between the molecules 0 Ionic Compounds 0 No distinct groups 0 Continuous repeating pattern 0 You can only come up with the smallest element of the pattern 0 Numerical Prefixes used in Naming O lMono 2di 3tri 4tetra 5penta 6Hexa 7Hepta 8octa 9nona O lOdeca 0 Naming Binary Compounds 0 The same two elements can form more than one binary compound 0 The prefix mono is omitted in the first word OOOOOOOO 0 Ion Definitions 0 Ion or charged 0 Ions may have either a net positive or net negative 0 Cation Ion with a positive charge 0 Anion Ion with a negative charge 0 Monatomic Ions 0 Lithium Sodium Potassium Rubidium CesiumP1us one Magnesium Calcium Strontium Barium Plus two Silver Zinc Cadmium 2 Aluminum 3 Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine 1 39 Nonmetals form anions O O O O 0 Metals form cations 0 Ionic Compounds 0 Ionic compounds formed between metals nonmetals O The formula must have an equal number of and charges September 3 2015 0 NH4 and nonmetalsionic 0 Ionic Compounds 0 Must have an equal number of plus and minus charges 0 Ionic compounds are formed between metals and nonmetals 0 Common Polyatomic Anions O OH hydroxide ion CN Cyanide ion ClO3Chlorate Ion C03 2 Carbonate Ion NO3 Nitrate Ion S04 2 Sulfate Ion 0 P04 3 Phosphate Ion 0 Name of Ionic Compounds 0 1 Name the Cation O 2 Name the Anion I Prefixes are not included in ionic compounds 0 The Catch When naming an ionic compound containing a metal that can have more than 1 ionic charge The compound name includes the charge of the metal 0 CuNO3 Copper I Nitrate O MnCl3 ManganeseIII Chloride O CaCO3 Calcium carbonate 0 KF Potassium Fluoride 0 Hydrates 0 Some molecules form solids that include water molecules as part of the crystal structure OOOOO 0 Water can be removed from the compounds by heating forming anhydrous compounds 0 Hydrates are compounds that have a specific number of water molecules attached to them 0 Naming Hydrates O 1 Name the anhydrous compounds 0 2 Use a prefix to indicate the number of water molecules followed by the word hydrate