Psych 318: Week 2/CHapter 2
Psych 318: Week 2/CHapter 2 Psyc 318
Popular in Research Methods
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Takyra Thompson on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 318 at Old Dominion University taught by Barbara Winstead in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychlogy at Old Dominion University.
Reviews for Psych 318: Week 2/CHapter 2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/06/15
Chapter 2 Conduction Psychological Research 0 v Where do Research Questions come from 0 Personal experience and daily events 0 Prior research and theory 0 Realworld problems 0 Serendipity 339 Pavlovclassical conditioning o 339 Seligman learned helplessness 339 Conducting Psychological Research Steps 0 Start With questionproblem Find research literature on topic Read research Refining your hypothesis Choose an appropriate research design Choose appropriate subject population Conduct a study Analyze dad 0 Report results 0000000 0 v Reason for Reviewing the Literature 0 To avoid needles duplication 0 To get ideas about variables to include design materials and procedure 0 To keep yourself up to date on empirical and theoretical issues 339 Search for Literature 0 Vf 339 Sources of Research Information 0 Primary vs Secondary Sources I Primary sources are full reports of a research study including methodological details 0 Preferred I Secondary sources summarize information from a primary source 0 May be incomplete biased and inaccurate 0 Books I May be general textbooks I Most useful in early states of literature search I Provide summaries of secondary sources I Use With citation because they may not undergo rigorous revieW and information may not be up to date 0 Scholarly Journals I Great for current research and theoretical thinking I Papers submitted to a refereed journal undergo peer review I Papers submitted to a nonrefereed journal do not undergo peer review 0 Nonrefereed sources preferred I Evaluate the quality of a journal by 0 Consulting journals in psychology 0 Consulting the Social Science Citation Index 0 Consider the impact factor average number of citationarticles in preceding two years 339 Library Research The Basic Strategy 0 Use one of the many indexes in the library ex APAnet to locate recent articles 0 Find research articles using the reference section from textbookscomputer databases and to find other articles 339 What you find 0 Abstract I Short summary of the study 0 Introduction I Background and rationale for hypotheses 0 Method I Participants procedure materialsmeasure 0 Results I Data analysis statistical tests reveal support or lack thereof for hypotheses 0 Discussion I Monstatistical review of findings implications limitations avenues for future research 0 References I List of all intext citations formatted in APA style 339 Questions to ask to summarize a research article 0 What is the purpose of this research 0 What are the hypotheses 0 Who are the participants and how many 0 What did they study what questionnaires did they complete what conditions or stimuli were used IVs DVs 339 Forming a Hypotheses o Inductive specific factsgeneral conclusion I Data driven bottom up I Observation or pervious research results generalized to topic or situation 0 Deductive general principlespecific conclusion I Theory driven top down I Use the general principle of a theoretical explanation to make specific prediction about the relationship among variables or effects of manipulation I Theory stereotype threatwhere people feel at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about their own social group When their group member or the stereotype is brought up they become anxious and this reduce their performance by inferring with working memory 0 Stereotype Threat I Making ourselves fit a stereotype 339 Good Hypotheses I Testable or falsifiablethe hypotheses represents a specific pattern of data that if observed would support the hypotheses but if not observed would suggest the hypotheses is incorrect 0 Clearly defined concepts 0 Based on sound reasoning 0 Support by previous research 0 Be positive statements not predicting null results 339 Quantitative vs Qualitative 0 Quantitative numerical data and statistical analyses 0 Qualitative holistic thematic nonstatistical analyses 339 Descriptive Research Major Features 0 No manipulations 0 Two or more variables are measured and a relationship is established 0 Correlational relationships can be used for predictive purposes I A Predicator Variable can be used to predict the value of a Criterion Variable o Correlational research cannot be used to establish casual relationships among variables 339 Causality and Descriptive Research 0 Two reasons why you should not infer causality from correlational data I Directionality problem I Third variable problem 339 Descriptive Research When is it Used 0 When gathering data in early stages of research 0 When manipulating an independent variable is impossible or unethical 0 When you are relating two or more naturally occurring variables 339 Experimental Research Major Features 0 An independent variable is manipulated with at least two levels I The value of the independent variable is determined by the research I Manipulating an independent variable means exposing subjects to at least two values of levels of the variable I A dependent variable is measured 0 Variable whose value you observe and measuring in an experimental design 0 The value of the dependent variable is determined by the subject s behavior 0 Hope to show a causal relationship between the values of the independent and dependent variables 0 The most basic experimental consist of an experimental and a control group 0 Experimental group 0 Control group I Serves as baseline of behavior 0 Control is exercised over extraneous variables I Randomizing their effects across treatments used random assignment 0 A causal relationship between the independent and dependent can be established 339 Experimental Research Example 0 IV between subjects violent games e g Call of Duty 4 vs nonviolent games e g superbikeplayed for 20 mins for 3 consecutive days 0 Manipulated check rate video games on a various qualities including violence 0 Participant randomly assigned to game condition DV hostile expectations open ended responses to story aggression giving noise blasts to opponent 339 Strength and Limitations of Experimental Research 0 Strength I Identification of casual relationships among variables I Not possible with correlational research 0 Limitations I Can t use experimental method if cannot manipulate variables I Tight control over extraneous variables limits generality f results I Tradeoff exists between tight control and generality 339 Descriptive Research Example 0 Violent media viewing 0 Aggressive behavior 0 What do children watch 0 Low media viewing vs High media violence viewing 0 Are they different in aggressive Behavior 339 Experimental Research Example 0 Controlling what children watch IV 0 Low media violence viewing vs High media violence viewing 0 Are they different in Aggressive behavior DV 339 Research Settings 0 The laboratory setting I Affords greatest control over extraneous variable 0 Higher levels of internal validity 0 Lower levels of external validity I Simulations 0 Attempt to recreate the real world in the laboratory 0 Realism is an issue 0 Mundane realism the surface similarity between the experimental environment and realworld settings 0 Experimental realism the extent to which an experiment can involve the participant and get them to behave in a way that it is meaningful to what you re doing I The field setting 0 study conducted in a real world environment 0 high degree of external validity 0 internal validity may be low 339 research Procedures 0 Operational definition I Measures of variable I Manipulation of variable 0 Confounding variable I Extraneous factor that varies along with measures or manipulation 339 Participants 0 Population I Everyone of interest to whom results should apply 0 Sample I Subset of everyone I Random vs convenient 339 Definition of a Theory 0 In everyday language the term theory used loosely to refer to a wide range of concepts 0 A scientific theory I Goes beyond a simple hypothesis I Deals With potentially variable phenomena I Is higher ordered and structured o A theory is a partially verified statement of a scientific relationship that cannot be directly observed 339 What is not Theory 0 Diagrams are not theory Hypotheses or Predictions are not theory Data are not theory Empirical results are not theory Reference are not theory Lists or variables or constructs are not theory Opinions even expert are not theory OOOOOOO Conjecture based on anecdotes are not theory 0 No evidence Not a theory 339 Theory Versus Related Concepts 0 Theory vs hypotheses I Theory 0 Is more complex multiple variable 0 Is general explanation 0 Is about constructs I Hypothesis 0 Is more simple one variable 0 Is a specific prediction based on a theory 0 Is about observed variables 339 What Makes a Good Theory 0 Testability and specificity I Does theory lend itself testable hypotheses and specific predictions 0 Internal consistency and clarity I Does theory avoid contradictory predictions Can it be falsified Is it clear to experts how components of the theory relate to each other 0 Empirical Support 39 Can theory be reconcile With current knowledge base If not can it debunk current fact Does high quality research support new hypotheses derived from theory 0 Parsimony I Law of parsimony explanations should use the mininum number of principles necessary to account for the maximum number of facts 0 Last but not least does the have an impact on the field