Week 2 Notes
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Monday August 31 2015 Race and Slavery continued a De ning Race and Ethnicity b Slavery s Roots in Racism c Racial Slavery in European Writing d The Law and Racial Hierarchy of Slavery Wednesday September 2 2015 Transitions to African Slavery in British America 16301730 By Russell R Menard Reading outline annotations Monday August 31 2015 Race and Slavery 1 De ning Race and Ethnicity Race is a classi cation based on phenotype or shared physical traits Races do exist a realization possible because of slavery CS Coons 1962 The Origin ofRaces Slave holders separated slaves into racial categories 0 Negroid African 0 Caucasoid American 0 Mongoloid Asian Using race classi cation to support white supremacy Ethnicity is a cultural difference and is based on practices not physical traits Benedict Anderson Imagined Communities culture was invented with the nation state to maintain their power and pdeege Mavis Campbell Gad Heuman 0 Mixed race communities used their white closeness for freedom and social nobility o If someone were mixed they would try to relate more to the white side of their heritage to the best of their advantage to try to gain freedom and higher societal norms 2 Slavery s Roots in Racism Englishmen found the natives of Africa very different skin color characteristics unChristian etc 1626 British and French colonizers massacred roughly 2000 Kalinago men in St Kitts on the basis of barbarism Being both African and Kalinago people were seen as more aggressive and a threat to an Englishman The Spanish employed enslaved and transported Amerindians to the colonized new world Deportation functioned as a form of racial cleansing facilitating what was black and white Bartholomew de las Casas o quotProtector of Indiansquot suggested African enslavement in 1517 John Henrick Clarke 0 Slavery was a race based issue 0 Predated early capitalism o Slavery originally aided the conquest colonization and subjugation of America and it s people 3 Racial Slavery in European Writing 0 Richard Hakluyt Edmund Hickeringill 0 Establish a hierarchy for slavery in the Americans 0 Africans could be made to be servants Race and culture were connected to economic progress 0 Whites ful llment of superiority slavery 0 Presented English as racially culturally superior Thomas Carlyle o The Occasional Discourse of the Negro Question 4 The Law and the Racial Hierarchy of Slavery Colonial laws helped in act a basis for slavery with Barbados 1661 as a blueprint 0 Owners were to quickly categorize the Africans and Indians as below them and treated them as such 0 Categories 0 Negro White Mulatto Mulatto White Quadroon Quadroon White Mustee Mustee White Musteephino Musteephino White White Negro Mulatto Sambo Negro Sambo Negro OOOOOO Transitions to African Slavery in British American 16301730 Barbados Virginia and South Carolina By Russell R Menard quotAfricanization of large parts of the New World was the result not of concerted planning racial destiny or immanent historical design but of innumerable local and pragmatic choices made in four continentsquot 33 o Racist mindsets did not determine the beginning of slavery but rather the need for cheap labor and the demand of products such as rice Tabaco etc quotTransitions to African slavery examination of planter attitudes toward various types of workers than through an analysis of labor markets Planters turned to African slaves because they thought blacks better suited to the plantationquot 34 o Planters took what workers they could get 0 Attitudes 34 Planters had to be willing to substitute Africans for whites or Indians to treat blacks different than whites Planters had to be persuaded that blacks could be employed pro tably Attitudes cannot account for the timing of changes in the workforce Two distinct paths towards an Africanized workforce 35 o The shift was triggered by a sharp jump in demand for workers associated with the induction of sugar Barbados 0 The change was gradual and unconnected to a new crop instead re ecting a decline in the supply of workers from other sources Virginia Barbados 35 o Servitude vs Apprenticeship Servitude largely an agricultural institution attracted those to poor to pay for passage to new world could be sold by one master to another without consent labor system and not an educational institution Apprenticeship urban aimed toward trade crafts and professions for those prosperous enough to pay O 0 an entry fee in exchange for training could not be traded Indentured Servitude vs Service in Husbandry Service in Husbandry usually performed by boys and girls from poor families who left home in their early teens to work for prosperous farmers until they married usually lived in their master s house and agreed to annual contracts for wages for a short amount of time Indentured Servitude served long terms under xed negotiations seen as workers and investments 0 Types of Servitude in Britain 0 Indentured servants signed a contract or indenture in England before they left which speci ed what their duties were most common 0 Customary Servants younger men and women served longer than indentured servants usually less skilled 0 German Migration German redemptioners promised to pay passage fare upon arriving to the colonies o Penal Servitude major source of labor later on came from jails or prison and used as slaves Sugar Revolution 38 Transformed the island sugar took over everything large estates rather than small farms more African slaves dependent on fuel and food Sugar greatly increased the demand for labor which stretched the capacity of the servant trade to the breaking point and forced planters to look elsewhere for workers quotThe existence of a highly developed large scale Atlantic slave trade was essential to the Africanization process and to the success of the Barbadian sugar revolutionquot 39 The Chesapeake Colonies Maryland and Virginia 40 0 Tobacco was the staple export both before and after the 0 growth of slavery the transition was triggered by a decline in the supply of indentured servants a decline which forced planters to look elsewhere for labor By 1690 blacks were a majority of the bound labor force Why did the number of European migrants increase rapidly and then decline O Changes in the size of the potential migrant groups Decline in population in England 41 Changes in the relative attractiveness of the several destinations available for Englishmen to move 0 People were attracted to working in the new colonies because there was too much competition forjobs in Europe falling wages o Rising real wages increased the opportunity cost to migration and worked both to reduce the size of the migrating population and to increase the attractiveness of the colonies Changes in the size of the BritishAmerican migration stream and in the share of all migrants attracted to the Chesapeake colonies combined to rst increase and later to reduce the number of servants bound for the tobacco coast 42 quotThe Chesapeake planters faced a severe labor shortage a shortage produced by the failure of white immigrants to keep pace with the growth of farmsquot 42 Recruiters were focused on young men in their late teens and early twenties from the middling ranks of English families When more and more people weren t coming to Virginia and Maryland the recruiters started looking to the Irish women convicts homeless orphans or the poor South Carolina 0 O 0 Major transitions A shift from indentured servants to slaves drawn from the West Indies A shift to slaves from Africa that was completed by 1730 Disadvantages Got a reputation for diseases and high mortality Lacked a largescale direct trade with England No community of Carolina merchants in England to recruit servants for low country plantations quotCarolinas had some success in recruiting servants in part because they were able to tap the migrant stream pushed out of Barbados by the sugar revolutionquot 44 quotSouth Carolina lived up to its promise as a land of opportunity for poor whites Planters were able to entice some free workers from Barbados and to hire newly freed servants but high wages and cheap land permitted a quick transition to yeoman statusquot 44 quotThe low country became a slave society before it developed a plantation regimequot 45 Both Chesapeake and low country was triggered by a decline in a the supply of servants and a rise in their price Rice Both regions relied heavily on the sugar islands for slaves during the 17th century but Chesapeake planters were able to call on shipments directly from Africa unlike the Carolinas The growth of rice production was a key event in the Carolinas success quotThe association of growth of African slavery with the expansion of the rice industry suggests that a dramatic increase in demand for labor was the key element in accounting for the changing composition of the low country work forcequot 46 Native American slaves in the Carolinas 46 Few Indians were turned into slaves and most of them were exported to earn foreign exchange More Indians were captured and more of those captives were kept in the low country to grow rice and supply provisions and naval stores