INTRO TO INFO TECHNOLOGY MGMT
INTRO TO INFO TECHNOLOGY MGMT MIS 301
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Edna Hammes Sr.
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edna Hammes Sr. on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MIS 301 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Elota Patton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/181562/mis-301-university-of-texas-at-austin in Management Information Systems at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Video Notes blissful productivity enjoyable work and feel accomplished in doing so Urgent Optimism good attitude and hope to accomplish a win Social Fabric Build strong bondstrusts Epic Meaning connection to bigger meaningpicturepurpose Gamers are Super Empowered Hopeful Individuals believe they are capable to change the virtual world we need to make them believe they can change the real world King of Lydia they had famine Heroditist set up a policy Everyone would eat then the next day everyone would play games thus they would ignore the need to eat So they would eat one day and then play games on the next using games to escape the real world getting what we want satisfaction from games winners of the big game get to go off and start a life somewhere in an epic adventure led to the Roman Empire possibly thinks we should use half of our time devoted to play games to solve real world problems Oil Saving Game play led to real life changes World Saving Game Data Deluge Article I All these examples tell the same story that the world contains an unimaginany vast amount of digital information which is getting ever vaster ever more rapidly This makes it possible to do many things that previously could not be done spot business trends prevent diseases combat crime and so on Managed well the data can be used to unlock new sources of economic value provide fresh insights into science and hold governments to account But they are also creating a host of new problems Despite the abundance of tools to capture process and share all this information sensors computers mobile phones and the like it already exceeds the available storage space see chart 1 Moreover ensuring data security and protecting privacy is becoming harder as the information multiplies and is shared ever more widely around the world How to make sense of all these data The effect is being felt everywhere from business to science from government to the arts Scientists and computer engineers have coined a new term for the phenomenon big data But this special report uses data and information interchangeably because as it will argue the two are increasingly difficult to tell apart Given enough raw data today s algorithms and powerful computers can reveal new insights that would previously have remained hidden Data Mining and Analyzing industry is growing rapidly and becoming valuableimportant Technology s proliferation into our lives makes data easy to access and even more uncommon now all digital all these data are turning the social sciences upside down he explains Researchers are now able to understand human behaviour at the population level rather than the individual level Data are becoming the new raw material of business an economic input almost on a par with capital and labour Data exhaust the trail of clicks that internet users leave behind from which value can be extracted is becoming a mainstay of the internet economy You would not just think of data as the exhaust of providing health services but rather they become a central asset in trying to figure out how you would improve every aspect of health care It s a bit of an inversion Data mining can save time and costs but also reveal more than intended and infringe on privacy even Article II technologies called business intelligence were available only to the world s biggest companies But as the price of computing and storage has fallen and the software systems have got better and cheaper the technology has moved into the mainstream Companies are collecting more data than ever before In the past they were kept in different systems that were unable to talk to each other such as finance human resources or customer management Now the systems are being linked and companies are using data mining techniques to get a complete picture of their operations a single version of the truth as the industry likes to call it That allows firms to operate more efficiently pick out trends and improve their forecasting Analytics performing statistical operations for forecasting or uncovering correlations such as between Pop Tarts and hurricanes can have a big pay off The first step is to improve the accuracy of the information Must have organized DB Many say that the technology meant to make sense of it often just produces more data Instead of finding a needle in the haystack they are making more hay Managers making decisions must now be comfortable with analyzing data Many new business insights come from dead data stored information about past transactions that are examined to reveal hidden correlations But now companies are increasingly moving to analysing real time information flows Wal Mart s inventory management system called Retail Link enables suppliers to see the exact number of their products on every shelf of every store at that precise moment The system shows the rate of sales by the hour by the day over the past year and more Begun in the 19905 Retail Link gives suppliers a complete overview of when and how their products are selling and with what other products in the shopping cart This lets suppliers manage their stocks better Second example is Li amp Fung supply chain firm real time contracting with clients allow them to see production and shipping data as it occurs Now that they are able to process information flows in real time organisations are collecting more data than ever One use for such information is to forecast when machines will break down This hardly ever happens out of the blue there are usually warning signs such as noise vibration or heat Capturing such data enables firms to act before a breakdown Example using data to predict disease or machine breakdown Two technology trends are helping to fuel these new uses of data cloud computing and open source software Cloud computing in which the internet is used as a platform to collect store and process data allows businesses to lease computing power as and when they need it rather than having to buy expensive equipment Allow for faster computing and the linking of data from various corporate functions to see patterns across the whole business Article 111 They are uncomfortable bringing so much attention to this because it is at the heart of their competitive advantage says Tim O Reilly a technology insider and publisher Data are the coin of the realm They have a big lead over other companies that do not get this Does not want to reveal valuable trade secrets from the data Where traditional businesses generally collect information about customers from their purchases or from surveys internet companies have the luxury of being able to gather data from everything that happens on their sites The company that gets the most out of its data is Google Creating new economic value from unthinkany large amounts of information is its lifeblood That helps explain why on inspection the market capitalisation of the 11 year old firm of around 170 billion is not so outlandish Google exploits information that is a by product of user interactions or data exhaust which is automatically recycled to improve the service or create an entirely new product Amazon and Netflix a site that offers films for hire use a statistical technique called collaborative filtering to make recommendations to users based on what other users like Google s founders devised the PageRank algorithm for search search engines counted the number of times that a word appeared on a web page to determine its relevance a system wide open to manipulation Google s innovation was to count the number of inbound links from other web pages Such links act as votes on what internet users at large believe to be good content More links suggest a webpage is more useful just as more citations of a book suggests it is better Google got its raw material free its program is based on all the misspellings that users type into a search window and then correct by clicking on the right result With almost 3 billion queries a day those results soon mount up Other search engines in the 19905 had the chance to do the same but did not pursue it Around 2000 Yahoo saw the potential but nothing came of the idea It was Google that recognised the gold dust in the detritus of its interactions with its users and took the trouble to collect it up Two newer Google services take the same approach translation and voice recognition Google by contrast saw it as a big maths problem that could be solved with a lot of data and processing power and came up with something very useful Instead used it s already owned data from translated texts documents and allowed it to make statistical inferences for transalation the system develops a record of the different ways the target word can be spoken It does not learn to understand voice it computes probabilities Re using data represents a new model for how computing is done says Edward Felten of Princeton University Looking at large data sets and making inferences about what goes together is advancing more rapidly than expected Understanding turns out to be overrated and statistical analysis goes a lot of the way Recycling data exhaust is a common theme in the myriad projects going on in Google s empire and helps explain why almost all of them are labelled as a beta or early test version they truly are in continuous development In an initiative called Data Liberation Front that quietly began last September Google is planning to rejig all its services so that users can discontinue them very easily and take their data with them Article IV These days democratic openness means more than that citizens can vote at regular intervals in free and fair elections They also expect to have access to government data The state has long been the biggest generator collector and user of data It keeps records on every birth marriage and death compiles figures on all aspects of the economy and keeps statistics on licences laws and the weather Yet until recently all these data have been locked tight Even when publicly accessible they were hard to find and aggregating lots of printed information is notoriously difficult Other organizations now want access to the government s data America is in the lead on data access On his first full day in office Barack Obama issued a presidential memorandum ordering the heads of federal agencies to make available as much information as possible urging them to act with a clear presumption in the face of doubt openness prevails This was all the more remarkable since the Bush administration had explicitly instructed agencies to do the opposite Providing access to data creates a culture of accou ntability People can keep the government accountable and gov t and interact with the people Providing more data may force the government to be more efficient Now that citizens groups and companies have the raw data they can use them to improve city services in ways that cash strapped local governments cannot One obstacle is that most countries lack America s open government ethos nurtured over decades by laws on ethics in government transparency rules and the Freedom of Information act which acquired teeth after the Nixon years The point of open information is not merely to expose the world but to change it In recent years moves towards more transparency in government have become one of the most vibrant and promising areas of public policy Sometimes information disclosure can achieve policy aims more effectively and at far lower cost than traditional regulation In an important shift new transparency requirements are now being used by government and by the public to hold the private sector to account For example it had proved extremely difficult to persuade American businesses to cut down on the use of harmful chemicals and their release into the environment An add on to a 1986 law required firms simply to disclose what they release including by computer telecommunications Even to supporters it seemed like a fudge but it turned out to be a resounding success By 2000 American businesses had reduced their emissions But transparency alone is not enough There has to be a community to champion the information Providers need an incentive to supply the data as well as penalties for withholding them And web developers have to find ways of ensuring that the public data being released are used effectively Data release may lead to criticism of gov t but also give economic value encourage entrepreneurship cut down costs and increase efficiency Article V Many of today s rues look increasingly archaic Privacy laws were not designed for networks Rules for document retention presume paper records And since all the information is interconnected it needs global rules New principles for an age of big data sets will need to cover six broad areas privacy security retention processing ownership and the integrity of information This tension between individuals interest in protecting their privacy and companies interest in exploiting personal information could be resolved by giving people more control They could be given the right to see and correct the information about them that an organisation holds and to be told how it was used and with whom it was shared The benefits of information security protecting computer systems and networks are inherently invisible if threats have been averted things work as normal That means it often gets neglected One way to deal with that is to disclose more information A pioneering law in California in 2003 required companies to notify people if a security breach had compromised their personal information which pushed companies to invest more in prevention Current rules on digital records state that data should never be stored for longer than necessary because they might be misused or inadvertently released But Viktor Mayer Schonberger of the National University of Singapore worries that the increasing power and decreasing price of computers will make it too easy to hold on to everything In future it is more likely that companies will be required to retain all digital files and ensure their accuracy than to delete them Processing data is another concern Ian Ayres an economist and lawyer at Yale University and the author of Super Crunchers a book about computer algorithms replacing human intuition frets about the legal implications of using statistical correlations Coud lead to processing data which gives biased results Example process based on income could lead to racism bc much more of certain races in poverty in America might be that people s data cannot be used to discriminate against them on the basis of something that might or might not happen Privacy rues lean towards treating personal information as a property right A reasonable presumption might be that the trail of data that an individual leaves behind and that can be traced to him from clicks on search engines to book buying preferences belong to that individual not the entity that collected it Ensuring the integrity of the information is an important part of the big data age The idea is that the internet is a shared environment like the oceans or airspace which requires international co operation to make the best use of it Censorship pollutes that environment Disru pting information flows not only violates the integrity of the data but quashes free expression and denies the right of assembly
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