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by: Erich Mueller


Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Linguistics > LIN 306 > INTRO TO STUDY OF LANGUAGE
Erich Mueller
GPA 3.8

Ian Hancock

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Ian Hancock
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erich Mueller on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LIN 306 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Ian Hancock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see /class/181566/lin-306-university-of-texas-at-austin in Linguistics at University of Texas at Austin.




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Date Created: 09/06/15
LIN 306 Sign language Sign languages are real communicable human languages deafmedical condition of deafness Deaf people who cannot hear What characterizes a real language Transmissioncommunication needs to serve every communicable purpose Conventionality Innate cognitive systems at work nthis shows a parallel between the development of spoken language and sign language Both went from iconic to idealistic Homesign system family with deafchild comes up with symbols they need to represent things Sign language is as userfriendly as spoken language Contrary to popular belief 0 There is not one universal sign language o If the spoken language is the same the sign language is not necessarily the same ASL vs British sign language Differences between spoken and sign language 0 Manually coded Englishtried to incorporate all aspects of language ie quotingquot 0 This doesn t work in sign language 0 Word order is different subverbobj in spoken vs subobjverb in sign Calque from English 9 ASL quothomequot quotworkquot take 2 signs literally in order to convey assignments done at home Phonology in sign language William Stocke o Phonemes are the smallest units in language essential to meaning have no meaning on their own 0 Manner of articulation in spoken bilabial fricative for example 4 Parameters of Structure Hand shape Movement Location PPN Orientation there are minimal pairs in sign language 0 Nonmanual markers Intonation Tone llWHAT are you writingquot Negationheadshake 0000 Topic she gave the example of wrinkling your nose in sign language to refer back to a topic which was already mentioned Morphology smallest unit of language that carries meaning on its own 0 Le pronouns in sign language you always know the object unlike English This is called agreement morphologybw subj and verb there are tenseaspect markers 0 tense time pastpresentfuture o aspectnature how it happened I progressivehappening right now habitualalways happening 0 simultaneous morphology don t chronologically add new element add another that occurs at the same time 0 Latin became lingua franca for administration 0 Mostly church 0 Prescriptive Englishbooks full of rules prescribes how English should be spoken 0 Book English is just another dialect Not better just more appropriate in certain settings 0 Also referred to related to classical tradition and traditional grammar 0 Descriptive English how we actually speak what we have picked up doesn t necessarily follow rules 1940 s discontent with traditional grammar CHARLES CARPENTER FRIES 1952 The Structure of English o Argued for descriptive approach instead of traditional grammar o Imagined that a foreign species were to come to Midwest and write descriptive grammar on what they heard 0 This is what that book described grammar as it was 0 Used telephone conversations as corpus 0 Communication elements Fries removed 0 Suprasegmental features The study of phonological features which apply to groups larger than the single segment such as the syllable or the word I Tone I Accent I Intonation o Phatic communication I Colloquialisms o Haptic communication I Cultural elements I Haptic touching proximity 0 Created categories of words 0 Called them constituents not parts of speech I 4 form classes 0 Noun verb adj adv I 16 function words 0 Conjunctions etc 0 Immediate Constituent Analysis ICA o What parts of the sentences are more intimate with each other 0 Can have branching or linear representation 0 Look at diagrams that he drew on board I llThose happy boys sat quietly in the classroomquot 0 Make sure you understand the difference between immediate constituent and constituent Remember the apple pie metaphor All are constituents but filling and crust are immediate Noam Choms 1957 S ntactic Structures Follows up on Fries s work 0 Says Fries doesn t handle ambiguity I quotVisiting relatives can be irritatingquot Can have 2 meanings Therefore it s two different sentences 0 Saw language as the end product of an assembly line ingredients put together in the mind and then spoken Deep structure vs surface structure 0 Surface structure is the finished product 0 Deep is what happens in the brain before surface Tried to reduce sentences in a mathematical way using formulas o Kernel sentence patterns 0 Le KP1noun verb quotJohn runsquot PHRASE STRUCTURE RULE early attempt to compress all possible sentence structures into 1 formula 0 S 9 NP AUX VP NP DET N AUX VP VB NP 0 Any sentence consisted ofa noun phrase an auxiliary and a verb phrase I Transformational generative grammar I Trules o Tneg o Tcont o Tq yes or no question Tadvp o Adverbials manner place time Tauxdel the only auxiliary that can be delted is quotdoquot Tcleft quotWhat ate the cheese was the mousequot vs quotWhat the mouse ate up was the cheesequot 0 Tapd agent phrase deletion o Tpass o Ttag quotShe is nice isn t shequot I DET articles demonstratives thisthat possessives Can be added to noun phrases I Look at branching and linear diagrams Remember that anything in parenthesis is optional to construction


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