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by: Erich Mueller


Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Linguistics > LIN 312 > LINGUISTICS OF E ASIAN LANG
Erich Mueller
GPA 3.8

Jason Baldridge

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About this Document

Jason Baldridge
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erich Mueller on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LIN 312 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Jason Baldridge in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/181571/lin-312-university-of-texas-at-austin in Linguistics at University of Texas at Austin.




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Date Created: 09/06/15
Overview Machine Translation El Current examples of machine translation El How can languages differ I Do differences in language lead to differences in thought The SapirWhorf hypothesis LIN 3123 Language and compUterS El Machine translation approaches Spring 2008 l rulebased Jason Baldridge I statistical machine translation Guest lecture Katrin Erk El What makes machine translation hard El Evaluating machine translation In what respects do languages Machine translation today differ El Google has a Translate this page button El German gt English translation the Spiegel online newspaper at spiegelde El Exploring Machine Translation I What language otherthan English do you speak Do you know an online news page in that language I Translation to English What are the problems Lexical differences between languages El I shot the sherrift No direct translation to German erschiessen shoot someone and that person is dead afterwards I anschiessen shoot someone and that person is wounded but not dead El lend borrow both translate to leihen in German El German Knopf can be either knob or button Lexical differences between languages some terminology El A hypernym is a more general term I furniture is a hypernym of sofa El Conversely a hyponym is a more speci c term I sofa is a hyponym of furniture El Hyponymhypernym relations between languages shoot is a hypernym of both German anschiessen and erschiessen English know is a hypernym of French savoir know a fact and connaitre be familiar with English hand and arm are hyponyms of Russian ruka Lexical differences between languages some terminology El Synonyms are words with the same meaning I like strongpowerful I or couchsofa El Synonyms between two languages El English book Russian kniga El English music Spanish musica Lexical differences between languages El Not always synonymy or hyponymyhypernymy between languages sometimes just meaning overlap El English leg tape journey jambe human pied chair patte animal El foot pied human patte bird El paw patte animal Representing semantic overlap Venn diagrams I elape H mm pa 6 A urry 1 1 EMA hquotd l V O N E 1 pa E E g l Differences between languages Multiword expressionsidioms El kick the bucket I means die I wordbyword translation to another language will be wrong El Conversely headline from spiegelde I Mit Tierschutz kraeftig Kohle machen translated as With strong animal protection make coal Gibberish I Kohle machen means make money Lexical differences between languages lexical gaps El Lexical gap a concept has a word in one language but not in another El Translation will then usually require a whole phrase El French gratiner means something like to cook with a cheese coating El Hebrew stam means something like I m just kidding or Nothing special Differences between languages collocations El It s strong tea not powerful tea even though strong and powerful are synonyms El heavy smoker l French grand fumeur great smoker I German starker Raucher strong smoker El Compare collocations and idioms Differences between languages light verbs support verbs El take into account take a walk I take carries little or no meaning I the meaning of the phrase comes from the noun I In this case take is a light verb El Light verbs usually cannot be translated literally l Often there will be a different light verb in another language I English take a walk French faire une promenade make a walk I English make an attempt Dutch een poging doen do an attempt Syntactic differences between languages El Word order I English Subject verb object SVO John sees a squirrel subject verb object I Japanese SOV I Arabic VSO Syntactic differences between languages El Fixedness of word order I English Subject object identified by their position relative to the ver Other languages like Czech Dutch German Latin freer word order El Hans sieht den Weihnachtsmann John sees Santa subject verb object El Den Weihnachtsmann sieht Hans Santa sees John object verb subject I works because of case markin der nominative case den accusative case The SapirWhorf hypothesis EIEI El El Edward Sapir 18841939 Benjamin Whorf18971941 Linguistic determinism Language shapes thought Weaker version A person s thoughts are influenced by the language in which they express them Influence of language on thought I through vocabulary l but through grammar as well


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