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Date Created: 09/06/15
Syntax 380L September 19 2003 l a student of Physics with long hair NP Dwecmw N N PPWWx A A N PPWmW NP P student with long hair of Physics 1 On differences between Complements and Adjuncts 11 Semantic Arguments Each N denotes a semantic property To attribute l to someone is to attribute two properties to them 7 one of studying Physics and another of having long hair On the other hand 2a b both involve only one property attribution that of being a student in 2a and that of studying Physics in 2b 2 a John is astudent b John is a student of Physics Note that the postecopular1 NPs contain only one N each On the other hand 1 contains two N s and involves two property attributions 0 In some cases PPs are quite unambiguously either adjuncts With long hair or complements of Physics In most cases however PPs don t so wear their complementadjunct status on their sleeves Consider the ambiguous 3 3 a student of high moral principles a a person who studies high moral principles b a student who has high moral principles This ambiguity can be characterized in structural terms on the reading in 3a the PP of high moral principles is a complement of student while on the reading in 3b the PP of high moral principles is an adjunct A similar point is made by 4 4 a Arguments with Tim are often pointless complement b Arguments with few premises are often pointless adjunct 1be is also called the copula a postrcopular NP is an NP that follows the copula Evidence for the proposal that With Tim in 4a is a complement and that With feW premises in 4b is an adjunct comes from the contrast in 5 5 a Arguments with Tim with few premises are often pointless b Arguments with few premises with Tim are often pointless 12 Syntactic Arguments 6 Phrase Structure Rules for Noun Phrases a N gt D N Determiner Rule b N gt N PP Adjunct Rule c N gt N PP Complement Rule One consequence of these rules that we saw last time is that a complement must precede an adjunct 7 a a student of Physics with long hair b a student with long hair ofPhysics These rules have other consequences too Note that the adjunct rule is recursive ie in principle it could apply an arbitrarily large number of times On the other hand the complement rule is not recursive ie it can apply only once These predici tions are borne out 8 a a student with long hair with short arms b a student of Physics of Chemistry Further unlike complements which have to precede adjuncts adjuncts can be freely reordered with respect to each other 9 a a student with long hair with short arms b a student with short arms with long hair 121 Coeordination Complements can be coordinated with other complements 10 a student of Physics and of Chemistry Likewise adjuncts can be coordinated with other adjuncts ll a student with short arms and with long hair But adjunct PPs and complements PPs cannot be coordinated l 2 a a student ofPhysics and with short arms b a student with short arms and of Physics Since 3 students of Physics and professors With long hair are both N s our analysis predicts that it should be possible to coordinate them 13 the students of Physics and professors with long hair 122 Extraposition Adjuncts are less tightly bound to the head noun than complements This can be seen by the fact that it is possible to extrapose adjuncts PPs but not possible to extrapose complement PPs 14 a 7 A student came to see me yesterday With long hair b A student came to see me yesterday ofPhysics 123 Preposing Complements and Adjuncts behave differently With respect to preposing 15 a What branch of Physics is Jack a student of b What kind of hair is Paco a student With Note that Complements and Adjuncts go in opposite directions With respect Extraposition and Preposing 13 Coioccurrence Restrictions Heads place signi cant restrictions ie subcategorise on What can appear as their complement l 6 a a student of Physics b a boy of Physics c a girl of Physics 1 a teenager of Physics e a goth of Physics No similar restrictions are imposed on adjuncts l 7 a a student With long hair b a boy With long hair c a girl With long hair 1 a teenager With long hair e a goth With long hair Generalisation heads are more closely related to their complements than to their adjuncts Sub categorisation restrictions hold only between a head and its complement not between a head and its adjuncts 14 Some more examples Complements 18 a your reply to my letter b the attack on Starr c the loss of the ship fl Joan s disgust at Tamara s behavior e his disillusionment with life Adjuncts 19 a the book on the table b the advertisement on the television c the ght after the match 1 his resignation because of the scandal e a cup with a broken handle 15 NoniPP Complements and Adjuncts So far we have only considered cases ofPP complements and adjuncts Can other kinds ofphrases also be complementsadjuncts of nouns Complements It seems that only FPS and full clauses Ss can be complements of nouns 20 a the suggestion that we should abandon ship b the demand for him to resign c the question whether euthanasia is ethical On the other hand a much wider range of phrases can occur as adjuncts eg temporal NPs APs and Relative Clauses 21 a the N1 abolition of taxes Np next year b the N1 students of Physics AP absent from class c the Nr king of England 3 who abdicated The greater freedom found with adjuncts re ects the fact that fewer restrictions are imposed by a head on its adjuncts than on its complement 16 Complex NPs What happens when the PP complement or adjunct itself contains a nontrivial NP ie an NP with internal structure 22 a an advocate ofthe abolition of indirect taxation b a woman with an umbrella with a red handle c his dislike of men with big egos How can we account for the ambiguity of 23 23 a woman with three children with ginger hair 2 Prenominal Modi ers Nouns can have three different kinds of prenominal ie preceding the noun modi ers Determiners a Attributes Prenominal Adjuncts Cambridge Complements Physics 24 a Cambridge Physics student We already have the following two phrase structure rules 25 a N gt D N Determiner Rule b N gt N PP Adjunct Rule c N gt N PP Complement Rule In addition we will add the following two rules 26 a N gt NP N Adjunct Rule b N gt NP N Complement Rule Consider the two readings of 24 27 a a student of Physics in Cambridge b a student of Cambridge Physics as opposed to New York Physics The case of 27b is somewhat straightforward so we can set it aside for now As for 27a we know from our discussion on postnominal modi ers that in 27a ofPhysics is a complement and in Cambridge is an adjunct lfwe want to maintain maximal structural symmetry between 24 and its postnominal version in 27a we are led to the following structure for the reading of 24 paraphrased by 27a 28 Cambridge NP N Physics student 21 Evidence for the above tree 0 Ordering We know that complements have to be closer to the head than adjuncts while adjuncts can be more freely reordered with respect to each other Note that Cambridge and Physics cannot be reordered Physics has to be closer to the head noun 29 a a Cambridge Physics student b a Physics Cambridge student 0 Coordination Prenominal adjuncts cannot be coordinated with prenominal complements a several Physics and Cambridge students b several Cambridge and Physics students c several Physics and Chemistry students 1 several Cambridge and New York students 30 Also since both Physics student and Cambridge Physics student are N s they can both be coordinated with another N 31 a a Cambridge hockey player and Physics student b a hockey player and Cambridge Physics student 0 Recursion The attributeadjunct rule is recursive the complement rule is not This means that we can have an arbitrarily large number of attribute adjuncts but only one complement 32 a a Physics Economics Agriculture student b a Cambridge middle class student c a middle class Cambridge student 22 The PrenominalPostnominal Parallel In general for most postnominal structures whether they involve complements or adjuncts we can produce corresponding prenominal structures 33 a i the ban on controversial art Complement i the controversial art ban b l lCLl ulLiucuL OfJ quot C J personnel recruitment the shop on the corner Adjunct P the corner shop 39 the lady of iron Adjunct i the iron lady fl However there is a difference 7 only nominals can occur in the preverbal position Unlike post nominal modi ers which could be PPs prenominal modi ers can only be NPs or adjectives 2 Not all postnominal modi ers can be paraphrased by prenominal modi ers 34 a the carrot on the pan b the on the carrot pan c the pan carrot Further the meaning ofa prenominal modifer esp if it is an adjunct can differ substantially from the postnominal PP version 2Also participles as in the eaten apple
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