ISS & POLICIES AMER GOV
ISS & POLICIES AMER GOV GOV 312L
Popular in Course
Popular in Government
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Date Created: 09/06/15
GOV 312L LECTURE NOTES Introduction Functions and Values Four Functions symbolizes the nation materialistic represents all of the citizens uni es and connects the diversity of the people intangible can be psychological relief and reassurance personalize symbolic style depending on current issues and mood ex Washington create respect for office through grandiose ceremonies but not like monarch Nixon restore respect for of ce through formal style and strict demand of respect from public Jefferson decentralize power of office as citizen s president more informal and closer to people Carter decentralize power of office after Vietnam War and Watergate scandal as Jimmy promise of truth less formalroyal advocacy of policy 7 president leads debateful Congress and develops policy agenda diagnose problem gt find solution gt advocate it partisanship mediation 7 authoritative figure but have to create agreement and unity between two large groups within nation ex Washington s Cabinet 7 Hamiltonians vs Jeffersonians crisis manager 7 public ock to presidential support at times of crisis ex approval rating increase Three Values effectiveness morally right prudence 7 safe cautious responsible not reckless ex Reagan portrays Soviet as evil on radio news ioke slip Kennedy blockades Cuba during Cuban Missile Crisis risking war with Soviet The Presidential Imperative public support is the key to presidency Congress 7 public stress for majority support to smooth way to pass important bills foreign 7 unified public support strength les chance of foreign attack public image 7 positive characterization of president through media feels good 7 positive feedback enhances conduct and psychologically benefrcial C 39 39 39 39 imand Support doing bad things ex crisis level budget deficits avoid addressing controversial problems stretch truth negatively in uences public distrusted George Washington s Farewell Address solution Presidency Defined and Launched Article II very general shorter simpler and broader definition of presidential powers to avoid weaker oppositions to suit many scenarios and they couldn t agree on the specifics Framers Views 7 of Presidencv and Citizens people play a part in directly electing House representatives but not Senate of President citizens not educated enough they could be manipulated by emotionalism had no means to run uni ed campaign and election gt establishment of Electoral College voting restrictions white male property owners etc creates elite electorate George Washington Why Indispensable most supported war hero gt public unity trustworthy and sel ess Personal Presidential Model set precedent of presidential role 7 strong above Congress dictates foreign policy demanded respect from people De ning Actions British enemy and worsening economy angry agrarian rebellions on taxes gt creation of army to put it down gt only way to change policies is to build political strength to change it yourself not by disobeying it Conclusion emergence of dangerous factions and political parties presidency is in charge of national policy and setting agenda since no other institutions can Washington lended prestige to presidency usually other way around established presidential dominance over Congress deciding policy president able and willing to use power and force to enforce law new presidency launched but left seriously disgruntled embittered and alienated people but power stay in dominant faction until end of Adam s term Presidency Democratized Democratization Defined to organize votes to create electoral and political power for use by president to push a policy agenda Thomas Jefferson Man and Motive Man of Contradiction 7 wanted to weaken executive power but ended up strengthening it became president to combat past presidents wrongdoings ex bad economy trampled civil liberties dangerous military buildup Alien and Sedition Acts friend of the people icon of democracy trusted the people and their judgment Democratizing the Presidency gets control of Judicial and Legislative branches and dismantles policy regime Prerogative Power originally strict constructionalist but utilized great prerogative power ex makes Louisiana Purchase against Constitution Jefferson forced to deal with the pressures and realities of responsibility with principles by tossing law over the side at times of real need if public dislikes it then rebel or don t reelect Conclusion 397397 vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv Interlude The Monroe Doctrine splits hemispheres for good asserts US power and president dictates foreign policy Andrew Jackson More Democratization brings presidency more closer to people citizen s presidency expends electorates to nonpropertyowning people not just elites Clay s Corrupt Bargain and John Q Adams in ames public more speeches directly to the people presidential mandate comes from people and president is the messenger and representative of the people The Man populist hero fueled by emotion and resent charismatic 7 emotional control of all people even enemies Partisanship anal Political Parties political parties born out of passion western fa1mers and middlelower class form distrust of bank creditors and elites gives rise to recent form of political party True Believers passionate tradition faith allegiance vs Pragmatists career politicians winning appealing Jackson saw those in opposition as not legitimate and despoiling Constitution national nominating conventions separate voting from government moving away of politics from tradition Jackson s Use of Power traditional veto rare and only used against anything clearly unconstitutional taking away presidential power or if bill poorly drafted never from just disagreement Bank Policy Veto 7 thought the bank largest institution with most political and economic power unfair to normal people and created bad alliance between elites and government gt vetoed Congress measure of early renewal of bank charter advocated that president and Congress had joint right to decide constitutionality of law over Court gt opposition forms Whig party presidential veto a powerful weapon against Congress shift in balance of power veto bargaining to pressure favorable change in bill before being submitted South Carolina Nullification 7 controversy over Tariff of Abomination on British imports to protect American industry gt cotton and crop sales to Britain manufacturers drop gt southern states rebel and nullify it gt Jackson sends military against constituents gt nationalizes their legislation passed more feasible Tariff of 1832 ironically people remained supportive even though they had to suffer Treatment of Native Americans 7 Indian Removal Act ignored Georgia s unconstitutional eviction of Cherokees Trail of Tears in Worchester vs Georgia Conclusion tempestuousness emotional charismatic political leader stereotype defies and ignores Court defies veto power gt unprecedented more autonomous reinvents presidency by redefining role of presidency with other branches creation of new political party under his leadership had strong unprecedented policies and politics but had bad results Presidential Morality and Power Introduction Folk 7 effective user of propaganda Polk the Mendacious goaloriented micromanager Lincoln 7 political authenticity truthful and straightforward crisis model James K Polk Leadership Problems use of strategic deception as source of power to rally temporary support and achievement manipulative Methods promised cabinet position to Van Buren faction but didn t later aggressively supported Oregon people obtaining land from Britain but secured less desirable land to avoid war supported internal improvements for faction votes but vetoed bill once in office signed antislavery Free Soil bill despite promise not to to proslavery hometown TN purposely provoked bloody war with Mexico to gain military right to forcibly take California to ful ll Manifest Destiny gt Whigs the only opposing force ex Lincoln Legacy made huge and significant achievements but through highly questionable means systematically separated appearance from reality as leadership strategy to strengthen office and make very difficult things happen mistrust from political manipulations so corrosive to body politics that it shouldn t be embraced ex Machiavelli Nixon Reagan Bush 11 vs it s so essential to democracy that it should be embraced ex Jefferson Carter Lincoln Abraham Lincoln Importance citizen s presidency maintained astonishing character of political sophistication humanity and empathy even during crisis willingness to violate Constitution in order to preserve and effectively use it offers model rooted in authenticity rather than manipulation Leadership Challenge minority president gt didn t have authority to act when southern states seceded only power he had was force during crisis Civil WarActs and Questions increased military session when House was out of session military blockade on South without authorization of Congress suspends habeas corpus without authorization of Congress he had justified threat ex DC surrounded by hostile southemers and expectations of future approval he had to go that far since force was his only power source saw it as internal resurrection and not war exercised extensive power but many say it was not severe enough ex didn t hang deserters had every opportunity to be a tyrant but chose not to ex allowed election of 1864 to go forwards during war risking losing presidency Horrors of War the worst bloodiest war in US history over 600000 deaths proved to world that US democracy is durable enough to withstand internal disagreements Safire Column Civil War a War of Choice rather than War of Necessity to prove to rest of world peaceful succession could later lead to reconciliation but ghting and losing could have led to wasted bloodshed and permanent hostility most people ex cabinet opposed war but Lincoln fought not for unity but for democracy Legacy achievements 7 ended slavery preserved democracy union and Constitution preservation by going against it but Lincoln didn t want this to be precedent character 7 benevolent not power hungry tyrant better nature of our angels honest and bold about his thoughts and actions Lincoln Doctrine of Temporary Necessity 7 sometimes power must be justi ably expanded beyond limits but must not be permanent and be restored after crisis Presidency Modemized Introduction Modernized De ned expansion of government in power and size in order to deal with new problems modern emergence of mass media and Us as world power 1 864 1901 rare times when Congress runs the show in controlling currency industrialization postwar reconstruction Congress got 23 votes to override veto due to uni ed vengeance for South gt president didn t get chance for power or opportunity Veteran s affair and social services Beginnings postwar economic developments ex oil railroad companies had to be dealt with nationallyinterstately huge population growth gt intensi es economic problems Theodore Roosevelt Leadership Problem dif cult to moderate excess of industrialization ex monopoly population growth agrarian revolt class warfare gt initiated banking reform and trust busting by mobilizing government Stewardship Doctrine used to justify change in presidential character prerogative power Novel Methods de ned presidency as most prestigious platform to communicate bully pulpit exploited emergency news media for mass appeal printing and persuasion The Man put effort in systematically making his character more interesting like a rock star second truly charismatic president after Jackson forceful colorful amusing enjoyed the job appealing image gt helped bring attention to his policies and made it effective Domestic Policy 7 Hepburn Act trust busting against opposition of conservative republicans claiming violation of capitalism rallied public support through public speeches campaigns and letters to effectively put pressure on Congress rst time for this method illegalized monopoly and unfair pricing practices ex railroad with creation of Interstate Commerce Commission ICC Foreign Policy 7 Four Stories orchestrated rebellion in Panama to gain lands for Panama Canal illegal forceful and to prove to world US economic and military force power Germany and France blockade Venezuela to collect debts gt Roosevelt threatens for no foreign interference of Us and neighbors gt European powers back away too far for war gt established Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine US claims hemisphere offered to serve as mediator in RussoJapanese War gt succeeded to end war with contracts gt TR winds Nobel Peace Prize gt raised image of US fame and world player sent Navy on world tour to show off US military power to world get s through Congress disagreement by providing money to send out but not bring in troops Legacy didn t involve in war but made lasting and respectful impression had good character and popularity for public support to further raise profile of president and U S successfully moderated excess of industrialization saving capitalism from capitalism gt people impressed Woodrow Wilson Introduction Wilson not really destined for success as Democrat in Republican America Wilson s rhetorical presidency guided country more systematically like a teacher Signi cance Leadership Doctrine 7 New Freedom laid out and stressed to public the whole agenda through regular speeches conferences etc for rst time gt all policies passed in rst year ex major tariff reform federal reserve system income tax Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 Federal Trade Commission Foreign Policy Vision 7 WWI a war to end all war expanded govemment s power permanently new world order created postwar with League of Nation US didn t participate and Treaty of Versailles Character Question 7 Wilson stubbornly believed League of Nations was destiny and went on nationwide tour for support gt citizens unresponsive stroke ends tour gt weak League of Nations could have allowed for emergence of Hitler later Conclusion remains a signi cant president because of his leadership doctrine to pass legislations and inspiring rhetoric of idealism of proper place in Us and democracy in world affairs character is also a crucial element of successful presidency and not just talent alone Key Modernization Legislation Budget and Accounting Act of 921 Creates Bureau of the Budget Now Of ce of Management and Budget Requires Annual Presidential Budget 7 president coordinates requests of bureaucracy instead of Congress directly dealing with it Unintentional Shift of Power to Presidency Executive Reorganization Act of1939 Creates Executive Office of President Relocates BOB OMB to EOP Adds Legislative Clearance to Budget Clearance Additional Staff for President Franklin D Roosevelt Introduction name famous from TR willing to do whatever it takes unlike TR chose to be Democrat to be different from Republican family survival of Polio enhanced his strength and understanding of suffering was the only president to serve for more than two terms elected 4 times serves 3 full terms justified by crisis Four Contributions Adds to Crisis Power 7 amidst crisis of Great Depression and WWII Forges Intense Emotional Bond with Voters Promotes Shift to ProGovemment Values Oversees Expansion of Government and Presidency 7 EOP created made worldwide appeals Great Depression Problems 7 many Hoovervilles no social security nets 2530 unemployment Four Actions 7 FDR makes admirable inaugural address that lifted public spirits in promised action the only thing to fear is fear itself declared Bank holiday to buy time for banking fund backups to be made called 100 days of special Congressional session to pass major legislations ex send money to banks creates work programsalphabet agencies reassured and talked to public personally about his actions through fireside chats Social Security Act of 1935 7 established age and unemployment insurance conservatives thought it bad and dangerous for capitalist economy become the one area untouchable by presidents third rail of train Politics 7 Class Warfare 7 FDR meets anger and hatred of Republicans with smile go ahead and hate me World War I Grave Threat 7 Hitler had potential to take over war with atomic bomb threats government became economy during war with 70 of GDP gt huge debts US has to pass two neutrality acts to avoid wars in Europe Mobilizing America for War 7 FDR senses threat and tries to convince public for war ex woo public that Democracy is at threat invited British family for visit went around neutrality acts by lend lease scheme of armament support to Britain to fight depression Pearl Harbor 7 provided trigger to join war Dr WintheWar gets America fired up for mighty victories Horrible Choices 7 beat Germany making atomic bomb and took initiative in using first nuclear weapon gt changed world terror unleashed nuclear weapon to world FDR denied Jewish immigrants antiSemitism to not upset American people rounded up JapaneseAmericans into concentration camps an embarrassment FDR might have let Pearl Harbor happen to convince public to join war Understanding with News Media FDR crippled from Polio gt aides help create healthy illusion to get trust from public media agrees to protect credibility due to crisis times Conclusion FDR had ability to inspire mass and make them believe that things can succeed ex WWII built and strengthened organizational capacity of executive office with help of Brownlow Commission made the ending of the Great Depression happen Vietnam and Watergate Introduction marks beginnings of American people in mode of suspicion of president and govemment s integrity and honesty morality dimension criteria of presidential evaluation gain emphasis ex Congressional backlash against presidency to weaken power ex War Powers Act Budget and Impoundment Act Federal Surveillance Act end of unspoken agreement between president and media critical and revealing of presidency emergence of unlikely presidents ex Carter Ford Lyndon B Johnson War vs Great Society contributed needs of disadvantaged poor and middleclass Americans like FDR ex tax cuts Civil Rights bill antipoverty program mass transit legislations Medicare Education Act Housing Act Voting Rights Act Vietnam crisis undermines presidency and kills Great Society Escalation unsuccessful bombing campaign attempting to repel North Vietnam and bring war to negotiations without major American military intervention had political capability and capital to withdraw from war in American interest but didn t due to fear of being labeled as coward sends more and more troops over to Vietnam unprepared but with limited military action in fear of provoking China and Soviet into war could ve been easily won Temptation and Deception misleads public and Congress about full nature of involvement never announced count on troop deployment used defense department budget without open Congressional discussion in ation sparked by war de cit but refused tax increase to keep secret spoke of war in rosy optimistic terms even when it was heading towards deadlocks North Vietnam fail in Tet Offensive gt US people portray it as defeat for America gt optimism credibility of Johnson erodes trusted Cronkite goes to Vietnam and reports the costly and difficult war refutes government optimism gt Johnson loses popularity and credibility not running for reelection Conclusion America did not use full military power to avoid Soviet and China con ict and lost 58000 deaths and 686 billion wasted weakened foreign policy consensus behind communism containment and towards defensive behaviors while ghting internally about what the policy should be generation of war protestors with negative attitudes towards government and presidency attitude of skepticism toward government and presidency faith and trust in president and government had never been regained since then Preliminary Appraisals Nixon 7 Tragic Flaw geopolitical strategist most visionary lacked selfcontrol played China and Soviet against each other gt reduced tension between Soviet and US guiding Cold War to end ended Vietnam War by achieving peace with honor in spite of all his impressive talent was a paranoid meanspirited negative person who couldn t tolerate opposition despite his popularity seeing it as treason and sabotage excessive paranoia brings his downfall ex denied Watergate breakin instead of apologizing gt accused as liar elevated scandal respect fell talent alone is not enough to be effective president Ford 7 The Healer no complex personality problems no dark schemes etc open straightforward and unpretentious first appointed president not elected wanted to be reelected changed atmosphere of presidency after Nixon s scandal had little ambitious policy agenda but wanted strong economy pardoned Nixon to end scandal and allow country to heal gt public sees it as nasty inside deal gt loses reelection Carter 7 Do the Right Thing best expresident in American history but not the best president in ation Iranians take Americans hostage tried to do too many things at once and couldn t chose between the important issues did right things at great political costs ex gave Panama Canal back to Panamanians reformed civil service system orchestrated extremely risky first major breakthrough towards peace in Middle East ex Egypt Israeli Accords Camp Davis Peace Accords gt Nobel Peace Prize in 2002 Reagan 7 Power of Likeability Through Policy Clarity and Optimism focused on a few big policies and made it very clear about current status and workings to public altered direction of government away from Truman and FDR toward more modest less ambitious government that made fewer economic demands especially in taxes controversial unfailingly optimistic devised strategy for dealing with new media turning it from liability to asset Bush I 7 Prudence and Irony cautious handling and ending of Cold War without major bloodshed Berlin Wall and Soviet breakdown done with remarkable skill and relations with other countries sought to do what was right over political reputation like Jimmy Carter ex courageous tax raise and spending cuts to better economy at risk of alienating conservatives and losing reelection Clinton 7 Undisciplined Talent Clinton had successful campaign and beat Bush I comes to presidency in time or new world order after Soviet breakdown implicated rigorous economic policies especially in international trade ex formed WTO made tax raise and spending cuts to combat budget de cits had surplus for a time wasted his talents on personal problems instead of using it for politics and good of the country Bush II 7 High Stakes Gambler willing to take huge risks on scary and controversial issues with breathtaking audacity ex Iraq invasion integration of church and state by giving federal money to churches to help poor y tax cuts 1 v ial 39 39 policies etc different unusual and interesting character The Lessons of Presidential History Results Count most popular presidents made actual lasting things happen gt appreciation of nation The Relationship Matters creating connections between president and people power benefits trustbased support citizens presidency ex Jefferson Jackson FDR Deception is Risky could undermine trust of power gt loss of support power and in uence ex Johnson Polk Presidential Power is Renewable president is the only crisis troubleshooter body so even when president is unpopular people still revive dependency when crisis occurs ex Bush II during 91 1 gt keeps presidency strong peaceful transfer of power and resetting of president after every new president Great Expectations huge and often irrational levels of expectancy of performance from public as consequence of the great and broad structure of the presidency Why Judgments Change Introduction Truman a very opposite figure from FDR 7 complicated portly spoke with western accent Ham S Truman The M an had disconnect with FDR and was out of the loop as VP is a favorite of all presidents because he had the ability to raise himself up for reelection at times of adversary but was rarely popular during actual presidency Domestic Policy 7 Political Confrontation public wanted some down time after FDR s political activism but Truman push on with Fair Deal for Social Security Medicare etc gt Republican Congress furious and vetoes many bitter ghts Congress tried to undo some New Deal legislations issued executive order to desegregate military gt very controversial but set in motion racial integration went up against popular Dewey for reelection but Truman wins very unexpectedly called Congress to special session DoNothing Congress and made Congress reject Truman s plans gt created topic of reconnect with public by claiming aggressively that Congress did nothing for poor and minority Foreign Policy 7 Cooperative Credit Sharing and War Power Expansion FDR died before atomic bomb so Truman bombs Japan to end WWII Soviet supported communist insurgencies in Europe gt Truman resists Soviet communism spread justi ed as US duty to preserve freedom Truman Doctrine gt highly popular in America US helps postwar Europe and Japan reconstruction to resurrect democracy through Marshall Plan with cooperative creditsharing spending over 13 million gt highly popular boosts image proves altruism Truman willing to let Republicans into decisionmaking of passage of bipartisan Marshall Plan NATO created between Europe to prevent Soviet expansion Soviet testing of atomic bomb in 1949 Mao Zedong communist regime overthrows China McCarthy elevates con ict of communism hatred in US North Korea invasion of South gt heats up partisan war again people think Truman too soft on communism Truman sends troops into Korea without authority of Congress gt war power shift to president from Congress Conclusion Teaching 7 presidents like his guts and toughness to do what he thinks is right ex regain popularity during reelection hung in during Korean war even in face of unpopularity Legacy was careful not to do anything foolish with emotional intelligence ex stopped wardriven McCarthy from invading China after driving North Korea back presidential super cialities on the outside may not always be as important as what s on the inside Dwight D Eisenhower Context authentic and popular war hero had no real party side never voted but ended up running as Republican to ease down on previous Democratic activism was not as ambitious as FDR or Truman made no proposals in rst year Republicans wanted New and Fair Deals to be dismantled but Eisenhower rationalized it and only slightly manipulated it Policy undertook big government spending program building interstate highways to strengthen US military and economy power military intervention to force integration of Little Rock High didn39t really want to be too active in foreign policy but ended up having to Bricker Amendment passed by Republican Congress that required executive agreements to be passed by Congress as well gt Eisenhower vetoes cuts military budget using militaryhero card provided disciplined review of specifics of communist containment didn t choose to get involved in foreign communist wars secretively helped Britain reclaim their oil assets in Iran using CIA to topple Iranian government and restore original ruling family Sources of Popularity Above the Battle Stance 7 nonconfrontational and chose to conduct himself in a way elevating him above political con ict as unifying symbol HiddenHand Strategy 7 disguised major foreign policy action ex Iran Eisenhower persuaded Senate to put McCarthy s investigation of US Army suspected communist sympathizers on national TV gt public stunned and outraged subject to media criticism gt alcoholism revealed and attacked marked his fall McCarthy Case 7 more poisonous anticommunist atmosphere especially toward government and sensitive job people gt McCarthy becomes untouchable but some brave journalists calls him demagogue and bully who s gone too far gt slows him down a bit Legacy Fit Style to Context remained less focused bright or concise in press conferences to sustain nonthreatening image HiddenHand Strategy a deliberate strategy gt people loved him but experts felt Eisenhower was incompetent gt but later realizes Eisenhower as concise behind scenes and chose public support over image reputations change over time public tired of presidential activism and controversies so Eisenhower wanted to create different image while keeping public support strategy not so possible in modern times leadership magic behind the scenes gt was a likable man I Like Ike strategy worked well for him but was based on misrepresentation of his true character to public and critics gt is this appropriate for a true democracy John F Kennedy Introduction Paradox did not have the best actual performance and record but loved by people Policy Record 7 Bay of Pigs Invasion a failure gt lowered professional reputation raised public reputation not effective legislatively due to difficulties in Congress formed Peace Corps tax cuts favored and passed by Republican Congress geared down Cold War ex Cuban Missile Crisis Why an American Hero 7 gave inspiring civil rights speeches but didn t do anything daring inspiration to put man on moon had ambitious goals assassinated young gt lasting image to public first president with courage to have live press conferences gt confident willing to make fun of himself rock star charming JFK 3 Reality Gap Nonexistent Missile Gap 7 campaigned based on exaggerated Soviet threat hysteria with Sputnik launching and furthered nuclear advance Secret Illness 7 took mindaltering drugs for adrenal insufficiency and other diseases back injury gt physical wreck candidate disqualification threat if disclosed gt kept secret but is it right Promiscuity 7 reckless sexual relations with ma a intern women etc gt media kept it secret to prevent further US crisis Lessons For Politicians 7 created first campaign organization without major party help gt tough and nonbashing campaign future presidents want to have magic like Kennedy because people tend to overlooldtolerate politicians with charm For Citizens 7 a mistake to idolize politicians gt distorts judgment encourages more misrepresentation reality gap at price of political success inspiration best taken in moderate amounts Introduction The Grounds for Judgment Here and Now Focus judgment and evaluations of current and future presidential leadership state of the art in presidential practice degree of difficulty higher in in uencing domestic then foreign front Objective vs Subjective Criteria objective 7 things in real world as tangible brute facts people need awareness of what s going on subjective 7 things applied based on own values beliefs ideologies and selfinterest varies from person to person can t be formed without knowledge of workings of presidency incompleteuninformed some people use party ID as shortcut or used as moral filter The Citizen s Dilemma people don t know the long term results but try to know based off only shortterm results shortcut Partial Solutions Historical Sensitivity gain context to interpret what s going on through knowledge and wisdom or past examples Self Awareness don t let personal emotions get in way of seeing truth and reality know thyself cold reasoning ex scientific logic objective vs hot reasoning ex hunches intuition emotions subjective Public Interest Perspective individual must prevent overemphasis based on selfinterest for public good ex emergence of wealthy privateinterest groups cloud presidential judgment Know How Presidency Works combats tendency of people s impossible expectations on president with better knowledge of what they re evaluating The Campaign for Of ce Why Important campaign marks start of relationship between president and citizens majority decides president gt basis of democracy citizens are the source of presidential power highly covered critiqued and visible to world symbolic and model of representative democracy barometer of health of American democracy prove to world competence Sure Achievements used as means of identifying next president power passes majestically and peacefully even after very bitter campaigns people temporarily forget all tensions after president elected honeymoon period long campaign period provides time to connect public with candidate gt total strangers can become president in a year whole process has become a working industry of politics Potential Achievements may attract better voter turnout could be structured to allow people to choose policies along with choosing president but depends on candidates ex A vote for Reagan means a vote for tax cuts Rival Models of Campaign Democracy Candidate Centered elections exist to settle powers struggles and anoint leaders campaigns are about the struggle between candidates candidates and presidents set policy and voters judge its results voter education and turnout are low priorities candidate dominance required justified by voter incompetence Voter Centered elections exist to protect voter interests campaigns are about informing and preparing voters voters must both in uence and judge policy to protect interests voter education and turnout required to protect voter interests voter dominance is the point of democracy The Electoral Triangle citizens 7 learn from media evaluate and vote for candidates if united can easily force media and candidates to respond to request but cases rare ex crisis due to lack of civic programming media 7 inform and protect citizens from manipulation more coverage 5 higher turnout inform of big US priorities emphasize policies and qualifications of candidates ex test truth claims people able to compare candidates side by side repetition to imprint candidate messages candidates 7 inform and respond to media questions explain policies and qualifications and inspire citizens ex slogans to show popularity Conclusion only way to address voter detachment with government policies is to inspire them dangerous citizens 7 if voter had strong sense of unity focus and ownership it is extremely costly for candidates and government to ignore votercentered expectations Domestic Policy Arena Introduction the place where all of president s ambitions tested sets the degree of difficulty the president will face in office Four Factors of Dif culty Controversial Issues fragile and sensitive and can cause great mass upheaval if mistaken ex healthcare immigration abortion gay marriage etc Competing Institutions struggle for power in in uencing policy ex President vs Congress Media Bureaucracy Interest Groups Lobbyists etc Polarized Parti sans opposing parties prevent president from passing policies ex no Republican support on Clinton s healthcare and budget no Democrat support on Bush II s tax cuts and Social Security reforms Self Interest Dominance many interest groups and local groups make specific individual demands president must make judgment prioritizing common good without upsetting individual groups 0 39 39 Pre idential Task amp Peqnnroeq president must be able to get through all the difficulties and obstacles to get policy agenda through use of bully pulpit and advisory system to help build a proactive agenda and be able to cope with the unexpected Confronting Congress Introduction 7 Purpose partisanship of president and Congress makes consensus on policy setting difficult public usually blames Congress on bickering and arguments president and Congress as cooperative unit vs president as leader of Congress and people Power Struggle Constitution constructed for deliberate confrontations to prevent tyranny separation of branches with checks and balances sharing power provided basis of power struggle federalism creates disconnect between interests and priorities state interest vs national interest House Senate and President elected at different times on different schedules organizational differences hierarchical presidency vs confederate complex rules Congress party loyalties and ideological differences complicates process Measuring Success mainly judged on success of keeping campaign promises and advertised policies policies passed that s important to president not usually successful the degree of skill of how presidents utilize available tools to make desired things happen despite difficulties Leadership Tools Formal and Informal Formal has no command authority to order Congress except call special sessions veto power messagegiving authority to give State of Union Address to make case for president s priorities power to control executive branch budgeting Informal party leadership 7 party member votes support party discipline important unity power personal relations 7 armtwisting especially when votes are close patronage 7 buying votes bargaining ex plane rides tax breaks dams etc vs compromise something better than nothing public relations 7 pressure on Congress through public support president may risk alienating Congress member by persuading its constituencies may not always work State of the Art Clinton Stage 1 election 7 ISI midterm 7 close to party followed advise ofpa1ty elders bulldozed Republicans and pushed through healthcare and tax increase Stage 2 lst midterm N impeachment crisis 7 triangulation with agenda theft to support and oppose both Republican and Democratic sides gt revival of leadership credibility Stage 3 impeachment crisis 7 end 7 ght for political life affair scandals alienated Democrats with healthcare but Democrats still tried to protect him didn t want to let Republicans take advantage public saw Republicans as too aggressive and harsh gt Clinton revives and finishes term without any success of good ending Bush I Stage 1 election 7 91 1 7 Bush wins by minority vote and close Supreme Court case gt people thought he was going to fail passed huge tax cuts with effective pressure on Congress through traveling speeches and with Democratic votes in Senate cuts deal with Ted Kennedy on No Child Left Behind education policy Stage 2 911 N 1st midterm 7 crisis and threat lead to great public support NY reconstruction Department of Homeland Security created Bush gain right to use force in Iraq Patriot Act passed Stage 3 lst midterm 7 Bush campaign aggressively against Democrats for Republican Congress seats gt successfully gained seats but destroyed unity of support and created polarized country Stage 4 reelection 7 pushed through another big tax cut and expensive Proscription Drug Bill with Democrat and elderly support Stage 5 reelection N 2quotd midterm 7 going public for support on Republican Social Security reform of investment plans and privatization fails Stage 6 2quotd midterm 7 end 7 Democrats recapture Congress gt rest of Bush s plans went dead ex immigration Social Security Democrats try to end war in Iraq but Republican unity blocks it ex libusters presidential vetoes Obama successfully passed three big legislative agendas Stimulus Package lSt Budget Healthcare Reform Bill criticized for not putting forward a detailed bill on Stimulus Package and Healthcare to avoid being attacked on details sticks long to bipartisan hopes and willing to deal with opposition didn t want con ict stayed above the battle let others do the arguing until the very end when he aggressively put everything out and made political risks passing it in the end courageously and con dently took on debates against best and brightest party enemies live on controversial issues Conclusion what matters is whether the policies that make the law of land turn out to deliver the goods future hypothesis on healthcare turnouts bill has to prove itself most notable policies are usually unaddressed or unsuccessful eX debt and deficit crisis immigration problem News Media The Classic Dilemma Introduction White House Press Corps now include press TV bloggers etc provides personal link between president and people both casually and formally gt illusion of familiarity political bias of news media could in uence or filter political news and opinions have adversarial and tense relationships believe they re not treated fairly enough but still dependent upon each other President s Goals wants to use star power bully pulpit charisma etc to set agenda tries to limit damage from media to his agenda policies and plans through secrecy and spin eX favorable interpretation of issues positive views Journalists Goals professional goal 7 covering important events and giving facts on presidential activity democratic watchdog goal 7 covering of presidential failures mistakes or abuse of power to protect democracy and citizens wolf pack journalism facilitated through freedom of press profit goal 7 covering stories that increase sales and ratings eX crisis scandals Johnson picking up beagle by ears showing surgery scar Five Case Studies Reagan the model press relation builder Te on president shifted media and president relationships advantages 7 negative public attitudes toward nasty press Reagan was a likable stage performer and professional actor who knew how and when to do things found opportunities for direct addresses to public kept president away from reporters by controlling press availability for easier protection of president physically and mentally sanitization of White House press conference by keeping control of press availability president chooses format of interview to facilitate and choose questions eX oneonone interviews exploitation of impact of TV through effective use of images message discipline 7 organizing scheduled White House and public appearances so that president set the agenda and not the press refuse to answeraccept questions unfavorable or not emphasizing his point also produced less informed public Bush I didn t really approve of Reagan s scripted orchestrated strategies and instead chose to casually put himself amongst press unprepared was very adept at giving answers that skillfully dodged risky questions seemed more open and accessible but was not very informative gt annoyed media in long run Clinton young articulate new face Democrat back in power marijuana story Jennifer Flowers story Whitewater Scandal went nowhere chose to implement staged event ideas like Reagan ex invited weather people reporters for supportive views on conference discussing climate control and global warming preferred oneonone interviews and town meetings with voters rather than with press for easy questions to give good comebacks slow and stingy giving out information gt worse media relations than Bush I Bush I managed to sustain media relations despite tough issues ex Iraq unsupported issues extraordinary message discipline with effective press conferences being courteous but controlling the agenda chose effective tough Press Secretaries had loyal leakfree staff learned from Bush I s dealing of Persian Gulf War on handling Iraq War media coverage and Iraq War pretty good and close to combat effective and truthful Obama follows Reagan s model with implemented new openness stayed away from main stream White House press reporters and formal press conferences preferred many oneonone interviews talk shows and intemet QampAs and talked about what he wanted to shape the agenda Conclusion The Dilemma who should win when press and president is in con ict people s right to know truth of presidential actions and incompetence vs president s need to control and spin information to avoid damage or defeat from negative coverage currently president has been pretty effective keeping secrets and control of policy agenda public tends to side with president expect with Bush II over press ex Watergate probably the last big press win healthiest if neither side wins and both sides respect each other with some tension to give people the sovereignty and power to decide Budgets and Economic Policy Context The American Economy Strongest in the World strongest economic force in the world dependence on China and Japan to fill deficits potentially dangerous Least Government Regulation based on privatization free markets and capitalism Problem Managing the Business Cycle less manageable of business cycle by government more susceptible to dramatic changes government attempt to gain more control through Employment Act of 1946 Tools Fiscal and Monetary Policy scal 7 manipulation through tax and spending legislations by Congress set and enacted through budgetary process controlled by president in uences consumer spending monetary 7 manipulation of supply of money in economy by the Federal Reserve through interest rates easier to lower interest rates harder to raise Budgetary Process an action forcing process actors play part according to strict schedules and timelines organized on basis of scal year October 7 September president reviews and organizes spending proposals of executive branch government agencies to OMB into revised budget emphasizing his own policies and submits to Congress gt debated in committees and subcommittees for approval or disapproval ex Clinton vs Gingrich budgetary freeze gt execution in agencies once authorized Presidential Accountability must manage all above elements budget setting has real substantial implications for power controlling fed politics choosing economic policy to be emphasized and policy in uencing aggregate scal policy and other economic policy Background Budget Dimensions Spending Policy Priorities Social Security baby boomer retirement and Defense spending makes up most budget and very hardimpossible to cut huge de cits over 13 trillion in debt debt 7 accumulated national de cits de cit 7 difference between income and spending of budget year Revenue Tax Policy makes most of the government income ex income tax foreign investments on US stock anther big source of income ex China gt interest rates must be kept attractive De citSurplus The Economic Policy Debate Obama had already spent a lot in rst half of term but plan to tighten economic regulation in second half to reduce de cit The President as Economic Manager Introduction president responsible in making budget recommendation to Congress responsible for economy people have excessively high and impossible expectations so what can the citizens expect The Economic Policy Domain president acts as manager but is limited in power of in uence president can command Executive branch ex CEA OMB Treasury Labor BLS etc but can only persuade other government sectors ex Congress Federal Reserve SEC etc private sectors ex business interest groups work force citizens etc and international sectors ex foreign government and investors OPEC etc The Economic Leadership Challenge president must persuade diverse audiences ex bully pulpit to believe that president knows the problems and its solutions but since much if beyond presidential control and good economic news is unpredictable it s hard to be or seem effective as the manager of the economy Economic Policy Tools and Resources president runs on premade plans and guidelines gt con dence of actions credibility to public actual legislative proposals ex tax cutsincrease stimulus checks etc con reassure audience that something is being done players on president s team can boost image con dence and popularity through con denceinspiring appointments can use political hardballing through anger and bully pulpit to put negative pressure on irresponsible economic people and businesses ex Kennedy crashes steel company raising prices and causing in ation with antitrust acts gt bad relations with bug business and industry Barriers to Economic In uence power shortage of presidents to make things work out very fragile public psychology ex consumer con dence easily in uenced by fear and panic there s no telling which economic theory is right or suitable for that time higher the de cit and debt the higher and more dif cult to use scal policy unreasonable expectations by public constraints outweigh the resources Conclusion Reasonable Expectations plan 7 see if candidates take time to diagnose and devise thoughtful and plausible plan driven more by logic than partisanship pitch 7 analyze the way president portrays himself and the problems in relations to plan problems 7 see if president is willing to do something even if not knowing exactly what to do Hoover test Foreign Policy Introduction foreign policy crisis usually takes over president s time and power ex Wilson 7 WWI Truman 7 Korean War LBJ 7 Vietnam Kennedy 7 Cold War Bush II 7 Iraq War most presidents acted to war according to US tradition but Bush II took preemptive attack on Iraq before real crisis occurred gt risky unpopular gt use of military power to overthrow government US a major player in world with military US dominance sheriff of world economic by same rules as rest of world huge player and social good will antiterrorism networking democratic model American cultural in uence interdependence president dominates foreign policy and national security ex Bush II Responsibilities clearly de ne national interest on issues and design policy that serves it ex Nixon and Kissinger clear and ef cient in ending Vietnam War US priorities divided into A list ex nuclear weapons hot wars B list ex relationship with China Iran Palestinians and C list ex Russia invades former territory Georgia and must be realistic and well grounded in analysis ensure enough military strength and capabilities for effective current national security ex control spread of nuclear weapons of postCold War era protect the economy in all ways relating to international relations ex fair currency trading trade barriers Resources commander in chief authority over strongest military by Constitution tradition of presidential dominance over foreign policy ex LBJ in Vietnam Bush in Iraq etc prestige and moral authority of bully pulpit nationally and internationally ex international broadcast to outline policy to prevent confusion special access to information through international networking of CIA NSA etc clarity of the president s foreign policy plan and public national interest to smoothen processes Constraints increasing fragility of US public consensus behind president s foreign policy people trust president less ex LBJ 7 Vietnam Bush II and Obama 7 Iraq as a world leader it s difficult to please all people of the world and gain full support ex people like Obama s respect but haven t really done anything tangibly supportive Congress opposition and public opinion have substantial power ex forced LBJ to abandon Vietnam limited resources reduce military power and in uential power ex economic recession Standards how coherent is president s articulation and execution of foreign policy on national interest ex values effectiveness prudence rationality what are the results the president is getting and is he doing what needs to be done overall ex Afghanistan War international trade it s always useful to triangulate own impressions of presidential policy and performance see all viewpoints and take in account distribution of opinions of others Evaluating Presidential Candidates quot J quot FiveTquot 39 ON 4 h39 presidents always have strengths and weaknesses and never perfection decision heretics 7 people may just vote with only party ID to chose presidents due to lack of time or interest or ignorance people seem to want whatever the last president didn t have Vision Goal Setting president acts as the dominant leader who eagerly sets the direction and tone of country through directional leadership ex Obama set on reducing partisanship in Washington DC and changing tone of relations with world during campaign specific policies and proposals lie under the general direction to support it ex Obama s financial reregulation Task Competence domestic vs foreign ex Obama lacked foreign policy experience ability and skills of candidate to make policies work out People Skills must be able to command respect of large numbers of people and handle hostile people Self Con dence any hint of insecurity or uncertainty greatly ampli ed and quickly leads to downfall ex Hoover during Great Depression Self Control presidents will be placed in situations under huge pressure frustration anger and risk of losing gt must be able to maintain cool ex Nixon loses his talents to ery emotions needs to decide when to act presidential and cool and when to strike back ex Obama laid back and cool at rst and strikes at end to push nancial regulation through Evidence of Candidate Quali cations Vision Goal Setting policy talk 7 advertised during the campaign may be based on policy partisanship or mood ex slogans Task Competence experienceresume 7 not a great predictor since environment changes once in presidency ex Buchanan had perfect resume but was incompetent and indecisive in of ce Lincoln unknown and had thin resume but was highly successful and made lasting impacts in of ce presidential homework 7 requires familiarity of past and present federal experimentations of issues ex national security economic policies need to have thorough knowledge and strategy to deal with problems ex Reagan didn t know what to do with US missile vulnerability from Soviet nuclear strikes gt window of vulnerability open big achievements 7 impressive victory or achievement over extraordinary or impossible things gt ability to cope in presidential environment where it s harder to deliver the goods ex Giuliani accomplished signi cant success to reform ungovemable New York Republican Thompson magni cently pushed controversial Democrat healthcare reform through with bipartisan support People Skills personalitylikability 7 positive in uence on public has signi cant impact can work at the margins and can give wiggle room for president in tough political environments ex Reagan FDR Clinton Leadership A bi lity selfcon dence 7 crucial element for presidency most evident during crisis and debates under pressure ex Kennedy makes clear distinction between Catholicism and government to skeptical audience and answers hostile questions with grace remained calm and serene in debate against experienced Nixon gt convinced doubters and critics of his president quali cations Self Control background check 7 Avoiding Troubled Candidates Troubled Past Candidates failure presidents couldn t control themselves very well ex Wilson Nixon s temper and rage disable his functionality and talents even seemingly and factually con dent people can break down under high pressure and demands of presidency gt candidates must be able to handle the work Four Personal Challenges challenges come from the presidential job deference 7 the president s symbolism is so highly depicted and respected that judgments may be distorted ex advisor House over atters Wilson Nixon s huge mistake of ring prosecutor Cox partly due to reluctance of advisors to honestly warn Nixon of dire consequences opposition 7 con ict between president s role to advocate policy and address citizens desiresopposition can lead to overreaction and forcing through policies ex Nixon stubbornly denied turning in Watergate tapes and forced down any opposition instead of apologizing workload 7 the stress good or bad of presidency that stems from presidential role as the crisis manager and policy advocate may cause burnout or checkout ex Carter saw everything as important and tried to do everything himself gt burnout Reagan delegated most of the work to others and was detached from work himself and was uninformed in the Iran Contra Affair gt checkout temptation 7 as a symbol of public it feels ok to present yourself better than reality to live up to high expectations ex secrecy spin deception presidents must sometimes face a tradeoff between being honest to public and advocating policy ex LBJ downplayed true costs of Vietnam to keep Great Society going Reagan played political hardball against Iranian terrorists publically but secretly sold arms for hostage release in Iran Contra Affair Caveats not everyone falls victims to all presidential challenges many are able to cope with and stay balanced gt use successes of past presidents to evaluate potential presidents Questions About Candidates do they let the power go to their head how do they react when thwarted and under pressure how do they cope with workload what reputation of character or personality do they have Course Conclusion structure 7 know about the workings details functions expectations and current demands of the presidency information 7 figure out the important dimensions of leadership that are relevant to doing the job successfully advice 7 keep up with the current state and triangulate opinions above and in between to get better view of the entire picture and to also prevent presidents temptation to manipulating uninformed public
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