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by: Billy Stokes


Billy Stokes
GPA 3.81

Bruce Buchanan

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Bruce Buchanan
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Date Created: 09/06/15
The Evolving Presidency 1 The Constitution 1787 The presidency the main innovation ofthe Constitutional Convention is created and its structures and powers outlined Articles of Confederation had many weaknesses insufficient powers absence of executive branch presidency the Constitution s most original feature Madison and feared both executive power tyranny and executive weakness anarchy Hamilton wanted oneperson quotGovernorquot chosen by electors with vast powers and lifetime tenure Article II president elected by Electoral College to 4 year term empowered to recommend and veto congressional acts to appoint with Senate s advice and consent judges and executive officials to command the army and navy to issue pardons qualifications ofpresident presidential oath Congress can t change salary of incumbent president Amendment XII 1804 required separate ballots for president and vice president Amendment XX 1933 presidential term starts Ian 20 previously March 4 Amendment XXII 1951 twoterm limit on president Amendment XXIII 1964 District of Colombia able to participate in elections Amendment XXIV 1964 barred poll tax from all federal elections Amendment XXV 1967 president may appoint vice president in vacancy with Congress confirmation presidential disability details 2 Letters of Cato Nos 4 and 5 1787 An An tiFederalist opponent of the proposed Constitution warns against the dangers of presidential power 3 unitary nature and strong power of presidency rouse fear of monarchy Cato attacked president as monarch in disguise Article II vague and inexplicit especially on election provisions upon expiration of office gt lifetime tenure gt create numerous train of dependantsaristocracy give means and time to perfect and execute ambitions magisterial situation of presidency gt surrounded by favorites and atterers has military power to crush opponents can order allies to commit crime and pardon them gt distorted judgment president is not directly elected by people vice president unnecessary and dangerous blends executive and legislative branches as head of Senate bias toward home state however there is a resemblance between the proposed national government and the state government The Federalist Papers Nos 6973 1788 A Federalist supporter of the proposed Constitution defends the republican character of the president as an energetic o ice president is freely elected not inherited term is limited and is subject to impeachment not granted lifetime tenure presidential veto can be overridden and has no absolute veto power president can neither declare war nor raise an army and military command may be limited by legislative provisions presidential pardon not valid in cases of impeachment requires consent of Congress for many acts like making treaties making appointments and receiving ambassadors presidential quotenergyquot required for defense of nation and steady administration oflaws unity gives president desirable qualities of quotdecision activity secrecy and dispatch along with quotvigor and expedition duration long enough to withstand passionate and impulsive actions while resisting pressure from Congress but short enough to prevent trampling of public liberty chance of reelection as incentive to do good and maintain stability support no restriction or temptations by Congressional manipulation of salary competent powers enumerated powers in Article II as shield and check 4 George Washington s First Inaugural Address 1789 Washington establishes the model for inaugural addresses sets tradition ofpresidential oath and inaugural address paid quothomage to the Great Author of every public and private good noting benign workings of quotprovidential agency in birth of US and urged Congress and American people to act with justice and magnanimity spoke of national unity and dedication to Constitution did not use address to make quotrecommendation ofparticular measures to Congress 5 James Madison s Defense of the President s Removal Power 1789 Madison persuades Congress that the president should be chief executive of the bureaucracy no provisions on removal power of executive branch gt who controls bureaucracy Congress has absolute power vs removal only through impeachment vs requires consent of Congress gt Madison says president has absolute power president must be able to control officials in uencing execution of laws to be held accountable for execution of laws state department bill gives president sole power to remove any state department s principal officers 6 The PacificusHelvidius Letters 1793 Alexander Hamilton and jam es Madison debate the extent of the presiden t s constitutional powers in foreign affairs dispute over constitutionality of president issuing a Neutrality Proclamation Hamilton as Pacificus argued for broad construction of presidential power vesting clause ofArticles I and II limits Congress to enumerated powers quotherein granted but gives president quotexecutive Power that extends beyond listings like neutrality proclamations Iefferson through Madison as Helvidius argued that neutrality was an aspect of treatymaking and warmaking powers and is not quotnaturallyquot executive and is instead legislative in nature 7 George Washington s Farewell Address 1796 Washington marks his retirementfrom the presidency and looks ahead to the Jture ofthe nation Washington releases his retirement letter 3 months prior to election to forestall any reelection efforts and reduce divisiveness of succession campaign set many precedents invented inaugural address formed heads of department into cabinets established principle ofpresidential leadership of executive branch ex removal power asserted president supremacy in foreign matters growing differences between the proBritish pronational government Federalist Party led by Hamilton and the proFrench prolocal government Democratic Republican Party led by Jefferson warned against quotSpirit of Party posing threats to national unity and involvement in foreign permanent alliances urged Americans to cultivate quotreligion and morality especially quotgood faith and justice to foster quotpeace and harmony 8 Thomas Jefferson s First Inaugural Address 1801 The rst peaceful transfer of power from one party to another Federalist Party pass Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 and 1796 gt Democratic Republican legislatures deny federal government s right to impose its laws on resisting states Jefferson wins tie between Burr Jefferson resists partisan triumph and says quotWe are all republicans we are all federalists but mentions some minimalist unFederalist philosophy of government repeals Alien and Sedition Acts but exercised substantial prerogative power with Louisiana Purchase of 1803 12th Amendment separated president and vice president voting ballots 9 Thomas Jefferson s Letter to the Vermont Legislature 1807 je ferson establishes the twoterm tradition for presidents Jefferson could ve won a third term weakening Federalist Party stronghold on DemocraticRepublican Party popular but refused to set precedent of two terms later made into 2 2 101 Amendment after conservative backlash on FDR s third term reelection 10 The Monroe Doctrine 1821 And early assertion ofpresidential power inforeign policymaking at a time when the presidency was otherwise weak Monroe faced an assertive Congress that dominated his administration in matters of domestic policy but he took initiative in reinforcing constitutional authority of establishing American policy in foreign affairs declared quotnew world ofAmericas offlimits to any attempts at colonization by the quotold world of Europe gt Congress took no action either to affirm or repudiate it gt bold assertion ofAmerican power and ofpresidential control of foreign policy protest from Latin America led to withdrawal of Roosevelt Corollary in 1928 11 The Tennessee General Assembly s Protest against the Caucus System 1823 The stage is set for the demise of the congressional caucuscen tered presidential nominating process since 1796 Federalist and DemocraticRepublican delegations made in Congress quotKing Caucus any state or district that did not elect a party s candidate to Congress was left out of the nominating process criticism intensify when only DemocraticRepublican ticket available in 1820 election general Assembly condemn system as violating quotSpirit of Constitution 1824 election mark its demise and move to national conventions consisting of delegates chosen by local party elections by 1830s 12 Andrew Jackson s First Message to Congress 1829 Thefirst outsider presidentgrounds his authority in quotthe will ofthe majority quotpeople s president lacked extensive experience represented rising tendencies of spreading West viewed national government with suspicion and ruled by eastern commercial elites first president of Democratic Party of quotthe humble members of society after unpopular Adams viewed that quotfirst principle of our system is that quotthe majority is to govern offered direct election ofpresident for single 6year term restoration ofpower to states and give government jobs to supporters to foster quotefficiencyindustry and integrity in government spoils system 13 Andrew Jackson s Veto of the Bank Bill 1832 jackson activates the veto as a strong and e ective power of the presidency saw the bank as everything he opposed favoritism for eastern commercial and financial elites excessive power of federal government and support for the opposition of National RepublicanWhig Party past presidents believed veto was only to oppose unconstitutional legislations Congress didn t get 23 votes and Jackson wins veto gt sets significant precedence 14 Abraham Lincoln s Letter to Albert G Hodges 1864 Lincoln defends his use of prerogative power during the Civil War Lincoln formally promises not to attack rights of slave owners in southern and border states but his opposition to extending slavery triggers secession Lincoln warns secessionists that they won t be allowed to leave Union peacefully called militia during attack on Fort Sumter unconstitutionally increased size of army ordered blockade of southern ports suspended writ ofhaheas corpus purchased military supplies imposed new passport regulations on foreign visitors issued Emancipation Proclamation and barred delivery of quottreasonable correspondence by post office violation of Constitution justified to preserve the Union 15 The Gettysburg Address 1863 Lincoln in an effort to give meaning to the war invokes the Declaration of lndependence s promise of equality and selfgovernmen t given in cemetery of 6000 casualties of Battle of Gettysburg as secondary speaker theme was the quotnationquot in the space of only 3 minutes and 272 words it solemnly and honestly acknowledges the awful pain suffered by quotthese honored dead while defining the war in which they fought as part of the enduring struggle to attain quotgovernment of the people by the people for the people 16 Abraham Lincoln s Second Inaugural Address 1865 Lincoln invokes God sjudgment on both sides in the Civil War as the hasisfor seeking national reconciliation address more like a sermon than a political speech instead ofaccentuating differences between virtuous North and villainous South used words describing similarity ex all are guilty hands stained with blood and both stand before the judgment seat of God gt theme unity quotnationquot states that judgment belongs to God and American people must act as agents of God s grace and mercy and show quotmalice towards none and quotcharity for all 17 EX Parte Milligan 1866 The Supreme Court proves more willing to curb presidential power after a war than during one Prize Cases 1863 rejects appeal that Lincoln s blockade illegal without Congress s declaration ofwar gt Congress must defer to president s judgment during crisis EX Parte Milligan 1866 Milligan arrested tried and hanged on charges of conspiracy to let Confederate prisoners escape Court later condemn government s assertion that in time of war it had the power to impose military trials on civilians even where the regular courts were functioning 18 Articles of Impeachment against Andrew Iohnson 1868 The rst president to he impeached is charged with abusing the removal power and defaming Congress through in temperate rhetoric Iohnson embroiled in a series of bitter controversies with Radical Republicans controlling Congress concerning reconstruction of South Secretary of War Stanton sided more with Congress and Congress protected him from being fired with Tenure of Office Act president can t fire Senateconfirmed appointee until Senate approves nomination of successor Iohnson replaces Stanton with Grant when Congress not in session gt Congress disapproves once in session and gives office back to Stanton gt Iohnson fires Stanton and appoints Thomas gt Congress opens impeachment inquiry against president accused of violating Tenure of Office Act and army command and speech ridiculing Congress gt Iohnson s lawyers argue that president was entitled to violate any law he regarded unconstitutional to bring issue before Court one vote shy of conviction Iohnson complete term as president 19 The Pendleton Act 1883 In the wake of presiden tial assassination Congress acts to replace the spoils system with a meritbased civil service meritbased personnel decisions made nonpolitically according to qualifications abuses of spoils system after war widely publicized bribery bidding incompetents assassination of Garfield by angry Republican not given office after his support gt Pendleton Act passed in 1883 created bipartisan threemember Civil Service Commission to help president oversee federal personnel system partisan activity nepotism and personal connections as reasons for hiring promoting and firing government employees replaced by competitive examinations and performancebased promotions and retention policies 20 Theodore Roosevelt s and William Howards Taft s Theories of Presidential Power 1913 1916 The Classic debate on the proper scope of presiden tial power and leadership T Roosevelt invigorated office with energy and initiative candidate of Progressive or quotBull Moose Party quotSquare Deal policies active in foreign policy stewardship theory president could do anything that the Constitution or laws did not forbid president acts for common wellbeing of people like a steward of the people Taft overly cautious and conservative seldom spoke out publicly in defense of policies neglected press let Congress do whatever literalist theory president could not do anything that the Constitution or laws did not permit 21 Woodrow Wilson s Fourteen Points 1918 Wilson attempts to endow the Allied victory in World War I with a moral purpose Wilson the only professional political scientist ever to implement his theories as president relationship between president and Congress should be marked by cooperation rather than con ict led newly invigorates Democratic Party quotNew Freedom agenda designed to organize power of federal government to check the power of large corporations quotrhetorical presidency believed that presidents should lead Congress by leading public opinion addressed Congress in person for support of tariff bill first time since Adams although Wilson tried to stay out ofwar in Europe US forced to declare war on Germany after trading threats WWI gt Lenin charges both sides ofwar for fighting for selfish nationalist reasons gt Wilson delivers Fourteen Points to explain US war aim defused Russian charges and infused warweary Allied nations with sense ofmoral purpose reluctantly accepted as framework for peace negotiations Point I openpublic covenants ofpeace Point II absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas Point III establishment of equality of trade conditions of peaceful nations Point IV reduction of national armaments Point V free openminded and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims Point VI evacuation of all Russian territory Point VII evacuation and restoration of Belgium Point VIII free and restore all invaded French territory Point IX readjustments of frontiers of Italy Point X allow for autonomous development of AustriaHungary Point XI evacuation of Rumania Serbia and Montenegro Point XII Turkish portion of Ottoman Empire assured secure sovereignty and Dardanelles permanently opened Point XIII erection of independent Polish state Point XIV formation of general association of nations warweariness ofAmericans reluctant to assume ongoing postwar involvement in world affairs midterm elections backfire and Republicans win control gt Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles including League of Nations 22 The Teapot Dome Resolution 1924 The nexus between congressional investigation and presidential scandal is forged Harding s term marked start oflull in period of presidential activism and progressive politics offered few legislative initiatives and allowed his partypicked cabinet to have free reign over departments Secretary of Interior Fall leased naval oil reserves to Sinclair without competitive bidding for several hundred dollars in bribes gt exposed after 18month investigation gt resignation of Denby cancellation of oil leases imprisonment of Sinclair and Fall firing ofAttorney General Daugherty who had refused to cooperate with Senate investigation and had ordered federal agents to spy on senators 23 Myers v United States 1926 The Supreme Court broadly interprets the presiden t s constitutional power to remove executive branch o cials Congress acknowledges Madison s presidential exclusive power of removal in 1789 gt Congress passes Tenure of Office Act to limit presidential removal of Senateconfirmed executive appointees in 1867 gt Congress passes 4year term on postmasters and required Senate approval for removal in 1876 Wilson fires postmaster Myers without Senate consent gt Supreme Court affirm president s exclusive power of removal and declared 1876 act and Tenure of Office Act unconstitutional 24 Franklin D Roosevelt s First Inaugural Address 1933 FDR reassures a desperate nation and asks Congress for quotbroad executive power to wage war against the emergency of econ om ic depression FDR s main challenge was to restore the people s confidence in government and raising their morale pledged to act quickly to combat Great Depression using and perhaps extending the full powers of the presidency to do so described presidency as a quotbully pulpit for moral leadership quotfireside chats revolutionize presidential communication to the people quotNew Deal emphasized presidentially sponsored government programs to support both the general goal of economic prosperity and the particular needs of people suffering from economic distress 2 5 Humphrey s Executor v United States 1935 The Supreme Court restricts to president s rem oval power FDR asks outspoken critic Humphrey of Federal Trade Commission to resign gt refuses gt fired gt executor of Humphrey s estate accuse government for firing for political and thus illegal reasons Court rules that Congress has right to remove employee of FTC since it was quotan administrative body created by Congress to carry into effect legislative policies gt infuriated FDR and took it as personal insult by justices gt provoked president to try to quotpackquot the court 26 United States v CurtissWright Export Corp 1936 The Supreme Court declares that the president is the nation 5 quotsole organ in the eld of international relations Congress passes joint resolution granting president power to prohibit sale of any Americanmade arms to Bolivia and Paraguay to limit Chaco War gt accused Congress for making unconstitutional delegation ofpower to president Sutherland ruled that the states never had power to deal with international relationships and so the national government did not need to rely on Congress and had sovereign powers otherwise limited by the Constitution president has all sovereignty over international affairs 27 Franklin D Roosevelt s CourtPacking Address 1937 FDR overreaches by attacking the Supreme Court and in the process sparks the creation of the quotconservative coalition in Congress Supreme Court decisions hostile to the New Deal gt privately enraged FDR gt asked Congress to add seats for every sitting justice over 70 who refused to retire chance to appoint 6 New Deal justices initially defended plan as an effort to relieve workload ofjustices gt inaccurate rationale implausible critics attack FDR s real intentions to dilute conservative in uence in Court gt changed tactics and spoke frankly of concern of Court quotacting not as a judicial body but as a policymaking body gt too little too late later 4 conservatives started voting to uphold New Deal laws and others retired 28 Report of the Brownlow Committee 1937 The origins ofthe modern White House sta f FDR s political activism and addition ofnew agencies staffed by Democrats he trusted created an administrative nightmare with ineffective communication gt appointed Brownlow to head Committee on Administrative Management to reform the executive branch to make it more efficient and responsive to the president Brownlow Committee recommended that president be authorized to hire 6 assistants and the creation of the Executive Office of the President to serve longterm interest of presidency including Bureau ofBudget and Civil Service Commission gt Congress angry over courtpacking scheme delayed it s passage 29 Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co v Sawyer 1952 justice Black s opinion of the Court and justice jackson s concurring opinion take dl39 erent approaches to restraining presidential power Truman sends troops and arms to South Korea s defense against North Korea s invasion with Congress declaring war gt fighting doesn t go well labor dispute of steel industry gt Truman ordered Secretary of Commerce Sawyer to seize industry out of fear ofjeopardizing production of arms acted as Commander in Chief of Armed Forces Court declares seizure order unconstitutional due to the rejection of amendment on TaftHartley Act that would have allowed it gt Truman s constitutional claim that president has inherent unstated constitutional power to act in times of national emergency accepted 30 Dwight D Eisenhower s Little Rock Executive Order 1957 Eisenhower uses the presiden t s quotexecutivequot and quottake care powers to enforce the integration of an Arkansas high school unenumerated executive order power exercised by president and backed by law usually to modify executive agencies and doesn t require Congress consent Eisenhower s lax on enforcing integration of public schools based on Brown v Board of Education 1954 gt governor Faubus deployed Arkansas national guard to prevent nine black students from enrolling at Central High gt Eisenhower issued proclamation for troops and mob to leave gt ignored gt issued executive order and sent 1000 armed paratroopers to Little Rock justified cause to put down rebellion and law interference gt mob dispersed gt Central High integrated 3 1 John F Kennedy s Inaugural Address 1961 The young president calls on the nation to quotsupport any friend oppose any foe in the cold war contrasting transfer of power from defender of caution prudence and restraint with an advocate of change and energetic leadership oldest to youngest president Democrat to Republican WWII combat hero to WWII supreme commander professional politician to military leader Kennedy emphasized youth and reached out to Soviet Union in address negotiated nuclear test ban treaty with Soviet and restricted communist aggression combination of Kennedy s youth and glamour and his sudden Violent death has given the late president a special place in the consciousness of the American people 32 The Cuban Missile Crisis John F Kennedy s Letter to Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev 1962 Crisis decisionmaking resolves the most dangerous international confrontation in history Bay of Figs invasion of arming training and landing 1400 Cuban exiles in Cuba to overthrow communist government of Fidel Castro a huge failure gt Krushchev adds missiles in fear ofUS attack EXCom suggests air strikes on missile sites gt Kennedy imposes blockade around Cuba gt most tense potential spark of nuclear war gt Krushchev sends conciliatory message and another harsh letter gt Kennedy ignores latter letter and agrees to end crisis by pledging not to invade Cuba and remove missiles from Turkey in return for Soviet removal of missiles from Cuba 33 John F Kennedy s Civil Rights Address 1963 In an effort to satis l national and international concerns for racial justice Kennedy urges the enactment ofmajor civil rights legislation ran for president as supporter of civil rights but didn t propose much new civil rights legislation to get votes form South once in office didn t press for any new civil rights laws and even resisted taking executive actions he promised ex ending discrimination in federally funded public housing Freedom Riders bombing riots civil rights campaigns and lawless behavior of southern whites and their leaders disgust Kennedy and hamper international relations Civil Rights Act of 1964 for equal rights and opportunities passed as one of the strongest and most effective laws ever enacted by the federal government 34 Lyndon B Iohnson s Great Society Speech 1964 johnson rouses public support for his ambitious domestic agenda persuades Congress to enact rest of Kennedy s quotNew Frontier agenda including civil rights act and large reduction in federal income taxes formed quotGreat Societyquot agenda for quotan end to poverty and racial injustice and quotto advance the quality of our American civilization ex Voting Rights Act Older Americans Act Freedom ofInformation Act Medicare and Medicaid legislations National Endowment of the Arts and Humanities Department of Transportation Department of Housing and Urban Development highway beatification urban mass transit these accomplishments although substantial did not fulfill Johnson s vision problems developed in the implementation of many of the programs poverty proved to be more intractable than he had imagined and war in Vietnam diverted attention and funding from the president s domestic agenda 3 5 Lyndon B Iohnson s Gulf of Tonkin Message 1964 Congress writes a blank check to the president to wage war in Vietnam Eisenhower sent weapons and economic aid to South Vietnam gt Kennedy added 16500 military advisors gt Johnson s aides privately draft congressional resolution for money to conduct war as he saw fit gt Johnson sees it to be too controversial gt Maddox and C Turner joy attacked unprovoked although Maddox was gathering sensitive intelligence information and South navy was attacking North gt sends Gulf ofTonkin message to Congress gt passed gt war becomes unpopular gt repealed Johnson resign resolution stated that Congress supports President as Commander in Chief and allows him to take all necessary measures to repel attack on US troops to prevent further aggression and assist South Vietnam Nixon ended direct US participation in war in exchange of prisoners Congress refused to allow Ford to reengage US in war when South Vietnam was toppling 36 Richard Nixon s China Trip Announcement 1971 The ultimate anticommunist uses secret diplomacy to open a relationship with the People s Republic ofChina Nixon s political career constructed on a foundation of anticommunism longstanding friendship between US and China ends when communist Mao Zedong overthrew Chiang Kaishek in 1949 Nixon announces travel to China in early 1972 at invitation of communist government quotto seek normalization of relations only a staunch anticommunist like Nixon could have ended American hostility to such a bitter enemy without provoking widespread political opposition part of motive was to take advantage of developing hostility between Soviet and China and play the communist nations against each other 37 The McGovernFraser Commission Report 1971 The modern presidential nominating process takes shape voted to require that all Democratic voters receive equal participation in selection of delegates in 1968 convention Democratic National Committee created Commission on Party Structure and Delegate Selection chaired by McGovern and later Fraser to implement decision McGovern Fraser Commission commission banned quotunit rule that allowed each state party to award all votes to majority candidate required racial minorities women and young voters to be proportionally represented and demanded that all convention delegates be chosen in an open participatory process either a primary or a caucus in which any Democrat could vote gt most states chose primaries Republican parties followed the lead prevented private negotiations with party leaders 38 The War Powers Resolution 1971 Congress tries to reclaim the war power from the president Congress pass War Powers Resolution in 1973 over Nixon s veto required president to consult with Congress before committing American forces to hostile or dangerous situations president is charged to report his actions in writing to congressional leaders forces must be withdrawn 60 or upon special request 90 days unless Congress votes to authorize involvement or can vote to withdraw it conservatives see it as quotboth unconstitutional and dangerous to the best interest of the nation liberals say that it will give president virtually all control of force for 90 days every president questions its constitutionality and very few have complied Congress seldom voted to start 60day clock and never when it mattered president found it more difficult to involve US in a drawnout Vietnamstyle war without congressional support law cannot substitute for political will if Congress intends to curb the president s role in war making 39 Proposed Articles of Impeachment against Richard Nixon 1974 The Watergate crisis brings down the president and his closest advisors five buglers secretly employed by Committee to Reelect President caught while stealing out illegal and unethical campaign activities Nixon and advisors tried to obstruct official investigations in a coverup Article I Nixon violates oath to quotpreserve protect and defend Constitution and quottake Care that the Laws be faithfully executed by withholding evidence condoning perjury approving payment of quothush money interfering with lawful investigations and making false and misleading statements Article II misused and abused executive authority and resources ofvarious executive agencies for Watergate coverup and covert breakins Article III not cooperating with the House judiciary Committee s impeachment investigation 40 United States v Nixon 1974 The Supreme Court acknowledges hut limits executive privilege Nixon refused to turn over secret audiotapes that could prove truth ofWatergate affair claimed that president s right to executive privilege for national interest justified decision not comply with subpoenas Court ruled that executive privilege does not outweigh constitutional right that defendants have to a fair trial and due process quotabsent a claim of need to protect military diplomatic or sensitive national security secrets executive privilege must give way to proper subpoena Watergate tapes prove Nixon s crimes gt Nixon resigns 41 Gerald R Ford s Pardon of Richard Nixon 1974 Ford jeopardizes his political standing by exercising the presiden t s only unchecked constitutional power on behalf of his predecessor pardon power the only constitutional power that cannot be checked by Congress or Supreme Court Ford pardons Nixon from all Watergate charges for his health mental anguish and difficulty of securing a fair trial and to put an end to the Watergate affair roundly criticized in Congress and media made deal with Nixon and public approvals drop in ation and unemployment rise stag ation Soviet and communists take advantage of weakened America and gain substantial control in Third World 42 Iimmy Carter s Crisis of Confidence Speech 1979 A president elected by praising the people blames them for problems of his administration stressed domestic issues during campaign but was unsuccessful in enacting policies into law gasoline shortages in ation soaring interest rates gt approval rating drop gt travels country to re ect on causes of crisis gt makes speech on findings speech starts with mea culpa then describes his perception of quota fundamental threat to American democracy namely a quotcrisis of the American spirit marked by loss of faith in the country and confidence in the future critics charge Carter elected by praising the people for blaming the people for his own shortcomings fired 5 cabinet members gt reinforced doubts about stability and competence of Carter s leadership 43 Ronald Reagan s First Inaugural Address 1981 In a newstyle inaugural address Reagan ushers in an era by declaring that government is not the solution to our problem government is the problem Reagan had strong conservative credentials and exceptional ability as a TV orator campaign capitalized on severe economic conditions and hostages in Iran oldest president to take office inaugurated on West not East Front of capitol parts of speech coordinated with network TV cameras to show scenes during speech focused on the failings of big government and a fervent optimism that national problems could be overcome with conservative policies Congress enacted tax cuts spending reductions for social welfare and spending increase for defense gt in ation interest rates and unemployment falls economy grew tripled national debt 44 Immigration and Naturalization Service v Chadha 1983 The Supreme Court strikes down the legislative veto legislative veto provisions included in many laws that permit Congress to overturn regulation or action within a specific time period decision is final first legislative veto included in 193 2 law that empowered Hoover to reorganize the executive branch Supreme Court rules legislative veto as unconstitutional and a violation of separation of powers legislative veto still used in a modified from and now requires executive to obtain approval of House and Senate appropriations committees before taking certain actions a number of de facto legislative vetoes have been implemented through informal agreements between Congress and executive 45 George Bush s Persian Gulf War Address 1991 Bush 5 greatest triumph foreshadows his worst defeat Iraqi troops invade oilrich Kuwait and US ally gt tried through bilateral and multilateral diplomatic initiatives to convince Hussein to withdraw troops prepared military and public for war in moral terms rather than on concerns of oil supply gt dispatched halfa million troops to Saudi Arabia in Operation Desert Shield gt attacked Iraq in Persian Gulf War gt won quickly Iraq driven out of Kuwait and its capacity to threaten neighboring nations severed Hussein remained in power gt Bush s approval ratings soar concentration on foreign policy at expense of domestic policy gt economic recession 46 Bill Clinton s Third State of Union Address 1996 Clinton advocates an approach to governing that rises above traditional liberalism and conservatism Clinton had bad press relations undisciplined staff controversial appointments and a host ofpolitical scandals Clinton s sweeping overhaul of healthcare system by Hillary Clinton defeated in Congress 500 billion deficit reduction plan costly public dislike spending cuts and tax increases Republicans take over House and Senate triangulation theory president must take position at the political center between liberal congressional Democrats and Republicans but also find new issues that would allow president to rise above the conventional leftright political spectrum Clinton makes political comeback and reelected on mixed verdict that set stage for continuing partisan warfare 47 Clinton v City ofNew York 1998 The Supreme Court declares the lineitem veto unconstitutional lineitem veto allowed president to cancel any new spending projects narrowly targeted tax breaks and entitlement programs within five days of signing a money bill to reduce super uous congressional spending Clinton used lineitem veto to cancel 82 provisions and 11 laws gt congress overrode 38 cancellations in single military construction bill Court overturned Line Item Veto Act stating that they are quotthe functional equivalent of partial repeal ofacts of Congress even though quotthere is no provision in the Constitution that authorizes the President to enact to amend or to repeal statutes 48 Articles of Impeachment against Bill Clinton 1998 Clinton is impeached by the House and acquitted by the Senatefor actions stemmingfrom his sexual relationship with a White House intern second president to be impeached but acquitted by Senate and served remainder of term Clinton maintained widespread approval from public for the job unlike Iohnson Ethics of Government Act of 1973 from Watergate scandal required a panel of federal judges to appoint an independent counsel whenever the attorney general concluded that a highlevel executive official may have committed a crime Starr investigates Clinton s affair and suspected president of obstructing justice by trying to persuade Lewinsky to perjure herselfwhen giving deposition for Iones case in return for getting job in New York affair becomes public and Clinton accused Article I provided quotperjurious false and misleading testimony on his relationship Article II obstructed justice for serious actions to quotdelay impede cover up and conceal the existence of evidence related to Iones case Republican controlled both houses of Congress and had enough votes for impeachment but lacked 23 majority for conviction bipartisan politics allowed Ethics in Government Act to expire 49 Speeches by Al Gore and George W Bush Ending the 2000 Election Controversy 2000 The closing chapter to one ofthe closest and most controversial presidential elections in history election night results inconclusive and close Gore leading slightly Bush and Gore wages legal and public relations warfare for deciding victory in Florida and presidency Bush began with advantage and pressed it public saw it that Bush won Florida despite recounts still going on Court closely rules Florida s recount to end arguing that only a complete statewide recount governed by a uniform standard for determining each voter s intention would satisfy the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment Gore and Bush announce on TV that Bush is new winner without receiving more popular votes than Gore 50 George W Bush s War on Terrorism Address 2001 In response to September 11 Bush commits his administration to ghting international terrorism nation rallied to support ofpresident at time of crisis gt approval rating soared from 51 to 90 Bush consults closely with national security team and leaders of allied nations to devise new approach to fighting terrorism previous presidents regarded terrorism as law enforcement problems to be dealt in courts and terrorism abroad fought mostly through covert operations and occasional bombing raids ltgt Bush instructed FBI to emphasize prevention rather than prosecution and prepared military Bush demanded full cooperation of Taliban to bring al Qaeda and leader bin Laden to justice gt Taliban ignores it gt Bush used American troops intelligence agents and financial resources to foment civil war in Afghanistan that toppled Taliban government made clear that patience is required to eliminate terrorism and warned foreign governments supporting terrorism that they will be regarded as hostile regime announced appointment of Ridge to head White House Office ofHomeland Security and asked Congress to elevate office to cabinet department gt confirmed by Senate American unity behind president gradually waned some critics focused on threats to civil liberties that war on terrorism posed both for citizens and suspected foreign terrorists some focus on Bush s failure to capture bin Laden 51 The Bush Doctrine 2002 In preparation for war against Iraq Bush announces a new approach to foreign policy 911 create climate of deference to presidential leadership in matters of national security Congress grant Bush authorization quotto use all necessary and appropriate force against the nations organizations or people that he determines planned authorized committed or aided the terrorist attacks Bush adopt aggressive foreign policies very different from cold war times Bush Doctrine prevention means nothing to terrorists and containment is impossible when unbalanced dictators have access to nuclear weapons threat was imminent gt US must be prepares to attack another country in order to prevent being attacked by it preemptive war gt Congress support Bush s attack on Iraq gt Hussein regime falls gt instability and chaos ensued in aftermath for control critics object to doctrine s openended character allowing the president great discretion to start wars on basis of claims about another country s intentions questioned Bush s application of doctrine to Iraq which had no proven role in assisting al Qaeda of continuing to produce nuclear weapons criticized lack of forethought concerning aftermath peace and reconstructing Iraq harder than winning the war 52 George W Bush s Signing Statement for the Department Supplemental Appropriations Act 2005 A leading example of Bush employing quotunitary executive theory to extend the boundaries of presidential power signing statements statements that the president issues when signing a bill into law that usually is used to declare their refusal to enforce one or more provisions ofa bill they regard unconstitutional encroachments on executive authority Bush refused provision barring use of torture in interrogation of detainees held in American facilities at home and abroad veto overridden interpreted law as nonbinding and president has right to supervise unitary executive branch as Commander in Chief and consistent with constitutional limitations without intervention by other branches signing statements constitute a de facto lineitem veto that was made unconstitutional earlier in Clinton v New York 53 Hamdan v Rumsfeld 2006 An adverse ruling from the Supreme Court leads Bush to ask Congress for legislation authorizing military tribunals to try suspected non uniform ed enemy combatants in the war on terrorism wartime presidents have sometimes turned to military courts operating outside of normal rules ofjudicial process as a way of dealing with captured nonuniformed enemy combatants ex Ex Parte Milligan Ex Parte Quirin fivemember majority of the Court strongly limited president s power to create military tribunals to try suspected terrorists imprisoned at US naval base in Guantanamo Bay Cuba Justice Stevens ruled that tribunals were neither authorized by law or Constitution nor justified by military necessity and so no military tribunal could try either Hamdan former aide to bin Laden or anyone else unless the president either operates the tribunals by the established laws governing regular military courts martial or asks Congress for specific permission to proceed differently Bush forced to ask Congress for legislation authorizing military tribunals gt passed Military Commissions Act in 2006 that authorized use of tribunals declared their rulings nonappealable in court and granted defendants right to be present at their hearings I THE PRESIDENT AND THE PUBLIC Chapter 1 The Changing Presidency The Scope of Presidential Power use of buy pulpit to shape public opinion through radio and TV president submits annual federal budgets to Congress increasing staff support build up of positive image by leading two wars to victory and high stakes in Cold War ex Truman and Johnson involve in controversial military conflicts and fail JFK assassinated Nixon resign in disgrace VP Ford lost reelection Carter lose support after Iranian hostage crisis and runaway inflation Bush senior supported in Persian Gulf War but later economic recession and criticism of domestic agenda Reagan faced congressional investigations in Irancontra affair Clinton impeached presidentia power is the power to persuade Inventing the Presidency President was not supposed to be the nation s central political institution Article II brief and vague enumerated powers presidentia powers expand over years implied and inherent powers 1800s had weak presidents where Congress and political parties took overexcept Jefferson Jackson and Lincoln Constitutional Design antimonarchy emotions ex Paine s Common Sense in postRevolution lead to weak governor and strong legislature governments ex Articles of Confederation had no independent executive branch or federal judiciary gt chaos and disunity Shay s Rebellion of high property taxes and economic depression Initial Convention Debates Virginia Plan written by Madison and presented by Randolph called for executive of unspecified size and tenure selected by legislature and with unclear power representation reflect population Morris and Wilson of Pennsylvania push for singular executive Sherman of Connecticut push for executive appointed by and subservient to legislature with no enumerated powers New Jersey Plan presented by Paterson proposed just an amendment of Articles of Confederation with plural executive elected by Congress for equal representation Committee Work and Final Action Committee of Detail names president and enumerates relatively little power singe executive elected by Congress to one unrenewable term subject to impeachment with power to veto grant pardons appoint executive officers and receive ambassadors needed legislative approval for power to raise army make war and coin money Committee on Postponed Matters introduce election of president and vice president by Electoral College shorten term to unlimited 4year terms and give power to make treaties and nominate ambassadors Interpreting Constitutional Language vesting clause of Article II gave president unlimited power where legislature s powers limited to herein granted and judicial powers shall extend to limited powers constitutiona theory presidential power is strictly limited to those enumerated in Constitution or granted by Congress supported by Taft Jefferson a strict constructionalist stewardship theory president can do anything not explicitly forbidden supported by TR and FDR Hamilton a loose constructionalist prerogative theory president has power to do anything not forbidden or are forbidden when in national interest ex Lincoln built army quartered troops blockaded confiscated etc during Civil War Nixon justified illegal covert actions Bush imprisoned enemy and wiretapped for war on terror Chief A dministrator unitary executive president alone possesses executive power and Congress should not interfere George W Bush actively embraced this theory ex President has power to control all subordinates veto or nullify exercise of discretionary executive power and fire any executive branch officials at will Supreme Court rule against president having power to fire at will in 1926 Commander in Chief clause used to justify military expenditures without congressional authorization and emergency powers to suppress rebellion ex internment of Japanese Americans in WWII seizure of steel mills in undeclared armed conflict in Korea and wiretapping in war on terror Chief Diplomat president given power only to make treaties and nominate ambassadors with advice and consent of Senate and receive diplomats most turn to Senate to make treaties a 39er negotiations had concluded executive agreements agreements between heads instead of treaties which does not require Senate ratification though many are given legislative approval ex NAFI39A orjoint resolution of Congress ex SALT I congressionalexecutive agreements require only a simple majority Chief Legislator legislative leadership develop in 1900s and is now expected president submits legislative agenda and budget for whole of government only needs to provide Information of the State of Union Chief Magistrate the president along with courts and Congress has the power and duty to interpret Constitution to make sure it is preserved and faithfully executed Bush signed statements that were unconstitutional and contradicting he also claimed right to ignore law when it contradicted his interpretation of the Constitutions Expansion of the Presidency traditiona era presidential power relatively limited and Congress the primary policymaker modern era presidential dominance in policymaking and expansion of powers and resources president expected to develop legislative program and persuade Congress to enact it and to engage in direct policymaking without congressional approval president s office as an extensive bureaucracy designed to enable presidents to serve expectations president symbolizes nation and personifies government performance monitored by media Expansion by Individual Presidents Washington Jefferson Jackson and Lincoln often credited for setting powerful executive precedent but 20th century presidents largely responsible for expanding power and creating modern presidency Theodore Roosevelt foreign military intervention to show off American power ex terminated RussoJapanese War of 1905 with Portsmouth treaty sent troops south provoked Panama s rebellion against Colombia to get canal gave Interstate Commerce Commission to reduce railroad rates took workers side in coal mine dispute championed major reclamation and conservation projects passes meat inspection and pure food and drug laws popularized presidency positive image used bully pulpit to set tone of American life Woodrow Wilson inked inspirational rhetoric to a broad program of action economic reform lowered tariff raised taxes on wealthy created central banking system regulated unfair trade provided lowinterest loans to farmers established 8hour day for railroad employees during WWI went to Congress and obtained authority to control economic and military aspects of war wrote Versailles Treaty but refused to accept reservations proposed by Senate for League of Nations US never took part Frankin D Roosevelt New Deal insured bank deposits provided crop payment for farmers established codes for fair competition for industry granted labor right to organize provided relief and jobs for unemployed created Tennessee Valley Authority to develop that region created Social Security provided public housing and unemployment compensation gt established concept of positive state in crisis America extended diplomatic recognition to Soviet embarked on Good Neighbor policy and pushed through Reciprocal Trade Program lowered tariffs led through WWII traded destroyers and defeated Germany most effective molder of public opinion through extensive media usage ex fireside chats Expansion through Statute Congress mandated activities not required in Constitution ex Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 created Bureau of Budget in Treasury and required president to propose annual fiscal policy created Executive Office of the President in 1939 to help president formulate policy Employment Act of 1946 compels president to monitor and report on economy creation of National Security Council in 1947 mandated president to coordinate national security policy Expansion through Custom and Practice president informally serves as leader of their political party Jefferson s DemocraticRepublicans congressional caucus sets precedent risky presidential intervention of disputes Roosevelt sided with laborers in coal strike of 1902 Institutional Sources of Change Congress created EOP in 1939 and passed other legislature that created additional staff units presidents unilaterally created own staff units Presidential Culture president symbolizes nation and is a benevolent fearless and heroic leader who steers the nation out of danger historical and popular glorification of presidential image sets standards high citizens strive for emotional and psychological comfort as well as a sense of direct political engagement by attaching to reassuring symbols and the almighty president presidents may resort to illusions and quick fixes to maintain public support gt inflates eXpectations gt disappointmentfailure Conclusion The Changeable Political Presidency responsibilities and the means to fulfill them grow tremendously over time every new president has contrasting personality character and political style that shape the position s operation presidency heavily influenced by outside influences Congress executive branch courts political party and interest groups society mass media national security economy and all must be addressed when needed precedents and enumerated powers vague and can be easily shaped compleX task of mastering elite politics asserting constitutional prerogatives at times of crisis while maintaining public support Chapter 2 Election Politics presidential elections are a pivotal political event celebrating democracy that involves and unifies a huge amount of people and influence even more amounts of people today s election process is very different from the original intentions of the constitution due to the evolution of political parties media practices and citizen expectations with increasing emphasis on direct democracy over the indirect Electoral College Evolution of the Selection Process the first two elections were simple and brief with no campaigns due to a consensus that Washington was the best choice for president Hamilton s Federalist Party and Jefferson s DemocraticRepublican Party arose from administrative disagreements gt labeled congressional candidates and Electoral College became party loyalists rise of parties created congressional caucus for presidential nomination presidential nominees became party elites rather than local notables congressional caucus declared unconstitutional because the legislative body had role in choosing president and it also underrepresented areas in which the party had lost the previous congressional election National Parg Conventions party nominating convention assembly made national by including delegates from all the states nominees became state and local party leaders rather than party elites nationa committees composed of state party leaders call presidential nominating conventions into session choose a platform and delegates selected by states and allocated by population brokered conventions common in 18501950 protracted bargaining and negotiation among powerful state and local party leaders modern conventions select delegates on popular choice rather than deliberative bodies more influenced by party supporters then party leaders Reform of the Selection Process reform especially in Democrats shift influence within party form party professionals toward amateurs ex candidate enthusiasts issue enthusiasts primary allows party s registered voters to express presidential preference that is translated into convention delegates party caucus a multistage delegate selection process that involves local meetings of speeches and discussions of registered voters more social public and timeconsuming than primary The Contemporam Selection Process general presidential election process 1 defining pool of eligible candidates 2 nominating parties candidates at national conventions after delegate selection in primaries and caucuses 3 waging general election campaign until election day 4 validating results through Electoral College modern campaigns usually begin once the major party nominees become clear and may last years many people usually know the outcome before election day Defining the Pool of Eligibles forma requirements in Article II section 1 naturalborn citizen at least 35 resident of US for 14 years or longer informa requirements political availability politica availability the political experiences and personal characteristics that make them attractive to political activists and to the general voting public Political Experience of Candidates major party nominees drawn from presidency vice presidency state governorship or US Senate seat with two exceptions Presidents and the Vice President incumbent presidents usually win nominations unless declined or prohibited due to fear of admitting mistake if past 4 years were bad or better media coverage and support incumbent vice presidents are more likely to win party nominations today than before due to the visibility and significance of the position Senators and Governors senators share political and media spotlight on capital enjoy opportunities to address major public problems develop a record in foreign affairs and can usually pursue presidency without leaving the Senate but only three senators elected directly to White House in past the usual pathway is Senate gt Vice President gt President until 2008 governors seemed to have a competitive advantage over senators governors claim valuable executive experience in managing largescale public enterprises and thousands of state government employees senators only essentially have legislative duties and direction of small personal staff recent shift in public concern from foreign national security to domestic affairs ex healthcare social security economy taxes education Personal Characteristics of Candidates informa requirements gender and race males of European heritage demography and religion English ethnic stock practicing a Protestant religion ex Bill Richardson first Hispanic American Kennedy first Catholic Goldwater first Jewish Romney first Mormon Obama first Muslim representing an idealized version of home and family life also essential to winning nomination ex Reagan divorced and remarried nominations have become more tolerant to diversity as time changes Competing for the Nomination delegate selection was complicated but facilitated in post1968 reforms where most were chosen through primaries campaigning for delegate selection starts much earlier then January of election year for time to get financial backing attract media attention and generate popular support invisible primary The Nomination Campaign each party narrows down presidential nominee to one which eliminates a huge amount past nominations were unstructured with unpredictable opponents and difficult for newbies frontloading states move primaries to earlier spots in schedule most delegates chosen very early in the 6month campaigning period quickly weeding out any new and weaker candidates Financing Nomination Campaigns Federal Election Commission FEC oversees administration of the public financing provisions participation in public financing through taxes drop in recent years many candidates avoid spending limitations on public financing by declining it only weak candidates rely on these matching funds matching funds do not provide enough money for large campaigns some candidates use private personal wealth for campaigns eX W Bush in postreform era most candidates solicit funds from individuals through mail and web big spending crucial to achieve good results in the early primaries and caucuses poor results could lose funding media and public support Bush s Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 and McConnell v FEC ban soft money for campaigns before conventions and raised individual contributions limits to 2000 although the matching funds limit remained unchanged at 250 new system of public funding and early primary system discourages accepting public funding and favors wealthy candidates who can tap networks of donors during invisible primary period Dynamics of the Contest candidates who begin the election year as leaders in the public opinion polls Dean frequently go on to win nomination more and more states push primaries earlier in the year and parties encourage it Super Tuesday Titanic Tuesday Mega Tuesday superdelegates Democratic elected and party officials who attend the convention by virtue of their positions Media Influence and Campaign Consultants media coverage and advertising is the way to reach out to the general public voters media labels candidates as like and unlikely then winner and loser media focus on the game aspects of preelectionyear maneuvering and early contests eX financial race reputations speculations media focus on political tactics strategy and competitive position once the delegate selection starts rather than on the candidates messages and issue stands like winnertakeall coverage The National Convention is the selection process that had undergone the most reforms today s conventions are largely media eXtravaganzas choreographed to project images designed to reawaken party loyalty appeal to contemporary public concerns and project the most desirable aspects of the newly anointed presidential ticket actua nominations occurs here and what happens here greatly influences the general election Nominating the Ticket victory has gone to the candidate who arrived at the convention with the largest number of pledged delegates in the past except Dewey and Stevenson traditionally vice president chosen by presidential nominee but parties try to balance the ticket by selecting a person who differs in helpful ways from the presidential nominee eX Clinton amp Gore violated party tradition but was still accepted by party southern support Dole amp Kemp added Republican activists W Bush and Cheney added extensive Washington and White House eXperience Gore amp Lieberman a practicing Jew Lieberman s criticism of Clinton distances Gore from incumbent Obama amp Biden added ties to hotly contested states including PA McCain amp Palin added support of evangelical voters but Palin highly controversial final night of convention is devoted to acceptance speeches where the presidential nominees tries to make peace with former competitors and reunite party factions during campaign Conducting Parg Business platform provides opportunity to resolve differences and find a politically palatable position conventions provide strong incentives for compromise within party for strong support in fall election and to prevent thirdparty effort Nationa nominating conventions have become so predictable that TV coverage had been dramatically reduced since 1996 jeopardizing its eXistence The General Election nominees usually unofficially selected by March and officially selected by late summer contest between nominees of two major parties and occasionally an independent candidate campaign audience increases dramatically candidates try to win votes of other party and woo partisans who backed losing candidates campaign finance laws have undergone significant change since 1972 The Electoral College electoral votes originally determined by congressional districts but now the unit or general ticket rule where all votes go to candidate who received plurality of statewide popular vote dominates citizens votes determines which electors pledged to support the party s presidential candidate will vote voters elect electors who elect president incumbent vice president officially declares the winning candidate president Financing the General Election public financing provided to nominees of major parties 225 pop vote partia public funding provided to nominees of minor parties 525 pop vote no public funding for candidates of other insignificant parties lt5 pop vote independent campaign expenditures expenditures made by individuals or political committees that advocate defeat or election of a presidential candidate but are not made in conjunction with a candidate s campaign BCRA prohibit corporations and labor unions from spending treasury funds on TV ads for or against candidates 30 days before a primary and 60 days before general election soft money fundraising and spending by state and local party organizations usually used for grassroots activities BCRA place limits issue advocacy campaigns media advertisements that educate public about issues and candidates position on an issue rather than take sides Targeting the Campaign target populous states with the most Electoral College votes target swing states over oneparty states Democrats had Solid South majority for win until 1992 support start to dissipate in 1980 south become Republican stronghold eX Bush wins in 2000 Appealing for Public Support candidates and campaign professionals try to design appeals that activate influences support and counter perceived weaknesses because time is shorter and audience is larger candidates use massmedia appeals targeting crucial Electoral College states Long Term In uences partisanship and group membership are longterm influences on voters decisions party identification most important voting determinant shaped by family and social groups and intensify with age partisan affiliation great in 19505 but independents rise dramatically since 1964 due to Vietnam Watergate and declining confidence in government campaigns seek support from own identifiers by activating traditional loyalties and seek support from other party identifiers by blurring traditional themes social group support is another potentially important influence on voting eX Republicans northerners whites Protestants educated rich professionalsbusinessmen Democrats southerners laborers Catholics uneducated poor workingclass nonwhites new target on women fundamentalist Christians young and Hispanics ongterm influence have less importance due to loss of partisan anchor recently Short Term In uence candidates personality character traits issues and events have shortterm influences on voting eX age mature judgment eX Eisenhower youth and inexperience vigor eX Kennedy candidates try to shape each other s image during campaign attacks on each other since 1988 observers demand more supporting evidence for campaign charges credibility voters look for many qualities in a president eX Clinton vs Bush II change caring best VP vs eXperience trustworthy crisis judgment Bush I vs Gore stronger likable vs eXperienced best to deal with complexity caring Bush I vs Kerry trustworthy honest clear vs likely to understand peoples problems McCain vs Obama eXperience vs change connection with people issues influence a voter s choice if voter is aware of eXistence of issues issues are of some personal concern to voter voter perceives that one party represents own position better than other issue influence is pretty low in actual voting not many voters meet the three requirements positive views of candidates have declined voting public highly focused on candidates but on their issues as well as their personal qualities Incumbency incumbents have national campaign eXperience can obtain media coverage more easily and has considerable discretion in allocating benefits but can coincide with negative economic conditions or an unresolved foreign crisis retrospective voting voters evaluate an administration s past performance rather than predict future performance for incumbents Presidential Debates first debate in 1960 and held every year since 1952 the most widely watched campaign events mistake or embarrassing comments can be detrimental eX Ford Reagan rather conservative cautious and wooden rehearsed and set rather than spontaneous a place to demonstrate knowledge of issues and presidential connection to people vicepresidentia debates also highly focused on Election Day voter turnout has decreased despite increases in eligible voters education levels and media coverage lafter 1960 T1992 1996 l2000 l2004 amp 2008 state registration and voting laws eased to encourage voting close political races and strongly controversial issues could stimulate more votes declines due to decline in party ID and political efficacy belief that citizens can influence government Validation possibiities of Electoral College misfire Electoral College does not ensure victory of candidate who won popular vote eX Adams Hayes Harrison Bush II candidates may fail to win Electoral College majority eX 1800 1824 1876 elector does not need to vote for candidate who won plurality of state faithless elector each person s vote does not count equally due to generalticket system and if the House votes reform proposals of Electoral College prohibiting faithless electors move to direct popular election allocate electors proportionally to popular vote of state provide bonus votes to winner most serious misfires occurred during periods of intense political divisiveness defenders of current system has been very successful candidates need not only popular support but a geographically widespread support direct election could encourage development of minor parties based on regional or ideological interests to force runoffs twoparty stability may be threatened Transitions to Governing current election system largely a product of post 1968 reforms stress preferences of voters eXpressed through primaries over party professionals frontloading enhances role of mass media and centers on candidates ability to raise campaign funds transition period between election and inauguration a crucial period in modern presidency governing involves similar activities as getting elected Chapter 3 Public Politics going public and appeal for widespread public support is the key to success in modern politics traditionally bargain with other elites approval ratings can dramatically shift according to economy and crisis eX Bush goes up for 911 down for war in Iraq Bush senior up for Persian Gulf War down for economic dwindling permanent campaigns public must be wooed before and after campaigns Public Attitudes Towards the Presidency on conscious level people develop attitudes towards three major components of a political system the political community they are a part of the regime rules of constitution and the authorities presidents serve as symbol for nation and leader during crisis presidents are central figures in the constitutional system presidents are major actors in the policymaking process job approval vs personal approval presidents identify with psychological emotions of public symbolize unity stability and predictability Symbolic Dimensions of the Presidency highly respected pompous and even ritualized ceremonies of the presidency eX Inauguration State of Union Address both president and presidency elevated to godlike status and revered by citizens eX Washington presidents link American with past and future a sense of fulfillment from past accomplishments and reassurance for the future eX Bush swore on 1767 Bible that Washington Harding Eisenhower Carter and Bush senior swore on Obama evoked memory of Lincoln with same Bible menu place dishes etc the presidency itself highly supported by public as a unique link to the American people even if president may be weak or unsupported political socialization creates admiration for president Tracking Public Opinion Gallup polls and independent pollsters track approval ratings and public opinion throughout presidency president has highly efficient and specific polling consultants polls and public opinion allow president to target specific issues or groups and shape language and attitude of speeches eX Bush pledged to not be governed by polls and focus groups gt ignorance lost support fail decay curve a general decrease in job approval ratings as term progresses attributed to deflation of unrealistically high expectations of performance eX Clinton the only president with high approval rating in second term than first events that dramatize conflict in nation reduce support events that unify nation around its symbols increases support eX Bush 911 crisis gt unifies nation on tragedy gt support inclines gt war in Iraq worsens conflict gt support declines successful presidents usually immediately established a clear and simple agenda and used their capital to achieve it public seems to have gotten more wary and cautious of new presidents Obama may be an exception Rallying Public Support president and aides take initiative in shaping public perceptions The Rise of the Public Presidency 18th and 19th century presidents never chose to go public since pure democracy was distrusted and the public too stupid for politics believed that public consent was required but public opinion mattered little ess frequent presidential speeches and appearances that were largely ceremonial and usually devoid of content governmentsponsored partisan newspapers for public support eX NY Times puts FederalSt Papers that glorified Federalists and ridiculed opposition 20th century presidents turn to rhetoric for public appeal and support eX Johnson first president to engage in fullscale popular appeal Roosevelt and Wilson catalysts for new rhetorical presidency eX use of bully pulpit with Roosevelt s stewardship theory Wilson s State of Union report since Adams Presidential Appeals president gives many minor addresses locally to target specific constituencies and local media coverage to gain public support to persuade Congress to pass president s initiatives great increase in minor speeches eX Bush and Obama tour swing states in beginning to get their policies passed politica travel for appeal across nation increase to gain public support eX Bush s speeches encourage public to write opinions to legislators Obama s Organizing for America use internet emails and night shows for support going international by recent presidents to make grand appeal get media coverage and support and form public opinion abroad eX Bush s Lincoln Group pays Iraqi newspapers for proAmerican propaganda Appeals by Surrogates presidentia surrogates people like the VP cabinet party officials and party consultants that also promotes president s agenda through tours satellite interviews and local TV appearances follows carefully scripted agenda that contribute to the broad message of president can target specific constituencies Nixon first to aggressively choreograph use of surrogates for going public to convey a carefully orchestrated message reinforced by different people in a variety of contexts Targeted Communications Presidents and Interest Groups interest groups highly attentive to issues concerning its members and have connections with Congress and bureaucracy gt prime target of presidential communication presidents pay more attention to interest groups that votes for him although he must still attend to all eX Democrats labor union and civil rights organizations Republicans business and professional organizations Office of Public Liaison work with specific groups of people eX business labor Jews consumers blacks women Hispanics elderly Targeted Communications Presidents and Political Parties Office of Political Affairs formal liaison to national state and local party organizations and congressional campaign committees build grassroots support and opposition serves as liaison with private major supporters of president Clinton rewarded donors and made database of potential donors plans early reelection strategies presidents try to influence midterm congressional elections but usually end up losing seats except Clinton and Bush the voting is more based on local and not national events except Iraq War incumbents usually win due to better campaign experience voter relationships knowledge of issues financial resources and redistricting power ex Republicans lose many seats for corruption charges in 2006 but 945 incumbents still successful senatoria midterm elections more influenced by president since the whole state rather than the districts vote tougher race presidentia approval rate influences caliber of voters high gt less opposition low gt more opposing party voters The President and the Media governmentsupported partisan press peak with Jackson gt press more financially independent gt decline of partisan press around Lincoln gt independent nonpartisan press today regular press conference at White House with Wilson and Roosevelt gt emergence of new media gt noless need for regular press conferences Presidential Media growing TV use and coverage gt select columnists anchors reporters and executives have huge influence columnists opinions on policies anchors respect on TV and their huge audiences broadcasting coverage limits to short shallow and visually pleasing info on president and policies White House press corps determine what will be reported and how ex New York 77mes Washington Post 77mes Associated Press United Press International The White House Press Office White House Press Office created by FDR in 1933 Akerson hired as first press secretary by Hoover in 1929 press secretary crucial to president and the head of media provides routine briefings on executive branch appointments and resignations presidential actions and policies and president s schedule balances serving the interest of president White House staff and media can perform well only if granted continuous access to and confidence of president ex McCurry purposely stayed out of Clinton s Lewinsky affair Ziegler too uninformed from Nixon and lost credibility Speakes fabricated Reagan s quotes at meeting with Gorbachev The White House Office of Communications White House Office of Communications created by Nixon in 1969 longrange communications planning coordination of news from all the departments and agencies of executive branch outreach to local media oversight of presidential surrogate responsible for setting media agenda scripted photo ops and choreograph president image Presidential Press Conferences with greater TV emphasis press conferences became more for meeting people than meeting press solo presidential press conferences broadcasted live with informal exchanges with reporters gives presidents more control over questions The president decides when to hold a conference how much reporters will be given who will ask the questions and what the answers will be fuscae mock news conferences greater emphasis on performance in the end ex Nixon as the man in the arena facing hostile adversaries success of press conference depends on skills of president eX Eisenhower unclear ungrammatical and unknowledgeable of issues Johnson came across poorly FDR had keen sense of the newsworthy and confidentially provided background info on controversial problems to reporters for greater understanding and support Kennedy was a former newspaperman and had impressive ability to field difficult questions Clinton and Obama did well president s strengths and weaknesses an important part eX Great Communicator Reagan emphasized prepared film TV and radio appearances strengths and avoided impromptu questions and other forms of media weaknesses Relations Between the President and the Media Conflict or Collusion typically presidents accused of managing the news and as their term progresses tend to isolate themselves from the media and public eX Johnson Nixon and Clinton charged for intentionally lying to media and public Bush accused of misleading public with unsubstantiated charge on Iraq as nuclear threat to justify war attackjournalism stories focused on scandal media and president mutually dependent White House provides info of president while seducing reporters for favorable coverage while media communicates presidential activities to public exchange relationship set of negotiated terms for interaction between media and president that favors White House and disadvantages public Grossman and Kumar s general relationship between president and media alliance phase focuses on new appointees and goals and the info of presidency is more open to media in competition phase president tries to emphasize happy unity of administration while media focuses on personality conflicts and controversies over politics in administration so president restricts info and attacks critical media in detachment phase president appears only in favorable settings and major events and media engage in investigative reporting for info from nonWhite House sources journalists covering presidency although skilled do not always use them to full advantage gt they lack confidence in dealing with substance on policies and revert to areas they feel most comfortable eX scandal international dissention public gaffe tactical blunder gt unintentional collusion that keeps public less informed about government eX negative stories about Reagan did not stick to him due to poor journalism Teflon coating increasing speed of which news is reported made media less careful in what they convey about president and other political figures bent breaking news stories without proper documentation that relies on another s reportage Conclusion The Permanent Campaign permanent campaign breaks distinction between campaigning and governing making the government into and instrument designed to sustain an elected official s popularity eX Clinton remained in full campaign mode until the end campaigning is selfcentered while governing is groupcentered


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