AMERICAN GOVERNMENT GOV 310L
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Chapter 10 Voting1 Cainmes and Elections Responsible party 7 a political party that takes clear distinct stands on the issues and enacts them as policy when in office Prospective voting model 7 a theory of democratic elections in which voters decide what government will do in the near future by choosing one or another responsible party Electoral competition model 7 a form of election in which parties seeking votes move toward the median voter or the center of the political spectrum Median voter 7 refers to the voter at the exact middle of the political spectrum Electoral rewards and punishment 7 tendency to vote for the incumbents when times are good and against them when times are bad Retrospective voting 7 a form of election in which voters look back at the performance of a party in power and cast ballots on the basis of how well it did in office Provisional ballot 7 a vote that is cast but not counted until determination is made that the voter is properly registered Franchise 7 the legal right to vote Suffrag 7 the ability to vote Electoral college 7 representatives of the states who formally elect the president the number of electors in each state is equal to the total number of its senators and congressional representatives Party convention 7 a gathering of delegates who nominate a party s presidential candidate Primary election 7 statewide elections in which voters choose delegates to the national party conventions virtually all delegates are pledged to a specific candidate Caucus nominating system 7 a system for selecting delegates to the national party conventions characterized by neighborhood and areawide meetings of party supporters and activists used in only a handful of states Turnout 7 proportion of eligible voters who actually vote in a given election Referenda 7 procedures available in some states by which state laws or Constitutional amendments on the ballot for voter approval or rejection Superdelegates 7 elected officials from all levels of government who are appointed by party committees to be delegates to the national convention of the Democratic party not selected in primary elections or caucuses Normal vote 7 the proportion of the votes that each party would win if party identification alone affected voting decisions Electors 7 representatives who are elected in the states to formally choose the US presidents Plurality 7 more votes than any other candidate but less than a majority of all votes cast Chapter 14 The Courts Judicial review 7 the power of the Supreme Court to declare actions of the other branches and levels of government unconstitutional Constitutional courts 7 federal courts created by Congress under the authority of Article III of the Constitution Legislative court 7 highly specialized federal courts created by Congress under the authority of Article I of the Constitution Original jurisdiction 7 the authority of a court to be the first to hear a particular kind of case Grand jurie 7 groups of citizens who decide whether there is sufficient evidence to bring an indictment against accused persons Petit trial jurie 7 juries that hear evidence and sit in judgment on charges brought in civil or criminal cases Circuit courts 7 12 geographical jurisdictions and one special court that hear appeals from the federal district courts Appellate courts 7 courts that hear cases on appeal from other courts Briefs 7 documents setting out the arguments in legal cases prepared by attorneys and presented to courts Opinion 7 the explanation of the majority s reasoning that accompanies a court decision Precedents 7 rulings by courts that guide judicial reasoning in subsequent cases Stare decisis 7 the legal doctrine that says precedent should guide judicial decision making Senatorial courtesy 7 tradition that judicial nominations for the federal district court appointments be cleared by the senior senator of the president s party for the relevant state Standing 7 authority to bring legal action because one is directly affected by the issues at hand Executive privileg 7 a presidential claim that certain communication s with subordinates may be withheld from Congress and the courts Separate but egual doctrin 7 principle articulated in Plessy v Ferguson that laws prescribing separate public facilities and services for nonwhite Americans are permissible if the facilities and services are equal to those provided for whites Supepprecedent 7 landmark rulings that have been reaffirmed by the Court over the course of many years and whose reasoning has become part of the fabric of American law Plaintiff 7 one who brings a suit in court In forma paupen 7 describing a process by which indigents may file a suit with the Supreme Court free of charge Writ of certiorari 7 an announcement that the Supreme Court will hear a case on appeal from a lower court its issuance requires the vote of four out of nine justices Rule of four 7 an unwritten practice that requires at least four justices of the Supreme Court to agree that a case warrants review by the Court before it will hear the case Amicus curae 7 a friend of the court describes a brief in which individuals not party to a suit may have their views heard Opinion of the court 7 the majority opinion that accompanies a Supreme Court decision Concurring opinion 7 opinion of one or more judges who vote with the majority on a case but wish to set out different reason for their decision Dissenting opinion 7 opinion of a judge or judges who are in the minority on a particular case before the Supreme Court Judicial activism 7 action by the courts that go beyond the strict role of the judiciary as interpreter of the law and adjudicator of disputes Remedy 7 an action that a court determines must be taken to rectify a wrong Original intent 7 doctrine that the courts must interpret the Constitution in ways consistent with the intentions of the framers rather than in light of contemporary conditions and needs Strict construction 7 the doctrine that the provisions of the Constitution have a clear meaning and that judges must stick closely to the meaning when rendering decisions Test case 7 a case brought to force a ruling on the Constitutionality of some law or executive action Class action suit 7 a suit brought on behalf of a group of people who are in a situation similar to that of the plaintiffs Chapter 11 Congress Enumerated powers 7 powers of the federal government specifically mentioned in the Constitution Elastic clause 7 Article 1 Section 9 in the Constitution also called the necessary and proper clause gives Congress the authority to make whatever laws are necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated responsibilities Bicameral 7 as applied to the legislative body consisting of two houses or chambers Delegat 7 according to the doctrine articulated by Edmund Burke an elected representative who acts in perfect accord with the wishes of his or her constituents Trustee 7 according to the doctrine articulated by Edmund Burke an elected representative who believes that his or her best judgment rather than instructions from constituents should be used in making legislative decisions Descriptive representation 7 sometimes called statistical representation means that the composition of a representative body re ects the demographic composition of the population as a whole Constituency 7 the district of a legislator Constituent 7 a citizen who lives in the district of an elected official Reapportionment 7 the reallocation of House seats among the states done after each national census to ensure that seats are held by the states in proportion to the size of the populations Redistricting 7 the redrawing of congressional district lines within a state to ensure roughly equal populations within each district Partisan 7 a committed member of a party seeing issues from the point of view of the interests of a single party Ge mandering 7 redrawing electoral district lines to give an advantage to a particular party or candidate Maj orityminority district 7 districts drawn to ensure that a minority makes up the majority of voters Openseat election 7 an election in which there is no incumbent officeholder Franking privileg 7 public subsidization of mail from the members of Congress to their constituents Casework 7 services performed by members of Congress for constituents Pork 7 also called pork barrel projects designed to bring to the constituency jobs and public money for which the members of Congress can claim credit Party conferenc 7 an organization of the members of a political party in the House or the Senate Caucus 7 a regional ethnic racial or economic subgroup within the House or the Senate also used to describe the party in the House and Senate as in Republican caucus Whip 7 a political party member in Congress charged with keeping members informed of the plans of the party leadership counting votes before action on important issues and rounding up party members for votes on bills Standing committees 7relatively permanent congressional committees that address specific areas of legislation Hearing 7 the taking of testimony by a congressional committee or subcommittee Markup 7 the process of revising a bill in committee Select committees 7 temporary committees in Congress created to conduct studies or investigations they have no power to report bills Joint committees 7 congressional committees with members from both the House and the Senate Conference committees 7 ad hoc committees made up of members of both the Senate and the House of Representatives set up to reconcile differences in the provisions of bills Seniority 7 the principle that one attains a position on the basis of length of service Ranking minority member 7 the highest ranking member of the minority party on a congressional committee Reciprocity 7 deferral by members of Congress to the judgment of subjectmatter specialists mainly on minor technical bills Unanimous consent legislative action taking without objection as a way to expedite business used to conduct much of the business in the Senate Hle 7 a tactic by which a single senator can prevent action on a bill or nomination based on an implied threat of refusing to agree to unanimous consent on other Senate matters or willingness to filibuster the bill or nomination Filibuster 7 a parliamentary device used in the Senate to prevent a bill from coming to a vote by talking it to death made possible by the norm of unlimited debate Cloture 7 a vote to end a filibuster or a debate requires the votes ofthreef1fths of the membership of the Senate Hopper 7 the box in the House of Representatives in which proposed bills are placed Discharge petition 7 a petition signed by 218 House members to force a bill that has been before a committee for at least 30 days while the house is in session out of the committee and onto the oor for consideration m 7 presidential disapproval of a bill that has been passed by both houses of Congress can be overridden by twothirds vote in each house Pocket veto 7 rejection of a bill if the president takes no action on it for ten days and Congress has adjourned during that period Oversight 7 39 39 1 r quot quotquot for monitoring the actions of the executive branch agencies and personnel to ensure conformity to federal statutes and congressional intent Impeachment 7 House action bringing formal charges against a member of the executive branch on the federal judiciary that may or may not lead to removal from office by the Senate Chapter 13 The Executive Branch Bureaucracy 7 large complex organization characterized by a hierarchical set of offices each with a specific task controlled through a clear chain of command and where U 39 ofr 39 is based on merit Federal bureaucracy 7 totality of the departments and agencies of the executive branch of the national government Civil servants 7 government workers employed under the merit system Civil service 7 federal government jobs held by civilian employees excluding political appointees Department 7 generally the largest unit in the executive branch each headed by a cabinet secretary Bureau 7 generally a subunit of a cabinet department Agency 7 a general name used for a subunit of a cabinet department Independent executive agencie 7 unit of the executive branch outside the control of the executive department Government corporation 7 unit in the executive branch that operates like a private business but provides some public service Quasigovemment organization 7 unit of government that is part public and part private Independent regulatog commission 7 an entity in the executive branch that is outside the immediate control of the president and Congress that issues rules and regulations to protect the public Foundations 7 an entity of the executive branch that supports the arts or sciences and designed to be somewhat insulated from political interference Bureaucrat 7 someone who works in a bureaucratic organization Costbenefrt analysi 7 a method of evaluating rules and regulations by weighing their potential costs against their potential bene ts to society Spoils system 7 practice of distributing government offices and contracts to the supports of the winning party also called the spoils system Patronag 7 practice of distributing government offices and contracts to the supporters of the winning party also called the spoils system Unita executiv 7 Constitutional doctrine that proposes that the executive branch is under the direct control of the president who has all authority necessary to control the actions of federal bureaucracy personnel and units without interference from the other federal branches Appropriation 7 legal authority for a federal agency to spend money from the U S Treasury Privatization 7 the process of turning over certain government functions to the private sector Redtap 7 overbearing bureaucratic rules and procedures Whistleblowers 7 people who bring official misconduct in their agencies to public attention
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