PSYCH 3070: Human Sexuality, week 7 notes
PSYCH 3070: Human Sexuality, week 7 notes Psych 3070
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3070 at Bowling Green State University taught by Patrick Nebl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
PSYCH 3070: Human Sexuality, Spring Semester 2016 Week 7 Pregnancy and Childbirth Conception Graafian follicle breaks open and releases ovum, where it enters the fallopian tubes Takes 3-7 days to travel down the uterus, but ovum can only be fertilized during the first 24 hours it leaves the ovary 200-400 million sperm released during ejaculation- only a few thousand reach fallopian tube and fewer than 50 reach the egg Sperm can live 3-5 days in reproductive tract If sperm does not penetrate ovum, it becomes overly “ripe” and disintegrates in the uterus Implantation Membrane allows sperms to pass, upon one sperm passing the membrane almost instantaneously changes to prevent more sperm Within 24-30 hours, nuclei have fused to form a zygote Cell division begins but size does not increase Blastocyst (about 100 cells) reaches uterus 8-11 days after ovulation, blastocyst attaches to endometrium Called an embryo after implantation, and fetus at about 8 weeks Umbilical cord and placenta will serve as mother/infant interface First trimester Mother o HCG secreted by placenta prevents corpus luteum from degrading and continues to produce progesterone (for the endometrium) o HCG pregnancy test most accurate 2 weeks or more after missed period o Morning sickness 50-90% experience nausea/vomiting Week 6/8 to week 20 Embryo/fetus o Endoderm from nervous system, skin, and teeth o Mesoderm forms muscles, skeleton, and blood vessels o Endoderm forms internal organs o 3 week: neural tube forms th o 4 week: umbilical cord, heart, and digestive system begin to foth o 8 week: heart is pumping and all organs are developing Second trimester Mother o The movements of the fetus can be felt by the mother o Morning sickness ends o Water retention may cause swelling o Breasts swell and produce thick liquid which precedes milk Fetus o 5 month: detectable heartbeat, responds to sound, and has definite periods of sleep and wakefulness o 6 month: can open eyes, suck thumb, and respond to light o At the end of this trimester, the fetus will be about 1 foot long and weigh 1 pound Third trimester Mother o Walk, sitting, and rising becomes more difficult o Back pain o Enlarged uterus puts pressure on bladder and stomach o Indigestion, heartburn, gas, and constipation are common o General low energy Fetus th o End of 7 month: fetus about 15 inches long and weighs 1.5 pounds o 8 month: fatty tissue develops under skin and weight gain rapidly th o End of 8 month: 16-17 inches long and weighs 4 pounds, will gain .5 pounds per week o 9 month: about 20 inches and 7-7.5 pounds Complications of pregnancy Teratogens: substances that can harm an embryo/fetus Each part of development has a critical period when some feature is developing and is susceptible Alcohol: most sensitive during wee 3 to end of first term of pregnancy, fetal alcohol syndrome associated with physical deformities and mental deficiencies Smoking: low birth weight, miscarriage, preterm birth, and infant mortality Other drugs: cocaine leads to diminished growth and preterm births, caffeine is associated with reduced birth weights, etc. Miscarriages o As many as 3 in 4 conceptions fail to implant or are spontaneously aborted o 15% of pregnancies past this first 6 weeks fail to survive to term Rh incompatibility o Antibodies in mother attack blood of the infant o Usually problem after first child, injection given to prevent antibodies Preeclampsia o Affects 3-5% of pregnant women o Excessive water retention leads to high blood pressure, weight gain, and swollen joints due to altered immune response o Baby must de delivered prematurely or else come may occur Highly sensitive periods Heart: weeks 3-6 Central nervous system: weeks 3-6 External genitalia: weeks 7-9 Evolution of morning sickness Protects embryo by causing pregnant females to expel and avoid foods which contain teratogenic and abortifcient properties o Morning sickness peaks when embryo is most susceptible o Females with morning sickness are less likely to miscarry o Females who vomit are less likely to miscarry than those with just nausea o Common aversions include alcoholic and caffeinated beverages and strong-tasting vegetables Greatest cross-cultural aversion is to meat, fish, poultry and eggs o Often contain parasites and pathogens o Pregnant females are immunosuppressed Complications of Pregnancy Miscarriages o As many as 3 in 4 conceptions fail to implant or are spontaneously aborted o 15% of pregnancies past this first 6 weeks fail to survive to term Rh incompatibility o Antibodies in mother attack blood of the infant o Usually a problem after first child, injection given to prevent antibodies Preeclampsia o Affects 3-5% of pregnant women o Excessive water retention leads to high blood pressure, weight gain, and swollen joints due to altered immune response o Baby must be delivered prematurely or else coma may occur Infant vs. Mother Hypothesis High blood pressure is common side effect of pregnancy o High enough levels damage kidney (preeclampsia) Fetus receives more nutrients with maternal blood flow o Placental cells destroy arteriolar muscles responsible for adjusting blood flow to fetus o Fetus releases human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) into mother’s blood which constricts arteries Mothers with high blood pressure increases have lower rates of spontaneous abortion Preeclampsia more common when blood supply to fetus is more restricted Labor First Stage (6-13 hours) o In 10% of pregnancies amniotic sac breaks prior to labor (“water breaks”) o Uterine contractions push fetus toward cervix, become longer and closer together (every 10-20 minutes to ever 1-2 minutes) o Cervix dilates, mucous plug comes out Second Stage (30-80 minutes) o Crowning as head is delivered first o Further contractions and vaginal expansion Third Stage (10-12 minutes) o Placenta detaches from uterus and leaves body (after birth) Cesarean Sections Horizontal incision through abdomen and uterus Many necessary situations o Maternal illness, breech birth, etc. However, cesarean births are associated with a higher rate of post- delivery complications (mostly to the mother) Breast Feeding Lactation begins about 3 days after childbirth Prolactin causes milk production and oxytocin causes milk letdown World Health Organization recommends infants to be exclusively breast-fed for 6 months Why? o Milk contains proteins which fight infection in addition to nutrients o Breast-fed babies have higher IQs as adults o Benefits for mothers as well Post-Partum Depression 15% of women experience Post-Partum Depression .1% of women experience Post-Partum Psychosis Stress hormones and endorphin levels rise through pregnancy and then fall after birth Infertility in Men Average sperm count per ejaculate has dropped more than half in past 50 years o Endocrine problems o Drugs o Radiation o Infections Many pollutants resemble estrogen (Bisphenol A, etc.) and act on estrogen receptor sites Infertility in Women Structural problems of fallopian tube or uterus o Malformations, endometriosis, infections, and scar tissue Failure to release egg o Often endocrine problem Gender Identity Levels of Sex Differentiation Gender identity- the sex or gender that the individual feels themselves to be Gender role- the culturally based summary of sex-specific behaviors Sexual orientation- sexual preference Legal sex- recognized as M or F by government agency (birth certificate, driver’s license)
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