SURV ANCIENT THRU MEDIEVAL ART
SURV ANCIENT THRU MEDIEVAL ART ARH 302
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This 119 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ellie Paucek on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 302 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Penelope Davies in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see /class/181590/arh-302-university-of-texas-at-austin in Art History at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Late Antique amp Early Christian Art 362012 85400 PM Message bearing potential is much more important than naturalism o This leads to an increasing abstraction of thought The evolution of language in Christian Art Constantine the Great early 4mg c He was quoting from Trajan o His eyes are big compared to the rest of his face o Shows him relatively youthful o Frontallooking straightforward 0 Linear simplicity 0 First unbearded emperor o First Christian emperor o Baptized on his deathbed o Establish a new center for Rome 0 Located in present day Turkey 0 Constantinople o The great rulers set up capitals outside of where they rule o Acrolithic sculpture 0 Peaks of the sculpture were made of stone 0 Drapery was made of metal and the body was made of stone o Reflects a change in the way the emperor is perceived o In early Christianity there was a debate of what the emperor was in relation to the Gods o Enormous portrait o Made of different types of marble 0 Taken from other monuments and sculptures on this portrait o The face may have been recarved BasilicaI Trier Germany c Made by Constantine s dad o Put up in order for him to meet people civic building o The columns have become abstracted o The arches have been made into windows c There is a brick surface o The windows in the apts have been dropped a little bit o The ceiling in the apts is substantially lower 0 Makes the room much bigger than it is o The smaller windows make the apts look farther away 0 Makes the emperor look very big o Create power and effect power Christianity o Tiberius Caesar Persecutions under Decius 249 Constantine s Edict of Milan 313 0 You can be what religion you want The problem of monotheism o The reason why Christians and Jews were killed Is a lower class religion during the early stages The elite in Rome was Pagan Dura Euro us S ria Domus ecclesiae 165256 o Domus ecclesiae the place where people worshiped church in a person s house St John the Lateran Rome S Giovanni in Laterano o First church Constantine gave to Rome o Cathedral of Rome o An all purpose building in Rome was the shift basilica 0 Civic building School Shops 0 Had a copper ceiling o Aisles St Peter s Basilica Rome 320s o Second church Constantine gave to Rome o Aisles separated with columns o An atrium in the front o Instead of having one long na39ive with aisles the wall was pushed back and an area for people to gather was made 0 Transept o Underneath it is a whole burial complex Santa Costanza Rome mid 4mC o A dome was erected by columns 0 Symbolize heaven c There was a spectacular set of mosaics o Tendrels of grapevines 0 Look so Pagan yet it shows an early Christian iconology Chirho symbol o First two letters of Christ o Alpha and omega IXOYC ichthus Jesus Christ Son of God the Savior 0 Fish Shepard carrying his livestock on his shoulders o Pagan world Catacombs o Burial vaults that stretched for miles and miles o Christians needed an intact body for the day ofjudgment so they wouldn t cremate o Secret places to bury the dead o Paintings and works of art 0 Images of the old testament o Pagan into a Christian form 0 Ambiguous paintings Mask the Christian quality Sarcophaqus of Junius Bassus 359 o Series of scenes from the new and old testament o Jesus entering Jerusalem on a donkey o Wearing a Greek philosophers cloak 0 His foot is on the sky god 0 He is unbearded o Jesus sitting up in heaven Santa Pudenziana Rome 402417 362012 85400 PM 362012 85400 PM Egypt 2 222012 75300 PM Amenhotep IVAkhenaten 1353133613511334 o Established a monotheism for the first time o Not very popular o The principle God was the Sun God 0 Round Disk in the sky 0 Giver of heat life and light o Celebrated in open air alters c He was sculpted as more feminine o Hips lean shoulders and the waist o Shown as androgynous 0 To symbolize fertility c He may have had a disease that made him appear more feminine o The children are shown as little and lively figures o Interactive quality in the family o Family unity o Fertility o The gifts that the sun gives to the humans is shown 0 Tiv ca 1352 o Amenhotep s mother o It shows the way that art continued to have power o Headdress had gold and cobras o Image kept up to date with religion and politics Nefertiti ca 1348365 o A model of another piece Architecture Mortuarv Complex of Zoser Saqqara ca 26812662 Imhotep o West side of the Nile o Dead of the West side Living on the ease side because of the sun rising and setting o It is a complex including a tomb and several buildings o Stone building o Large stepped pyramid o Beneath it is a chamber where the body is buried o Along with items he wouldn t needed in his after life c There was an enclosure wall made of limestone o Tailored to look like mud brick 0 Temporary structuresmaterials c There were columns set into the wall with papyrus flowers at the top o Permanence imitating the impermanence o Entrance ways to rooms that don t exist o Covered with intricate tiles to represent mats o The king is able to go through these walls o Permanence imitating the impermanence o Impermanent things were the reality Serdab Statue o Statue of the king so he could watch them and make sure the ritulas were being done appropriately Great Pyramids Giza Menkaure 25332515 Khafra 25702544 Khufu 26012528 c Around them were smaller pyramids o The largest one has a base the size of 13 acres o Each side is an equilateral triangle o Built out of cut masonry and then covered with limestone and then that was smoothed o At the top there was a little bit of gold o The pyramids represent an elaborate show of social organization o The stone came from local quarries c There was a burial chamber on the inside of the pyramid c There was a false shaft made in case of robbers o Mortuary temples further east than the temples themselves and then a raised causeways to get the temples Body went from east to west Sphinx o May have been to guard the tomb o May be an image of Khufu o Strength of a lion Valley of the Kings o Separated tombs from mortuary temples o Hundreds of shafts many of them hidden still o Sunk horizontally into the cliff face Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut Deir elBahri ca 14781458 Senmut o First female King of Egypt o Stayed in power a long time o Consisted of a large gateway to a big courtyard with ramp and columns decorated with paintings o Embodies what the Egyptian king is supposed to do o Clean horizontal lines mimic the environment o The King imposes order on the landscape 222012 75300 PM 222012 75300 PM Gothic Art 1 4242012 75500 PM Money and power is being negotiated through these buildings Was used to describe a kind of art that had nothing classical about it Post lintel and prerenaissance Included all medieval art up to renaissance Consisted in Paris and the immediate outskirts of Paris 100 years later most of Europe could be said to be Gothic Many architecture was a hybrid of Romanesque and Gothic Even moved to the middle East with the Crusades 1415 the influence had started to decline 1550 the gothic style was of the past Adjustment of scale integration and proportion were important Interested in buttressing o How ceilings are dealt with vaulting wall and facade design Realization of the potential of these things was seen by architects St Denis 11371144 c Bernard of Clairvaux o Monk Abbot Known as giving passion speeches along with politics 10901153 Belief about faith was it was mystical and intuitive and not rational 0 Light is able to give a sense of mysticism o Abbot Suger Right hand man of two kings Power of the kings were eclipsed by the nobles people who ere vessels to the king actually had more power kings authority was often challenged 12th century the kings power started to develop Abbot instrumental in developing a relationship between the church and king This church should be able to show it s power far and wide Abbey church Shrine A pilgrimage site people would come from all over Also a cathedral O O O O O O O O On the site of a previous church This place had been the place of burial for French kings a Good place to choose as a symbolic location Seamless exterior n Dissolving the interior walls and creating 7 wedge shaped pieces a Allows architects to open up the walls a Fluidity of space a In view with light o Notre Dame Chartres 11451194 11941220 c Destroyed in a fire in 1194 and rebuilt o Bishop befriended Abbot Suger 0 Architecture reflected power 0 Bishop rebuilt his church o Flourishing style o Flying buttresses were added for the first time and are coming off of the building 0 They were hidden under the roots in Romanesque art 0 At the Pantheon it is similar 0 Architects can build building higher and more verticality o Romanesque building have light coming from the top 0 The Gothic building has more and more windows and light Light could flood into the upper part of the church to create a mystical experience 0 Use a 4 part vault instead of a 6 part vault St Denis 11371144 c Decoration 0 Saw this used in Indian temples 0 Used as a messaging tool to reaching people who couldn t read 0 Fairly extensive program of sculptures o Similar to Chartres Royal or West Portal bequn ca 1145 0 Parts of the building were burnt and built later and some were built right away 0 The sculptures are ornate and crowded lots of figure crowded into space O O O O 0 It is pretty organized and things that dictate pattern Symmetrical qualities of the sculptures D Clarity is well shown Figures are very upright and very slim Drapery is mimicking fluting Feet are slanting n Melting them into the column a Similar to the Lamisu Building and sculpture come together For people who don t know how to read the figures they seem to be naturalistic and resemble real people a Represent time and of people from the past For people who knew who they were u Sequence linked across of prophets and kings and queens from the Bible n Suggested that the Kings in France who were in power were the natural descendants of the biblical figures Center of the tympanum is Christ who is the center of the universe Symbols of angels elders and the 12 apostles On the right is the baby Christ on the lap of the Virgin Mary On the left Christ is going to heaven and being raised up 1145 there is a fire and they rebuild the two transepts Chartres Doors are made very very deep n Liminal space Sculpture is releasing itself and is a sculpture in the round maturing and moving away from the building The column is becoming less important and moving back The drapery has more depth to it The man on the left has a shift in weight a He is starting to move again a Coming to life independently a Feet seem to actually stand on those levels o Rheims 12251245 Same artists from Chartres The sculptures are wearing classical drapery now Weight has come out of the building Columns have almost disappeared The dominance if female Heads and body are interacting now Suggestion of a narrative Two different artists or workshops are at work here Face of the angel is very different to the others Draws attention to decorating a building D So the building is about a collaborative enterprise with the sculptors and artists architecture and glass makers o Glassmaking Found in Gothic period Rare to find nowadays Taking of light and transforming it into something differentmystical Used in as early as the 4th century and kept working on it and flourishes in the 9th and 10th centuries but the great peak was in the St Denis One of the goals of architect is to dissolve solid walls and turn them into glass 1 Everything hinges with everything else Technique that was used was glass was blown and spun flattened out and cut into squares and shapes 1 Put onto a table and marked up with chalk in the design that you wanted When it was put together they put iron bars on it to hold the glass into place to strengthen it Then they started to form to the bars so that you can see it framing the images This technique of decorating glass led to the decorating of the Rayonnant Radiant style 4242012 75500 PM 4242012 75500 PM Greek Art 2212012 85200 PM How does man perceive him self to the things around him o Man s self image o Very formative Very spread out landscape and group of communities o They became somewhat separate states as they began to grow A more unified sense of the environment c There is more vulnerability and also mobility Gradually we get the immergence of villages and then citystates Governed by tyrants o A king that wasn t born into power Oligarchy Democracy 0 Rule of people men Had its own sculpture and structure Very aware and proud to have one language Shared gods The artistic and architectural culture was extremely homogeneous o Emphasis is placed on Athens Thought of themselves as being civilized 0 Everyone else was uncivilized 0 Everyone else were barbarians Artistic o Wide spectrum of patrons Not exactly kings Wealthy people 0 More wealthy people but less wealthy than kings Society where man is the measure of all things The gods are seen in human form Human intellect is valued enormously Like the Egyptians they have a dualistic world view 0 Rationalorder Greek man light 0 Irrationalchaos Everyone else dark 0 Art shows this tension Kouros 600 ADE Trading post in the Nile delta In Egypt long enough of how to accomplish art 0 How to use the tools how to use the material 0 Start to get monumental stone structure and architecture Large scale figures of man and woman 0 Kouros man Statue in the round exists on four sides Static pose Foot is forward but his hips don t show that he is moving Broad shoulders narrow stomach strong legs lines are linear on his chest and stomach Head isn t naturalistic hair is a pattern Eyes are large almond shaped symmetrical Egyptian pose but there are spaces and no back slab Versatile and all purpose image Represents who put them 0 Rich people Registered yourself as an elite Peplos kore 530 Women are always clotheddraped Kore 675 530515 Kritios Bo Women are much easier to work with Found in sanctuaries ca 480 The more naturalistic they are then the later they are made Weight is shifting to his back leg Very modeled Would have had inlaid naturalistic eyes Exaggerate the line of flesh over the hip o Joins the front with the back makes it 3D 0 Moving out of the block of stone Truth vs The Appearance of Truth 0 Distort something to make it true o Depict something exactly as it is Doryphorus by Polykleitos of Arqos 452417 A sense Parts of the body creating movement Turned his head 0 Takes it out of the static pose Spine is not straight Creates a cross 0 XChi Chiastic pose Original is in bronze Take different characteristics from different people into one person 0 A work of art can improve on nature by taking the best of nature 0 This isn t the truth we see around us it is true in that it is the ideal form Systems of proportions symmetria o How big the hand was compared to the arm 0 How the hand moved in relation to the arm Canon teaching tool his theory of philosophy 0 Showing how harmony exists in numerical systems of rebirth after they defeated the Persians 480 What is truth What is free will Order vs chaos Number creates order on the stone Man is always imposing order 2212012 85200 PM Prehistoric Time Cave Paintings 0 6 caves 1 Lascaux gallery of the bulls 2 TroisFreres engraved outlines 3 Chauvet 4 Le Tuc de Adoubert cave sculptures 5 Altamira overlapping animals 6 PechMerle uses natural outline o 6 uses 1 Passage of time 2 How to catchhunt certain animals 3 Marking where different animals can be found 4 Bringing animal spirit from rock 5 Reveringhonoring animals 6 Warning 0 Characteristics 1 No narrative 2 Very naturalistic 3 Few humans and when they were depicted very unnaturalistic 4 Using shape of rock to createdepict animal 5 Blowing pigment Woman from Willendorf 0 Uses 1 Fertility 2 Rituals related to feminism 3 Symbolic of the stages of pregnancy 0 Characteristics 1 Highlights female body parts 2 No individualized facial features 3 No feet unable to movecaught in time Stonehenge 0 Uses 1 Most likely a calendar 2 Possibly for gatheringsrituals 0 Characteristics 1 Welsh Stone 2 3 4 Massive organization Optical illusions Patterns Ancient Near East General Notes about Art in this Time 0 Depicted or glorified war 0 Art sent a message to acclaim supremacy of empire highlight war show dominance 0 Record of military achievements o Gods retreating from existence 0 Monumental architecture now used to emphasize king Standard of Ur 0 Characteristics 1 wwwp weww O 0 Uses Found in a tomb Organized in rows direction narrative Narrative Has framing People depicted harmony between people and animals One side going to war other side animal procession Not absolute naturalism rather a conceptualization Few represents many Hieratic scale Important people break the frame Originally thought to be part of a military standard Later decided to be a box for a musical instrument Statue of NaramSin 0 Characteristics 1 P P PP E J Copper statue of his head metal used for weapons shows power and skill Isolation of figure Facing straight forward confrontational powerful Shows permanence and strength as opposed to transience of cave paintings Good detail pattern Too organized to be completely naturalistic Victory Steele of NaramSin 0 Characteristics 1 Pink sandstone 2 80 inches tall 3 Enemy tribe defeated and retreating while victorious army moves up with NaramSin at the top 4 Relief not columnslinesrows 5 Shows hierarchy hieratic scale 6 Few represents many 7 Double horned helmet equates NS with the gods two stars at the top god are on his side 8 Mountains are sacred sources of life 0 Uses 1 Stone marker 2 Celebrate victory over Iranian mountain tribe Architecture 0 Characteristics 1 Layout reflected central role of gods temple central point of city 2 Temples used for priests 3 NOT expected for people to be unified in practice but belief 4 Low or high temples 5 Decorated with colors mosaic 6 Eg White Temple I Raised through a gradual process when one temple fell build another on top of it because ground was sacred I Platform imitated mountains 7 Eg Ziggurat for Moon God Nanna I Truncated pyramid I Overreaching pride of societies elite of societies I Size levels power I Used for religious activities sacrificing I Huge staircases power and separation between priests and common people Throne Room of Assurnasirpal 0 Characteristics 1 Relief 2 Arrangement of roomsartwork follows a narrative 3 Includes standard inscription 4 General pattern subject on the left object in the middle verb on the right king is always the subject 5 Artwork displays kingly power Palace of Sargon 0 Characteristics 1 Gateway approached by broad staircases 2 Lamassu figures carved in stone at palace gateways I Purpose visitor should encounter them right when they enter palace used to ward off evil visitors and spirits I Characteristics hybrid animal body king s face Captures strength of animal with mind of king Sculpted to be powerful from front and one side only has five legs not a static statue Ashurbanirpal 0 Characteristics 1 Reliefs depict king fighting lions 2 Hieratic scale 3 Isolation of king from others 4 Depth of relief highlights king 1 Demonstrate king s military prowess 2 Show sympathy for animal by showing them in pain 3 Highlight grandeur of king by depicting his strength as more powerful than that of the animal Babylon 0 Tower of babel greatest ziggurat of all time 0 Great hanging gardens of Nebudkanezeer one of the seven wonders of the ancient world 0 Ishtar gate at the entrance to the temple 1 Animal focus but not in relief Colored blue tiles 575 animals PP Static nonmoving but serenity of animals affects the procession of people in temple slows down processions Persepolis o Palace of Darius 0 Buildings set on huge platforms 1 Mirrors socialization of the time 2 Resemble nomadic chieftain s camp 0 Hall of 100 columns 0 Uses various materials from different parts of the empire to represent the different cultures Egypt General Notes 0 Unchanging quality of Egyptian art 0 Most artwork is funerary 0 Not interested in innovation Rather focused on doing the traditional things very well 0 Very concerned with afterlife Common Artistic Conventions 0 Canon 1 Set of proportions to create more lifelike sculptures 0 Twisted halffrontal halfprofile view of kings 0 Levels of naturalism very important 1 If you get the level of naturalism wrong you could imply that the king was a servant or viceversa Palette of Narmer 0 Uses 1 Grinding makeup 2 Putting makeup on cult statue 3 Reference to early foundation myth 4 Represents king stripping enemies 5 Make sure art and achievements stood test of time 0 Characteristics 1 Complex visual communication 2 One side shows king wearing crown of Upper Egypt other side the crown of Lower 3 Clear to seeunderstand narrative 4 Includes hieroglyphics to explain further Khafra Giza 0 Uses 1 Set on path for priests traveling to perform funerary rituals 2 There to watch over what is being done make sure rituals are performed correctly 0 Characteristics 1 Few parts protrude from statue 2 Solid blocklike sense no natural gaps 3 Straightforward face expression body language clenched fists power strength 4 Made from hard strong stone Menkaure and Khamerernebty 0 Characteristics 1 In motion 2 King more forward than wife 0 Uses 1 Shows unity within royal family 2 Shows status of king because he is not buff Tomb of Ti Painting 0 Uses 1 Resources for people to use in the afterlife 0 Characteristics 1 Hunters are lower in status than king depicted by being smaller and more naturalistic 2 Animals lowest form of life Tomb of Nevamun 0 Members of the royal family went to tomb to have banquets and spend time with the dead person 0 Characteristics 1 Stiffness gone 2 No control in faces 3 More lifelike 4 More movement Amenhotep IV 0 First monotheism worshiped Sun God Statue of Amenhotep IV 0 Very feminine physique quite unlike usual kingly muscular appearance Could highlight fertility of the sun Nile etc 0 Shown in family groups young lively children family clearly united Nerfertiti 0 Very lifelike head sculpture with color Queen Tiy 0 Characteristics 1 Made of wood 0 Two phases 1 Gold headdress with cobras to represent goddess of underworld 2 Wig replaces headdress when monotheism replaces polytheism 0 Uses 1 Art gives power Mortuary Complex of Zoser Saqqara 0 Characteristics 1 West of Nile Dead on W living of E to mimic rising and setting sun Main feature step pyramid Serdab statue faces hole in room where rituals take place Aligns N and S to align with N star Enclosure wall made of limestone tailored to look like mud brick Columns set into stone mvwmeww Some reliefs suggest king can travel through walls Great Pyramids at Giza o Menkaure Khafre Khufu 0 Characteristics 1 Smaller pyramids surround great pyramids for member of royal family 2 Largest pyramid is 13 acres across base 3 Equilateral triangles cut masonry covered by polished white limestone with gold over top 4 Fake shafts to mislead tomb robbers 5 Power derived from size extraordinary organization form of pyramid simplicity 0 Uses 1 Represents social organization Valley of the Kings 0 Separate tombs from mortuary temples to hide tombs to avoid robberies Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut 0 1st female king 0 Fits beautifully with environment 0 Beings with gateway then rampway then decorations then shrines for gods 0 Power how design embodies job of Egyptian kings impose ma at order to chaos of Egyptian world 0 Statue of Hatshepsut depicted as king male no breasts beard Early China Shang Dynasty General Notes 0 Hierarchy 0 Always at war 0 Aggressive 0 Bronze working technology 0 Impressive wall systems 0 Marble stone jade bronze vessels 0 Stylized patterning detailed animal forms Oracle Bones 0 Characteristicsuses 1 Questions etched into bones 2 Exposed to flames until it cracked 3 Cracks answers Vessels 0 Uses 1 Rituals for mediation with ancestors 2 Meats grains liquids placed in vessels as offerings to ancestors 3 Helps make elite more powerful 0 Characteristics 1 Hybrid animal design 2 Piece mold bronze casting very sophisticated Zhou Dynasty 0 Adopted culture of Shang Dynasty 0 Vessels 1 Included more protrusion of details less animalistic more decorative 2 New role sign of wealth for rich people 3 Delight in pattern over meaning 0 Jade 1 Hard stone 2 Difficult to work 3 Sign of wealth 0 Dragons 1 Creatures of mediation 2 Move between heaven and underworld 3 Bringers of rain and good fortune Han Dynasty o Funerary suits made ofjade 1 Uses royals aristocracy very valuable 0 Two philosophies 1 Confucius intellectualmoral action 2 Lautzi withdrawal meditation inaction 0 Silk Road 1 Tremendous prosperity Crossed from China to Rome Traveled in relays PP Carried ideas and objects Period of Stability rule of Shi Huangdi ruler of Qin 0 Led programs of road building money language administration enlarged the Great Wall monumental scale power 0 Architecture usually made of wood little has survived generally light walls brightly painted Tomb of Shi Huangdi 0 Characteristics 1 Vast complex to mirror a real city mercury rivers 2 Terra cotta sculptures to guard empire 3 Shi Huangdi feared his enemies would come after him in death so he created an army to guard his afterlife from his enemies Tomb of Marquise Dai Mawangdui 0 Woman buried within four coffins 0 Possibly contains first known portrait in Chinese arts 0 Uses 1 Representation of different realms of existence sun moon humans etc Buddha o Sakyamuni Buddha Zhao Dynasty Comes along silk road from India system of logic led to an increase in monks nuns temples art 0 Buddha from Gandhara mirrored Chinese Buddha influenced by GrecoRoman art Notes from Test Review 1 What do we consider the purpose of art 2 Why did we have art 3 How do we know Prehistoric Period 0 Woman from Willendorf purpose promote fertility How highlight features 0 Chauvet cave purpose highlight soulspirit of animal make them easier to catch How few humans naturalistic animals v abstract people 0 Altamira sense of movement sense that animalspirit is in rock and that art brings out the spirit of the animal 0 TroisFreres animals sketched on top of each other could represent changing of the seasons 0 Architecture mezhirith hut mammoth bones Nomadic living living based on seasons 0 Used spaces food etc nature provided 0 Stonehenge cultic reasons for construction organization of man power Ancient Near East 0 Deals with question of empire brutality expansion power etc 0 Development of narrative o How art reflectseffects power 0 Standard of Ur techniques to tell story visual devices isolation suggesting crowds of people staccato treatment of people easy visibility 0 Steele of NaramSinStatue of NaramSin how art power frontal viewstance strong expression bronze material no sense of time permanence as opposed to transience 0 Architecture ziggurat at Ur temples cities 0 Role of palace v temple architecture express hierarchy theocratic socialism o Palace architecture of Assyria throne room statues of animals lamassu o Persepolis international style embracing cultures around you common language 0 Babylon wall glazed tiles depicting animals to effect power Egypt 0 Palette of Narmer hieroglyphics o Menkaure and Khamerernebty permanence of art value tradition continuity unified state system of beliefs life is for the purpose of having a good afterlife part of spirit needs art 0 Used permanent materials carved intoaround back slab no natural gaps Static stance and facial expression importance of people and power 0 Scribekaaper naturalism tells viewer occupation and status of the person body portrayed to show that they are not working in the field 0 Relief of hesyra system of proportions canon o Saqqara tomb of ti painting degrees of naturalism static Egyptian pose move down social ladder increase naturalism o Statue of Hatshepsut female king importance of how you show quotkingquot depicted more as a man to effect power 0 Mortuary complex of Zoser architecture pyramid tomb buildings around tomb step pyramid transforming into smooth pyramids at Giza permanent materials used to create the illusion of temporary materials China Eventually separated tombs from mortuary temples Temple of Hatshepsut Differences between shang and Zhou dynasties decorations functions decorations part of work moving to decorations separated protruding from work showing off to society Piece mold bronze casting Jade artwork Shi Huangdi art of empire art of autocracy his tomb terra cotta soldiers Silk road transportation of ideas and objects Greek Art 2 Perikles fl 460429 2232012 85100 PM The center of the league was going to be in Athens Started to use the money for the league to beautify Athens His main goal was to make Athens look good because if it looks great then it will be great Patron of the arts and philosophy Parthenon Athens 447432 Pheidias Iktinos Kallikrates 0 Temple to Athena placed on top of the Acropolis o Pheidias controlled sculptures that were placed in the place Chryselephantine Athena Parthenos n Made out of ivory and gold n Repository of treasure 0 Columns on all sides and steps You can come in anywhere Liminal space The right of passage You are not inside or outside when you stand in between them Mediates the outside space and the inside space Takes away from solid barrier The flutes vertical channels make for an interesting play of light and dark Give a sense of the 3D and the physical presence of the columns Get a sense of the air The inside you get a lot of light Sense of windows a Interior light Inside is integrated with the outside a When you stand on the outside you see a wall behind a row of columns and the same on the inside Gives Athena a sense of frame by putting columns all the way around her Lines break up every surface u If you break everything up into smaller parts it gives it a sense of unity 0 There is a use of proportions Creates a sense of order How numbers create harmony Ratio of 2x1 94 Created distortions n The columns don t have straight sides they have a buldge Different elevations Different height change Columns slant inwards Noting is quite vertical The corner columns slant in two ways Refinements o Compensation 0 If you create a straight and horizontal line when you stand far away from it then it looks like it is sagging So you bow it up a little bit to make it appear straight o Exaggeration o If you create a straight and horizontal line when you stand underneath it it looks like it is bowing over you So if you bow it up then it seems like it is bowing up even more o Tension 0 Put into the building an energy the building is about to burst out of itself Without it the building would look a little dead n n n n n n Alexander the Great 356323 BCE Azara Herm o Hellenistic period last until 27 BCE o More relevance to us today Period of expansion and cultural diversity Romantic figure Military leader He founded over 70 cities Kingship in the Greek world Generals struggled for power after he died A lot of criticism is born at this time over what to consider art or not The human experience within architecture 0 Temple of Apollo Didvma begun ca 300 BCE Paionios of Ephesosamp Daphnis Enormous The whole thing seems to be human scale but it is actually blown up Columns evoked trees Raised threshold n Oracle would tell you what you needed to know Small doors at both corners that lead down a Caves When you walk down then you go down to a large open space where there is the shrine of Apollo Blue prints were etched on the side of the temple 2232012 85100 PM Review 1 Four questions miniessay on a work of art Focus on class notes text and discussion articles Understand general issues For perfect score need to include a work of art from textbook or lecture not shown during exam in each essay Bring blue books No length preference Start with thought and maybe outline in rst couple minutes Read question carefully and answer it First sentence is synopsis of answer Prehistoric period I What was the purpose of art I How do we know this I Food shortage Spain to southern Russia made nomadic I Possible answers I Woman of Willendorf I To explain stages of pregnancy I Used to promote fertility because prominent features are breasts thighs genitalia limbs and face pretty much ignoredblank I Cave painting I To capture essence of animals to make it easier to catch them few human beings made very naturalistic while humans are more abstract shapes protruding as if to symbolize that animal is really there I Passage of seasons Trois Freres because many overlapping I Paleolithic and Mesolithic architecture Mezhin39ch I Nomadic seasonaltemporary huts I Caves depended on nature39s provision I Neolithic had more stable living structuresStonehenge organization of manpower large scale stone architecture expresses power Ancient Near East I Development of narrative I Power I Possible answers I Standard of Ur I Techniques used for story telling simulate crowds emphasis contrasting colors I NaramSin and Stele of NaramSin I Ruler personality of art I Illustrates ways in which object can express power I Not eeting not timepassing permanent straight forward and solid frontality I More permanent materials I Metals weapons war I Architecture I Give basic descriptions I Temples how expressed hierarchy how effectively hosting procession I Cities I Ziggurats I Palaces I Assyrian ways I Lamasu I Throne room decoration I Expression of empire I Persepolis I International style I Embracing culture around rather than instilling fear I Common language I Babylon I Decoration I Glazed tiles I Ceremony I Helped to pace ceremonies Egypt Visual communication Unchanging art I System of beliefs afterlife I Common identity I Isolation I Uni ed state I Continuity instead of innovation Possible answers I Palette of Narmer I Ways of Visual communication I Symbols hieroglyphics etc I Menkaure amp Khaineremebty II I No gaps I Molded together with back panel I Expensive stone I Timeless youthful and strong I Placed in mortuary temples I Static I Frontal gaze I KaAper and Scribe I Naturalism I Occupation status I Position props fat I Relief of Heyra I System of proportions I Tomb of Ti I Naturalism more prominent as status gets lower I Female king I Shown as man to show authority I Arkenatem I More naturalism overall I Architecture I Development of mortuary complexes I Pyramids tombs other structures around it I Gradually morphs into straight edge pyramids I Permanence I Shape of pyramids size made stones look like temporary materials I Tomb separate from mortuary for protection and proper rituals I Hatshepsut I Mimics landscape I China I Differences between artworks in Shang and Zhou I What vessels are for and how does decor work with function I Decor sign of skill I Way created I Piece mold bronze casting I Jade I What for what symbolized I Qi Shuangdi and his change in ruling and his tomb I Silk road I Development of ideas Created With WorkFIOLIz com Indian Art 3202012 75300 PM Vedic Period ca 1500 ca 500150 BCE o Buddhism o Hinduism o Jainism Upanishads ca 800 BCE o Metaphysical texts that explore the meaning of the Vedas o The material world is an illusion o The cyclical nature of man s existence is a relentless cycle of birth and rebirth o The goal of life was to escape from Samsara unite individual soul with universal soul Mahabharata ca 400 BCE Ramayana 5th4th C BCE o Texts that established a sort of mythology explained religion through the lives of men allegorical At the end of the Vedic period dynasties of kings start to occur Artists are working to Hindu and Buddhists patrons More Buddhists art during this time o Siddhartha GautamaSakyamuni ca 500 BCE o Lived and taught in India Son of a King Would be a great leader of religion after leaving his wife Set out to find enlightenment Life is pain we are caught in ongoing births and deaths and rebirths our rebirths are determined by our karmic actions which are determined by our insights nirvana and once you get nirvana you will break this cycle o Bodh Gaya o Ashoka of Maurya dynasty r 272231 BCE 0 Establishment at Sanchi Monastic place a Monks lived in cells Different types of temples Monuments called stupas n A monument that celebrated Buddha O O O O a First used to house the relics Great Stu pa 1 n n n n n n n n n n n 50 ft high Open to anyone A dome on top o Mast is called a Yasti axis of the world 0 Keeps them in their place in the universe o Solar symbol svastika made up by the gates Solid so you can t go inside o External monument Covered with shimmering white plaster o Reflected the sun o Shimmers like the sun Excavations suggests there are no relics inside more of a monument Many people gave donations to prove merit for future life Double staircase that takes you to second level which is a circular walkway The whole building was enlarged slightly Fence had the purpose to separate profane land with sacred land 4 gateways were made at the cardinal points o Scenes from the life of Buddha o Elephants dwarves lions c He isn t actually shown only in the form of a wheel Yakshi o Looks like the lady isn t wearing anything at all but she is o Characterization of art as the erotic o Lady figure represents a water nymph a regenerate fluid 0 Represents life sac of tree o She is the like the sense of the abundance of life a Designed in the form of a sacred mountain o Represents the cosmos n Walk around the monument clockwise monument on your right side imitate the movement of the sun and animate the monument o Lower level or the upper level Bhakti o Act of devotion to an image of the gods to get closer to the god Gandara o Similar to the Greek or Roman world 0 Folds on the clothing and the hair Mathura o No sense of Greek or Roman world 0 More emphasis on the body Hinduism practiced next to Buddhism rose in the 5th century CE influenced by dynasties at the time continuation of Vedic Texts loose term that pulls together slightly different belief systems Made of stone and bronze often small images because of the type of worship that was enacted around the images The god should be able to see the people worshiping him Darshan This meant that the sculptures had to be movable and brought out of the temple Gods o Vishnu o Shiva o Devi Early days they were worshipped in caves they became quite complicated with sculptures and paintings gods are shown in partially human form not naturalistic often have more limbs Weren t aiming for naturalism Multiple limbs suggests that the Gods are capable of more than normal people They developed temples built of stone Vishnu Temple Deoqarh ca 530 Sat on a platform Each corner had a small shrine Had a room inside where there was an image of the god itself Heavy stone Square building Image of sacred mountain Door and three remaining sides there are windows that have representations of Vishnu o Vishnu should be able to see out As times went by these towers got larger and larger Often are associated with the dynasties and shows the power Visvantha Temple Khaiuraho 1002 Chandella dynasty Enormous temple Extra impact more presence Each room is small No vaults or concrete Postlentil construction Rooms keep various works of art Towers are multiplied forward The back has the largest tower Repetition will add to the importance of something A disk at the back of the tower Tower is created in a parabolic shape 0 Amalaka Disk at the back of the tower Horizontal shape separates scared ground from regular ground Also emphasizes vertical lines In rows around the bottoms there are hundreds of sculptures that show narratives o In erotic postionsm but they could be allegories for various characteristics of Gods 3202012 75300 PM 3202012 75300 PM ART HISTORY SURVEY OF MEDIEVAL THROUGH ANCIENT ART DR PENELOPE DAVIES Chapter 2 Ancient Near Eastern Art from cuneus Latin for wedge 7 2900 BCE pictograms Mesopotamians used Used for accounts in Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh Formed cultural link between diverse groups established power Theme 1 Art enabled and re ected political power Theme 2 Mesopotamians used visual narrative exploring strategies for telling stories via art I SUMERIAN ART Sumer 7 the first major Mesopotamian civilization that ran on a system of 4000 BCE 7 2340 BCE Informative art in Sumerian society architecture writing sculptures reliefs pottery a Temple Architecture Linking Heaven and Earth i Materials nondurable mud brick plaster ii 7 ground level oriented to cardinal points of compass Purpose offices priests quarters storage rectangular room cella iii 7similar to low temples but raised above ground level transformed into pyramids called ziggurats iv Note Visual was important to Sumerians Reward from the gods as is awe from the common people v Uruk 7 presentday Warka and biblical Erech center of Sumerian culture ourished from trade in agriculture home of hero Gilgamesh special temple called the honored chiefsky god Anu b Sculpture and Inlay i Female Head from Uruk ca 32003000 BCE Limestone sculpture height 8 ii Tell Asmar Abu Temple sculptures Materials limestone alabaster gypsum E range from several inches to 25 feet m abstract static pose horizontalzigzag ridges Distinction faces with wide round eyes perhaps to communicate with or admire the gods or even to ward off evil inlays of lapis lazuli blue gemstone and shells powerful eyebrows Apotropaic device 7 something used to turn away evil ART HISTORY SURVEY OF MEDIEVAL THROUGH ANCIENT ART DR PENELOPE DAVIES iii birthplace of Abraham Discovered excavated by Leonard Woolley Goat in Thicket Ram and Tree from Great Death Pit ca 2600 BCE Materials gold leaf lapis lazuli shell copper red limestone Great Death Fit 7 74 soldiersattendantsmusicians sacri ced for elite Theory Sumerians believed in afterlife Sigyificances goats are sacred to Tammuz owers are sacred to Inanna Purpose fertility concerns about plants and animals c Visual Narratives i ca 2600 BCE Materials wood inlaid with shell limestone lapis lazuli MI 8 Purpose unknown possibly Registers 7 horizontal bands 7 device artists emphasize enlarge imp01tant gures ii Bull Lyre from tomb of Queen Puabi Ur ca 2600 BCE Materials gold lapis lazuli inlay d Cylinder Seals i Purpose administrative use to seal jars or secure storerooms ii Materials carved cylindrical stone soft clay to imprint seal upon iii Priest King Feeding Sacred Sheep from vicinity of Uruk ca 3300 BCE Size height 2 and 18 diameter 1 and 34 II ART OF AKKAD a Sculpture Power and Narrative Frontality 7 when the intended view is from the front Stele 7 upright marker stone ART HISTORY SURVEY OF MEDIEVAL THROUGH ANCIENT ART DR PENELOPE DAVIES i Head ofan Akkadz39an Ruler from Nineveh ca 22502200 BCE Materials iron M 12 84 abstract especially beard and hair Technigue hollow casting ii Victory Stele ofNaramSin r 22542218 BCE Purpose commemorate NaramSin s Victory over the Lullubi Size 6 6 III NEOSUMERIAN REVIVAL a Architecture The Ziggurat of Ur i Ur ca 2100 BCE ART HISTORY SURVEY OF MEDIEVAL THROUGH ANCIENT ART DR PENELOPE DAVIES M l90byl30foot base height of 50 feet Materials mud brick bitumen mortar Purpose ceremonies Buttress vertical supporting element b Sculpture Figures of Gudea i Head of Gudea from Lagash ca 2100 BCE E 9 18 ii Seated statue of Gudea holding temple plan from Girsu ca 2100 BCE M 29 Materials diorite a dark rare expensive difficulttowork stone Purposes of gures mark Gudea s piety testify great wealth motivation IV BABYLONIAN ART a The Code of Hammurabi i Stele inscribed with the Law Code of Hammurabi ca 1760 BCE M 7 height ofrelief28 Materials black basalt Description 3500 lines of Akkadian cuneiform V ASSYRIAN ART a Art of Empire Expressing Royal Power i Architectural focus shifted to building royal palaces ii Citadel of Sragon II Dur Sharrukin ca 721705 BCE Size ofpalace 30 courtyards and 200 rooms iii Lamassu 7 guardian figures in the shape of winged humanheaded bulls Purpose of lamassu embody king s fearful authority iv Orthostats 7 upright gypsum slabs distinctive to Assyrian architecture Purpose of orthostats protect mud brick from moisture and wear and communicative purposes v Lion Hunt relief from North Palace of Ashurbanipal ca 645 BCE Purpose showcase king s strength metaphor for military prowess ART HISTORY SURVEY OF MEDIEVAL THROUGH ANCIENT ART DR PENELOPE DAVIES VI LATE BABYLONIAN ART a The Royal Palace i Glazed Brick 7 involved putting a lm of glass over the brick s surface Purpose ornamental respect deities VII REGIONAL NEAR EASTERN ART a The Hittites i 1595 BCE overthrew Babylon ART HISTORY SURVEY OF MEDIEVAL THROUGH ANCIENT ART DR PENELOPE DAVIES b C VIII E ii 14001200 BCE peak of Hittite Empire iii Capital Hattusa iv Jambs 7 large stone gates V The Lion Gate ca 1400 BCE Probably inspired the later Assyrian lamassu The Phoenicians i Skills seafaring crafted works in metal ivory and colored glass ii Occupied presentday Lebanon iii Phoenician ivory plaque depicting a winged sphinX ca 8Lh century BCE The Hebrews i 2000 BCE Akkadians expelled the Hebrews from Mesopotamia ii 1600 BCE Hebrews moved from Canaan to Egypt slavery 40 years later they moved back to Canaan renamed Israel iii Religion Monotheistic centered on Yahweh iv King David seized Jerusalem from Canaanites built palace His son Solomon built First Temple Temple of Soloman Jerusalem ca 457450 BCE Ark of the Covenant 7 chest containing the Commandments King Hiram of Tyre Phoenicia credited for supplying resources v 58786 BCE King Nebuchadnezzar II destroyed temple Israelites ed vi 538 BCE Israelite return rebuilt temple Second Temple under Herod the Great lst century CE Romans under Vespasian destroyed Second Temple Only Wailing Wall remained IRANIAN ART Early Iranian Art i Materials wood bone metal ii Purpose decorative vocabulary animal motifs ornamental iii Nomad s gear 7 portable art weapons bridles buckles bulae vessels iv Fibulae 7 large clasps or brooches v Painted beaker form Susa ca 4000 BCE Purpose love of animal forms in the nomadic arts of Iran and Central Asia The Persian Empire Cosmopolitan Heirs to the Mesopotamian Tradition i Cyrus the Great7 King of Babylon r 55953029 BCE ruler ofthe Achaemenid dynasty the Persians overthrew king of the Medes ii Religion Zoroaster dualism of good and evil embodied in Ahuramazda Light and Ahriman Darkness practiced in open air Palace of Darius and Ro iii Thus Persian kings did not concentrate on temples instead they created vast impressive royal palaces ART HISTORY SURVEY OF MEDIEVAL THROUGH ANCIENT ART DR PENELOPE DAVIES iV Persepolis plateau in Zagros highlands at Parsa or Persepolis Rhyton golden ritual cu Archaemenid rhyton Sui3r centuries BCE Materials gold V Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes Persepolis ca 500 BCE Vi Bull capital from Persepolis ca 500 BCE Apadana 7 Audience Hall Darius analXerxes Giving Audience ca 490 BCE Shapur I Triumphing over the Roman Emperors Philip and Arab and Valerian 260272 CE c Mesopotamia Between Persian and Islamic Dominion i 356323 BCE Alexander the Great s Victory over the Persians 305281 BCE Seleukas inherited much of the Near East 238 BCE Iranian nomads Parthians gained control ii Iconography 7 the use or study of images or symbols in Visual arts iii Iwan 7 brick barrelvaulted audience hall iV Blind arcades 7 blank windows derive from Roman facades Palace of Shapur I Ctesiphon Iraq 242272 CE V Theme hunting scenes Vi Repouss 7 technique of hammering out from behind the front of surface Vii Niello 7 a compound of sulphur 272012 75000 PM o YangshaoCulture vasesI Mid3 Millennium BCE Muted Red and black cream surface Shang DynastyI ca 2000 First considered as a legend 1928 remains were discovered oracle bones Feudal lords who lived off the land o Hierarchy was very important Consistently at war o Aggressive set of stats Developed bronze working technology o Set of weapons Wall systems Royal tombs that still survived o Hoards of people and animals were sacrificed with the dead 0 Serve the dead person in the afterlife 0 People who had status in life would have status in death Oracle bones o Bones on to which questions were written o Put in the flame until the bone cracked and then the Shaman would interpret the crack as the answer to the question Bronze vessels ca 16001050 BCE o Most of them we don t know where they came from o Quite ornately decorated o Imitate wooden vessels or clay ones o Patterning of animal forms are on the outside 0 Animal is almost cut in half and wrapped around the vessel It is part of the vessel and not just on it Guanq Shanq dynasty 12m Century BCE o For pouring o Animal shapes o Symmetrical embracing o Had symbolic meanings to them 0 Animal in the mouth would be a sign of regeneration o Used in rituals in mediation with the ancestors culture s ancestors o Meats grains and liquids were placed in the vessels as offerings o Hybrid creatures were there because through their forms it would turn one thing into another 0 Grain into something the ancestors could use and appreciate 0 Part of the transformation process Take something from this world and make it accessible to the other world o If you have this vessel then you are able to stay in contact with the ancestors 0 Sets the owner apart from the rest of society 0 Zun o Elephant o Piece mould bronze casting lst You create in clay a model of whatever you want to create 2nd Then get some other pieces of clay and put it all around the model but don t let them harden 3rd Then cut them off 4th Take the original model and shave it down 5th Put your outside pieces back around it and leave spaces in between and holes 6th Pour bronze into the holes 7th Crack the outer shell off and the mold is inside Zhou Dynasty ca 1050771 Western 770256 Eastern o The difference between this dynasty and the Shang o More pieces are protruding off of the Zhou pieces o Shang was more animalistic o Zhou pieces had more decorative properties o The role of mediation was turned to signs of wealth o Art becomes lush and lavish o Jade nephrite bi Eastern Zhou 4mg Century o Shows wealth if you have it 0 Very hard to work with o Sand bags and abrasive to wear down stone o Dragons were able to move between the heavens and the underworld mediators o Bringers of great fortune o Bringers of rain o Materials mean something more than just value Jade suit Zn d Century CE Han Dynasty o Funeral suits 0 Thread used would show your rankings in society 0 Extremely valuable o Responsible for tomb robberies Shi Huanqdi ruler of Oin 221210 Established unity of a wide region Powerful armies conquered the region First emperor of China o Totalitarian control Tried to destroy past traditions o Book burnings Took a lot of Confucian scholars and buried them alive Espoused legalism o Obedience of the state Took action on a lot of different measures Similar to autocratic society A lot of road building Standardized money language weights Set up the administrative framework Enlarged the Great Wall of China o Northern boundary to protect China from the Nomadic people o Monumental structure 0 Scale of it o Able to manage a huge number of people to build it Model of a house Han Dynasty 15 t Century CE o Made of wood o Post lenthal o Walls were quite light o Sloping roofs o Brightly painted Tomb o A vast complex Romanesque Art 4192012 75400 PM Romanesque certain features that seem to look Roman columns and rounded arches When Europe starts to keep it s traditions but also starts to look forward Mid 11th Century Find a society set up around feudal estates Very wealthy men who tend to live in huge castles who are able by financial networks to have less wealthy people working for them serfs Two movements come to the forefront of Christianity Monasticism grew enormously at this time o Draw people because this is where people get their education o Live in a life of seclusion o Development of tradition of manuscripts o The importance of manuscript Importance of Christians to go on pilgrimages o In hope of salvation in the after life o Crusades First and Second 0 Win back the holy land from the Muslims 0 Result was crossfertilization Find an enormous number of churches and not just castles o A large number of churches had burnt c As a result was to use less wood and more with stone 0 Stone added to a building s sense of nobility 0 Addition of an acoustical phenomenon Gregorian chant o Desire where sound could be used in an eerie way There is an insipient interest in other things o An interest in celestial light 0 A way to get holiness into the building 0 How you roof your ceiling o During the year 1000 there was panic and people became worked up about god St Sernin Toulouse 10701120 c Church of an Augustinian house of cannons o On the outside there is a clear emphasis on the eastern end apses 0 New part of the ritual where every priest has to say mass once a day 0 Where relics of saints were kept The issue of integration 0 An obsession of the use of a plan 0 Using geometry Use a module that is defined by the crossing where the nave is crossed with the transept n Aisles are a quarter of a module Similar to Haggia Sophia n Leads you to a contemplation Engaged columns that go all the way to the ceiling so they eye can recognize what is happening Instead of a flat roof there is a barrel vault made out of stone 0 Each is marked off by the engaged column Desire to open up the upper spaces above the columns 0 Bring in light 0 Started to play with the space The effect of having a barreled vault above 0 Congregation belongs in the nave and the aisle Procession at the beginning of the mass in the nave Help to create procession Straightforward space that takes you through This is a static place The Pantheon was different because it doesn t encourage you to stay in that space The weight goes on the walls below Makes it a little bit more risky to open the wall Therefore they tried other techniques instead of the barreled vaults Make sure the exterior of the building speaks of the inside of the building Sexpartite or quadripartite vault Weight coming down on the points or columns instead of the whole wall 0 O O O O St Etienne Caen William of Normandy amp Matilda 10641087 Central nave and two aisles o The towers separate 0 3 levels on the tower Each level is more pierced and more light is coming in More light come in the closer you get to the sky Inside has the interest of mathematics Square schematism 0 Taking the crossing as your module 0 Throughout the nave module is repeated in squares o Alternating compound piers Space is clearly shown Using the module Top of the compound piers burst open and develop in to ribbed vaults o Constructed using wooden framework and then a skin of stone is placed between them to hold it up and the wood is taken out Very sheltering o Encourages procession O Duomo Pisa 10631118 completed in 14mC A nice example of a building that could be just a Roman basilica Pisa was recognized as a free republic Griffin is on top of the building 0 War with the Muslims and they took a lot of their loot So big that it took so much time to complete Construction materials 0 Take material from Roman buildings 0 Kind of conquest message 0 Message of continuity All of the columns and capitals are reused from Roman buildings Inside row of columns with arches on top of them 0 The arches are a different shape Pointed arches n Signature of the gothic period a Islamic influence A distinctive use of different colors of stone 0 Alternating white marble with green stone Shows you are in the Tuscan world A screen of arches in the wall 0 Behind it we find an interplay of light and shadow to create an interesting texture in the wall to make it less solid Similar to Islamic architecture Breaking up of the surface and creating a world beyond Always calling into question where reality is Solid and void 0 Enormous amount of intercultural exchange Bell Tower There has to be a way that ideas are being transmitted 0 Small objects were used 0 Ornaments 0 O O o Bayeux Tapestry 10661183 Made after the Battle of Hastings Textile rarely survived Cross cultural object Shows the story that leads up to the Battle of Hastings and the story after it The death of Edward The fight of the accession to the English throne King William who is the French one 50 scenes which tell the story Central scene with horses and boats and inscription that runs along the top Borders that have animals and birds Narrative that describes the changing of power between France and England Most textiles were merely decorative 4192012 75400 PM 4192012 75400 PM Review 512012 75300 PM Mesoamerican o Many cultures at the time and across time o Reliance on maize o Religious beliefs are similar 0 Give something to get something o Cultures are divided between the elite and the poor o Strong reliance on calendars o Lots of trade o Olmec La Venta o Traded jade and iron ore 0 Man made pyramids Imitate volcanoes Mountains were life giving sources a Fear of the volcanoes o Basalt heads Stone came from 60 miles away without wheels n Organization a Faced out in the courtyard n Individual features suggest that they were rulers a Each is distinct n Interest in tracing of time o Disappeared in 200 BCE o Teotihuacan o Birthplace of the gods 6th largest city at the time planned with a grid system actually moved the river to fit into their grid plans North to South axis Avenue of the Dead n Ceremonial path a Steps along the path a Interest in the landscape 0 Pyramid of the Moon Mirrors the mountain that is behind it As you get closer the two merge into one 0 O O O The closer you lived to the citadel the wealthier you were 0 Pyramid of the Feathered Serpant Held 60000 people for rituals Taludtablero construction a Vertical and horizontal step Googleeyed rain god a More abstract than the basalt heads They would have been painted o Tetitla Goddess Shown frontally Large feathered headdress Stretches her hands out with flowing water a You must first give o Mayans Rulers descended from the Gods 75000 people across 75000 miles No grid plan Great Plaza Big Pyramids Temple 1 Jaguar 9 layers a 9 layers of the underworld Stone temples at the top Giant head above the tree tops 0 O O O O 0 Islamic Art o Rise of Mohammad 0 From Mecca to Medina 0 Pray towards Mecca o Rituals of Islam o Dome of the Rock 0 Build massive buildings when the Umayyad s have power 0 Buildings have power 0 Caliph is wanting people to convert from Christianity to Islam O O Prevent Muslims from converting to Christianity Built a top of a very important rock Important to Christian and Jewish faith Claims the place as it s own o Great Mosgue O O O O O The Umayyad s don t last long and are slaughtered Center of power moves to Damascus Caliph alWalid Every mosque has a Qibla wall Face Mecca Very long More democratic than Christian a People are equal before Allah Mihrab Represents the dent Mohammad made into the wall where he is pointing to Mecca a When he was exiled o Qaerharaheh O O O 0 Once you walk into a building like this it is overflowing in gardens Not open on the outside to protect the Caliph Inside is supposed to represent paradise There was air conditioning o Baghdad O 0 Just as close to the city center as everyone else Just like the mosque to be equal o Great Mosgue O O O O O O Cordoba Muslims conquered land very fast Easy to add onto a mosque Made bigger and bigger Horshoe arches Lobed arches Don t give you a firm boundary Blurring of solid and void n Seen more on the inside of the mosque n Feels very intimate n Capitals are spolia n There is something more to look at The domes before hide the support Here they make the dome part of the pattern Very forbidding on the outside Inside is like paradise Something beyond your everyday reality You see it reflected in the water The everyday versus the intellectual reality Court of Lions 0 They don t give you anything solid to hold on to o Constantly breaks your expectations 0 The arches are perforated Space itself is left open Blurring of material reality 0 Dome with a honeycomb decoration The use of calligraphy and the use of decoration 0 Didn t use animal imagery o The notion of text and the words from the Koran are on the wall and everyday things 0 O O O O Romanesgue Rounded arches Most of the stuff is made of stone Centers of wealth and power because people could buy their salvation Pilgrimage o More people came Crusades o More relics and more structure was needed The end of the century 0 More churches were made out of gratitude Modulation St Senin 0 Series of apse to hold a lot of people Relics would be held here Gothic 0 Module made in the crossing o Nai39ve the columns mark the half module 0 Aisle are every quarter module 0 Engaged columns 0 Barrel vault Added depth to the building Evoke a psychological pause Weight of the ceiling is pushing down through the columns a Hard to open up the walls St Etienne o 3 Entrances o The higher and higher you go the more light you let in 0 Square schematism o Alternating compound piers ribbed vaults Weight is pushed down on the columns Encourage clergies to move forward Duomo 0 Similar to the basilica plan 0 Funded the church by selling the spoils they had won 0 Spolia Message of continuity of the past of moving forward and on 0 Islamic influence Alternating colors Pointed arches in front of the dome Exterior arches Illusion of space Light and shadows makes the facade less solid 0 Portable objects and ideas Playing with and pushing the Romanesque 0 Proportion Vaulting Verticality Letting in light 0 O O Way in which was related to the French monarchy spread o Influenced one another New theological ideas 0 Bernard of Clairvaux Religion is mystical and intuitive o Abbot Suger Wedding the power of the church with the power of the monarchy o St Denis 0 Module design 0 Opening of the space 0 Dissolution of walls 0 Increasing verticality and letting in more light 0 Stained glass windows Light is transformed as it comes in o Notre Dame 0 Buttressing Build bigger and taller spaces to pierce the walls and let in more light 0 Interior space has more light and more height o Chartres 0 Interest in sculptural design Sculptors are working together and creating spaces that are elaborate and mystical o Took a long time to build an destroyed by a fire 0 Figures that are deeply embedded into the architecture 0 Transept portal Built after the fire Increasing naturalism Releasing the sculptures out of the architecture o Rhemis o Sculptural development 0 Free from the columns Interacting with each other Naturalism Movement Rayonnant 0 Windows dominate the building More interest in light Mystical form of light North Window Pieces of colored glass Alters the way that light enters the building Saint Chapelle 0 Walls that have been replaced with colored glass Flamboyant Style 0 Idea that facades are more decorative 0 Don t see a reflection of the exterior and the interior Salisbury Cathedral 0 Gothic expressed differently in different regions Doge s Palace Government building Bottom half is so open and vulnerable Columns seem to emerge from the water Pointed Islamic influence 0 O O O O O O 512012 75300 PM 512012 75300 PM Roman Art II 312012 85300 PM o How do your boundaries help you to a certain point o Different material is being used c On one monument you have many different styles o Roman art is an art of bringing things together Influence from all over different parts of the Roman world Bringing together of different elements of art One of the secrets to Roman expansion Embrace the idea of inclusiveness Brought in the Gods of the lands they conquered o It didn t alienate 0 Didn t squash the religious system of a place 0 Essential to helping the expansion of Rome Ex Aqueducts Encourages the complexity of empire Not only create their own art from others but to make something new out of it Cultural supremacy Embrace different cultures Process of adopting and adapting o Propaganda o Self conscious encoding system An art that always is looking at itself and quoting itself The average Roman viewer was more careful than anyone else They rely on you to understand and remember the things you have seen somewhere else and make connections o Pantheon Roundness while walking in o Portraits Romans have left thousands of them Different than all others Cut off at the neck or upper chest level Normalized the idea ofjust having a head without the body o They had them in their houses and tombs o In the republic they put them up in public spaces 0 Men who are politicians o 125 BCE may have been when it started o Two Old Men The wrinkles make it look serious Crow s feet sunken cheeks balding Naturalistic An ideal is culturally constructed Looks like he has experience This is an ideal of what it takes to be part of the ruling elite politicians o Pompey The Great 0 A change in ideals A change in aspirations of the Roman Republic Has a fat and baby face A younger man Smooth skin 0 An attempt to quote Alexander the Great o Primaporta Augustus ca 19 BCE o Augustius Settlement He will be first among equals The emperor had no constitutional position The rest of Roman state art is an attempt at legitimacy Each image was a different message given out Created in marble to copy a bronze original Addressing his troops He is wearing armor represents the similarity to Julius Caesar He quotes Alexander the Great too in his profile view He is making a direct reference to a classical work of art Deriferus The stance The locks of the hair Notion of reason and democracy These are the things he stands for A little baby claimed the adopted son of Julius Caesar O O O O O O O Related to the Gods The dolphin is a reference to a battle in which he overcame Marc Anthony and Cleopatra The breast plate The kind of piece he brings to the world is divinely ordained Marcellus Gaius amp Lucius from Ascea o This image of continuity o Chosen descendants o Kingship is being passed down from generation to generation Each ruler has a system of coding O O O o Alter of Augustus Peace Fascist architecture Put up in 139 BCE o By the senate Establishing his own ideology of Rome Wall enclosure with alter in the middle Structural relief He brought peace to the Roman world Two entrances The outside was decorated with sculptured relief 0 Sculpture in a lower tier and a higher tier Campus 0 It means hunger during war 0 We have the abundance that comes with peace The goddess shows peace and fertility The goddess Roma shows she is at peace The north and south sides 0 A set of precession reliefs 0 See specific people Augustus priests senators his wife etc An exaggerated model of the monuments they show in public Showing plan to Roman A big family Creating dynasty O O O O 0 First time there are frequent appearances of women Trajan s Column Reference family and social policy Rules against adultery Tax breaks against plenty of children To show that he is the overseer of Rome He is the father of Rome He is taking care of Rome o Conquering the Dashians o Shows narrative in Roman art o Adlocutio o Repeated scenes around the column 0 Recognize one at the bottom and the top 312012 85300 PM 2142012 75200 PM Exam will have 4 mini essays each will be 12 minutes o A set of images on the screen o Reread the class notes texts articles o Understand the issues that we talk about in class 0 Egypt permanence c To get a perfect score 0 Include one work of art that is not shown on the screen per question and use it to boost my argument o Bring blue book Suggestions o Spend the first minute of two thinking about the answer o Read the questions carefully o Essay format Prehistoric Period o What is the purpose of art o What was it s function in this period c And how do we know Woman from Willendorf c To promote fertility o Breasts are shown 0 Genitalia are shown 0 Wide hips 0 Don t really have feet o Explain what will happen in pregnancy Chauvet Cave and Altamira o Capture the essence of the animals 0 Make them easier to catch Few humans The animals are very naturalistic The shape of the rock has the animal Brings out the spirit of the animal 0 O O TroisFreres c To show the passage of the seasons Mezhirich o Huts made out of mammoth bones 0 People are living nomadically 0 Also lived in caves o Ate animals and stuff nature has provided before Stonehenge o Cultic reasons for the construction o Organization of man power 0 Expresses power Standard of Ur o Development of narrative o Visual devices 0 Bigger figures means more important 0 People look at the biggest person o How is the message given to the viewer NaramSin o Illustrates how an object can express power o Frontality 0 He is looking right at you c Expression 0 Straight and don t get the sense of time o Material 0 Copper Weapons Ziggurat o Temples survived o o Temple architecture 0 Moving away from the people around o Palace architecture 0 Ashurnasir al II o Ashurbanir al 0 Expression of Empire Persepolis o Bring artists and materials together to make a common language and then unify the empire Babylon o Architecture in ceremony o Blazed animal tiles religious processions Egypt Palette of Narmer o Questions of visual communication o Different ways to express narration o Symbols o Development of different techniques MenkaureampKhamerenebty II o Isolation o Value in continuity rather than innovation o Leads to a unified state and isolation o Common identity o System of beliefs o The Ka needs theses works of art a substitute for the mummy o Needs things to do in the afterlife and people around it in the afterlife o They are set against a piece of slab o No gaps where there normally would be gaps in nature o Static facial expressions and posture o Shows how important these people were o The conventions that were used 0 Strong youthful o Placed in mortuary temples 0 Along in rows of the procession 0 Watching the rituals taking place and making sure that everything is going right Scribe and KaAper o Their occupation tells us their status o They don t have to do physical labor o Symbolic form of age in their bodies Relief of Hesyra o Systems of proportions of the body Tomb of Ti o Static and Egyptian pose c As you move down the ladder then there is more and more naturalism Female King o Without breasts o Given a beard o Shown what a king should look like Motuary complex of Zoser o Pyramids evolve from step pyramids to smooth side o Permanence 0 Shape 0 Size 0 Tailored their stone to look impermanent Temple of Hatshepsut o Evolved the tomb against tomb robbers o Mimics the landscape and shows order over the landscape China Differences in the Shang and Zhou dynasty o How does each decoration function 0 Earlier the decoration was to form something to give to the ancestors 0 They eventually become something of power class showoff o How were they made What did Jade symbolize The art of empire autocracy and the ruler s tomb The Silk Road transportation of materials Islam 2 4172012 75200 PM o Religion can use capturing art forms as a way of showing supremacy To take over a building o Chosen as an Islamic Capital after the conquest o First dynasty was completely massacred o One family survived and got all the way to Spain o City grew and became one of the most important cities o 3000 mosques o Great Mosgue Cordoba 786 o Most important mosque Connected to the palace by a bridge 0 Like Haggia Sophia Equivalent to the great churches of Christianity 0 But bigger Taken over as a Christian cathedral in 1286 Looks like a pure Islamic building but when you go there it is very hard to actually get a good view of the building Need a big open place a mihrab and qibla wall It is simple to add to the mosque construction Became to be 4 times the size it was originally Managed very good agricultural systems The whole thing was enclosed with a wall 0 Openings at various stages of the wall 0 Horseshoe arch Openings in the wall Bulges out in the shape of a horseshoe o Lobed arches Arch isn t smooth made into bulged lobes very characteristic forms particularly Islamic Spain o Interior is the most important 0 Huge o Intimate space 0 You feel like you can sit down because it is so peaceful 0 These columns are spolia They aren t cut to size The average size is 9ft by 9 inches Some had to be cut down There is a big horizontal spread so they had to elevate the whole space instead of putting the ceiling on top of the column they put an impost block on top that is 6 ft high and then the springing of a second set of arches gives more of an expansive space to the building doesn t hang over you 0 White stone with red brick decorative feasting for the eyes 0 Made great effort to make an illusion of another place paradise of the next life Dissolving of solid surfaces n Makes the viewer think there is something beyond the surface Islamic architecture makes the boundaries of space to constantly recede from you Above the mihrab was a dome 0 Vegetable forms 0 The dome is more volumetric than the lobed arch Lobes all the way around 0 The pendentives are dissolved into the structure Made into a decorative feature The architects hid the pendentives showing off to the people who come and visit 0 Space receding and coming back o Alhambra Granada Most luxurious palace at the time The Court of the Sisters An architecture of the senses Sense of visual touch because of the visual appeal of things Appeal to the intellect and spirit 0 Emphasis on creating another paradise different reality from which we leave A separate world is created through architecture Creates illusion illusion on Earth that you can move in and out of Constant sense of moving between realities through the use of water and reflection light and dark Water makes you reflect and makes you ask which is the real space o Very few sharp definitions sharp edges are blurred o Soft atmosphere mass and void intertwine o Palaces are descendants of roman emperors o Forbidding exterior like a fortress o Interior sundrenched rooms supposed to delight the sense many of them heated o Courtyards are the dominant feature Rhiad 0 Rooms open up the side of the courtyard o Court of the Lions 0 Fountain in the middle with lions holding a base on their back 0 Channels took water through the courtyard Earliest way to represent irrigation o Definite colonnades Can t get a real sense of the edge of the colonnades 0 Extreme shadows that cast darkness into the building 0 The columns are paired which breaks the clear pattern Columns are very thin Greek columns have a bulge to show how heavy the building was but these columns are thin and straight showing that it is holding up something that is really light like air 0 Inpost blocks make them ever more longer 0 Arches are different from other arches there is no simple rhythm 0 Treatment above the columns on the walls is pierced looks like a fabric denial of solidity o The edges of the arches are zigzagged always receding taking away a solid sense of boundary o Court of the Myrtles 0 Wall is dissolved into a sort of fabric Which part is reality and which is paradise Water takes up the courtyard Arches and dome are eaten away by the honeycomb design Hard to focus on the surface Even walls are decorated mosaics Parts of inscriptions from the Koran O The rooms have spectacular rooms into the countryside The windows are meant to frame the gardens in the countryside o The windows give into the illusion of where reality is The art forms tend to be borrowed from other cultures A real celebration of architectural design They treatment of surface is distinctive 0 Taking the intellect somewhere Ornament 0 Negative effect there are no images of people animal figures in religious architecture 0 Art of calligraphy was highly respected o Scribes were the only artists to be named high status society Koran as a religious text couldn t be illustrated had to be made in the ornamentation Koran s were usually very big and meant for the use by a lot of people Developed a belief that in palace architecture images were okay if they were on the small scale and didn t have a shadow 0 Everyday objects had images of humans and animals 0 Travelled very easily Ended up in different parts of the world Ambassadors of Islam 0 Griffin Spectacular wings Scaled pattern on back Other animals carved into leg joints Image captured from the Middle East Brought over to Italy Found it as a huge token on the Cathedral 0 O O O O O 4172012 75200 PM Ancient Near East I 1242012 80300 PM 0 Using art for power o Art expressing power o Art effects power create and perpetuate power Around 4000 BC 0 Fertile Crescent Tigris and the Euphraties called Sumer 0 Spoke a unique language 0 11 cities were independent from one another and mainly at war with each other 0 Shared a language 0 Shared a culture Religious beliefs constructive and destructive forces of nature Each city was owned by a God Rulers were servants of the God theocratic socialism No separation from church and state Priests distributed everything like food and seeds Specialization came about People doing specific tasks 0 System of number arose and a script cuneiform Cuneus wedge 0 We start to get story telling and narrative art o Standard of Ur ca 2700 0 Animals and people Organized into rows Has frames around it Narrativeinteracting with each other People are more detailed Not naturalism but a conceptualization of what animals and humans look like Using a few to understand the many Hieratic use of scale The most important person is the biggest They all face him Breaks the frame above him o Around 2350 the priests were replaced by the Akkadians O O O O O O O O O O O O The first king was Sargon Cities were not all separate Adopted the agriculture the Summarians had set up along with the culture NaramSin 23002200 0 Powerful image Isolation of one figure More confrontational Static makes it have a sense of permanence Working metal means that you have great expertise under your control Victory stele stone marker of NaramSin 22542218 0 80 inches high first representation of the landscape in art The few represent he many Hieratic scale is used Movement is used symbolically NaramSin is wearing a double horned helmet Worn by the Gods 0 Two stars represent Gods The Gods are happy with him and are on their side 0 O O O 0 Architecture of the Cities Religion can separate and bring people together The temple was in the center of the city Where everything was stored Small mud brick structures 0 Dissolves White Temple Uruk 35003000 White washed Raised above the ground 40 feet They would keep piling temples on top of each other Imitated mountains significant for people represented places of refuge also a symbol of life regeneration Ziggurat Ur Moon god Nanna ca 2100 o Size makes it powerful o Different levels give it power 0 Visually shows rising o Reaches up to the level of the Gods o The way it leans inwards gives it great stability 1242012 80300 PM Islam 1 4122012 75300 PM o The prophet Mohammad o Born in Mecca from a poverish family o Born around 570 o All of the religions had strayed away from the true monotheism 0 They created a new religion with the end goal of salvation o Islam was the most codefined 0 Things were set out more strictly 0 Accepted the early books of the Bible Jesus and John the Baptists were just prophets Rejected Jewish practices Rejected early Christian beliefs Rejected the Holy Trinity Each one of us will have to face judgment at the end of the day No saints and no priests In 622 Mohammad had to go to Medina He became a political and military leader Unite all of Arabia under his leadership Saying his prayers facing Mecca Army took Mecca Led the first Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca 0 Once in a lifetime to go to Mecca o 647 and 649 Mohammad had conquered most of the Middle East o Islam and Muslim are derived from the word submission or one who has submitted 0 The Kuran established the rules and how the state should be governed Submission to the Islamic army Submission to their patrons and higher power 0 O O O O O O O o Islamic art is entirely without representative images o World without holy images c There is no religious rituals o The only kind there were are prayers alone and on Friday s Muslims pray as a community o Fasting in the month of Ramadan o No cultural relics o Inscriptions were an important form of religious art o Important in what they say and their artistic form 0 Decorative in their own right o Mohammad worshiped in complete poverty o Believed architecture was a waste o Took buildings from other cultures o Mosque place where one frustrates themselves c There was a lot of reoccurring themes o These ideals didn t last because there is rarely ever a time where you separate religion and politics o Powerful men noticed to see the power of architecture in other religions o Dome of the Rock Jerusalem 685 by Umavyad Caliph Abd alMalik o Power of placement o Near Soloman s Temple o Near the Tomb of Adam and the place where Abraham sacrificed Issac o Placed where Mohammad may have gone to heaven o Behind the Waling Wall o Not conceived as a typical mosque o More like an artirium c To compete with other religions o Pulling Christians into the Islamic fold o Desire to outshine other Islamic centers o Glazed pottery tiles a gilded dome which represented heaven o Inside was modeled marble inscriptions o Great Mosque Damascus 706715 Caliph alWalid o Center of Islamic art o First mosque that has monumental proportions and decorations o Roman enclosure like a fortress o Built with four walls with solid stone and towers at the four corners o Architect took these spaces and added spikey towers which is for call to prayer o The form of the building 0 Roman enclosure 0 They chose it because it was accommodating There is a covered over section on three sides This all surrounds an open courtyard The fourth side has an opening There is no real focus in the long nave One important wall the wall that faces Mecca Qibla wall Mihrad Defined by very shallow enclaves Showed that everyone was equal and everyone was facing the same direction Open courtyard is paved with highly buffed stone Windows are representative of manuscripts o Gives you the sense that the window isn t open or closed liminal space Inside the wall there are a lot of mosaics 0 Show the environment of Damascus paradise 0 Doesn t show people 0 O O O O o Oasr Kharaneh Jordan ca 710 Palaces Very much about the status of the owner Big powerful and impressive Surrounded by gardens that you would imagine in a paradise Used to have a lot of gardens but now they are all desert Tend to be symmetrically arranged Tend to be symbolically fortified and go back to ancient and antique Roman architecture o Mshatta Jordan ca 743 Much less well preserved Can tell that it was in a regularized plan with fortification walls areas surrounded the mosque Remaining decoration on the outside of the building 0 Phenomenal frieze of zigzags Find a series of life forms 0 Not clear what they are doing there 0 Lions flanking a Greek drinking bowl Elements of luxury 0 Holes in the wall and the winds go through the holes and is like air conditioning 7405 Shi ite revolt o Cracks amongst Arab beliefs another set of problems Division of the caliphate who should be the leader Then divisions occurred between Shi ites and Sunnis Abbasid dynasty succeeds Umayyads o Tremendous flourishing of the arts 762 Caliph alMansur founded Madinat asSalam City of Peace Baghdad o Ideal Islamic city o Set within a circle outside a set of walls two residential areas very center there is the palace and mosque gates face the cardinal points areas represented groups of ethnic division of the Islamic state Utopian division of Islamic world 4122012 75300 PM 4122012 75300 PM Review 3222012 75300 PM Greek art all the way to Indian art Greek Art o Enormous and made of marble Egyptian influence Abstract features to them Not completely naturalistic 0 Were they striving for naturalism Function 0 Found in sanctuaries o Represent deceased god and hero 0 Give a meaning by their context 0 Play a bigger role in cementing the place of the elite 0 Have to be wealthy in making a monument that big Deriforous Shifting of weight One foot forward Ripple effect Childlike boy More negative areas on the body parts Exaggeration of the lines Movement of the body Sculpture involving space it engages you more Inviting viewers to participate in the art more Treatment of the stone has a soft polish which gives the feeling of flesh on the body What is this art for in the first place Philosophical purpose Use of numbers because they can show harmony O O O O O O O O O O O O 0 Truth vs the Appearance of Truth o The Parthenon 0 Integration of the interior with the exterior 0 Systems of proportions Whole building is governed by the equation 2x 1 0 Optical allusions to make it look like what you want it to look like Compensation theory Exaggeration theory o Drapery shows the shape of the body Helenistic period c Break down of the citystate o No longer defined by position individual became more isolated more prominent part of life o Led to an architecture of a familiar kind o Temple of Apollo o 400 BCE 0 Walk through the building get range of different experiences 0 Expect the building to look like one thing but is actually different 0 Vaulted tunnels open space where there was a small temple o Great Human Experience on Greek Sculpture 0 Great Altar of Zeus In Berlin Deep carving encourages you to be emotionally involved with the art Scopacks if you drill very deeply under the eyelid and let the eye bulge a little bit then you can create deep emotion in the art Twirling of the drapery o Different genres of sculptures m Architecture to establish empire o Temple of Jupiter 0 6th Century 0 Huge 0 Ground plan that became the standard type of ground plan for an italic type of temple o Temple of Portunus 0 Very distinctive temple style High podium Frontal access Columns around the side and front but none in the back Via Appia o Roads 0 Bringing the notion of Roman progress 0 Roads bring armies o Aqueducts o Concrete 0 When you don t use concrete you can make Vousier arches 0 When you use it then you can make manmade rocks into any shape that you want to o Allowed Roman architects to start dreaming of what they wanted to make o Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia 0 Move through the different spaces that engineer a variety of special emotions one movement you feel sheltered another movement you will feel vulnerable Being manipulated in a religious experience Starting at the bottom you work your way up to the presence of the goddess Fortuna 0 One big man made rock o Pantheon o Triumphs of Roman concrete 0 Enormous domes 0 Walk through the frontal court through the portico and into a rectangular building into an extraordinary space 0 Manipulated into the center of it o Sculpture 0 Question of idealism 0 Political sculptures 0 Images of old men Age is emphasized Politician needed to be old to be in power o Imperial portraits 0 Way emperor s and families presented themselves 0 Explorer ways of Roman art to use visualize connation to revert back to history 0 O 0 Back to Alexander the Great 0 Breast plated covered with various symbols and narratives make Augustus case for why he should be in authority o Trajan 0 Older version of Augustus o Auropacus 0 Lower part covered with a campus 0 The week is so abundant shows prosperity 0 Exterior has processional scenes Members of the empirical family Priests Augustus on the left Why is there a representation of individuals a Dynasty We find women here and children n Augustus legislation a He was interested in promoting child birth and against adultery Trajans column 0 Scenes that are repeated scenes of sacrifice allows you to read the visualize narrative specific places of the emperor in the column o Arch of Constantine o What is going on with the reuses of sculptures o Constantine the Great 0 Eyes getting bigger 0 Face is more linear 0 Early Christianity Bacillica of Trier 0 Germany Playing manipulative games Influence way you experience the architecture Lowering the ceiling in the dome made a difference on how you perceived it Early Christianity Dura Europus O O O o Worshipped in houses poor families worshiped Christianity o Baptismal place Basillica form o Good Prototype o Wasn t a temple o No Pagan implications o Big open space o Gave respect to St Peter s grave Circular Churches o Church of Stanza 0 Circular corridor that you can walk around 0 Capped by a dome Early Christian art o Different from what you might expect than what we see now o No crucifixes o No representation of Jesus c We get symbols like the fish and the Chiro sign o Images from the old testament o Come from catacombs o Desire to remain a secret Images of Christ o Shown with Roman and Greek gods o Cercaphagus of Julius 0 With the sky god looking very Roman o Represtiona of the god of Jupiter Byzantine World Hagia Sophia o Now a mosque 532 Not invited to go in to Political icon to Justinian Rule Doesn t tell you where the door is from the outside Literary sources show it was an explanation that is what a perfect form using number The interior 0 Designed to show the relationship between the terrestrial and celestial law Symbolized the coming together of two different worlds Light came from the center windows compared to a necklace hanging in the dome Distinction between marble and void Columns seem to float but are very strong Christ sitting in a garden Iconic treatment of figures in the mosaic Coming together of the patriar and the emperor O 0 Power of Images Perceived to be to great this led to iconoclasm Distinction in the east from those who were worshipping the images as gods themselves compared to those who worshipped it as a form of meditation This led to a destruction of images throughout the east They became so powerful because the images looks so real and human Early Indian Art How Buddhist art represents the cosmos Representation of sacred mountain Treatment of detail How you interact with it and have to walk around it Openness bring it to life Hindu Temples o Evoke mountains 0 God needs to see you too 0 Political realm and show power of a dynasty 3222012 75300 PM 3222012 75300 PM Mesoamerican Art Gothic Art Study Guide for Exam 3 Mesoamerican Art General Notes 0 Pottery and clay tools become popular 0 The area is fertile diverse linked by trade multilingual consistent in beliefs and rituals clear class divide Olmec Heartland La Venta 900400 BCE 0 Created raised earth embankments for ceremonial sites 0 Created scalloped pyramids at these ceremonial sites focus on the sacred mountain 0 Had extensive drainage systems that were possibly used to aid in ceremonial rituals o Traded and worked with jade obsidian and ironore serpentines out of stone and jade ceremonial axe heads called celts that were decorated with human and animalistic features jaguars were importantseen often 0 Chief religious and political center for villages in the area 0 Known for immensely large heads carved out of volcanic stone six to eight feet tall ten tons each stone comes from at least 60 miles away suggests immense man power La Venta Basalt Heads 0 Faced the courtyards o Seem unique like portraits but there are commonalities between them 0 Possibly represent images of the rulers suggested from the manuscripts created as a result of the development of writing during the time 0 At the end of a rulers reign they would mutilate the heads Teotihuacan 0 6h largest city in the world at the time created using the uncommon gridlike system 0 Avenue of the Dead 0 Main street running north and south altered the course of a river to create it o 130 feet wide ran from the Pyramid of the Moon to the Citadel Temple of Quetzalcoatl Pyramid of the Moon 0 Mimics the volcano behind it so as you move closer to the pyramid the two quotmerge together 0 Like most pyramids of the time it was flat and had several layers Pyramid of the Stone 0 Filled covered and painted o Grows in levels over time 0 Has a grand wide staircase Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent 0 Had a huge courtyard very common in the time that could hold around 60000 people 0 Temple on top made of perishable materials 0 Distinctivedecoration 0 Flat Surrounded by frame with figures carved into it like a frieze Linear sculptures not very organic or naturalistic OOO Imagessymbols like the GoogleEyed Rain God and the Feathered Serpent Painting of Tetitla o Sitting on a stylized pyramid with a green mask covering her face 0 Had an enormous headdress with green bird s head and human hearts painted on it which represent the idea that fertilization relies on sacrifice and the concept of giving and receiving Maya 0 Known for hieroglyphs and human sacrifices 0 City of Tikal 0 Not created using a grid plan Needed raised roads to keep away from the swampland Huge courtyards and pyramids used for religious rituals Pyramids had many layers possibly to represent the nine layers of the underworld 0000 The stone temples on top reference the ruler of the city These temples soar above the forest to impress and intimidate the surrounding communities 0 Steep staircases were used to highlight the processional aspect of the religious rituals 0 Temple 1 Giant Jaguar Au Cacao Lord Chocolate 682727 0 Courtyards with sculptures like stele D I Ruler depicted with enormous headdress I Holding double serpent rod signifying absolute power I Elaborate carving and hieroglyphs which serve to merge ruler with storytext o Paintings Bonampak late 8 h Century 0 Depicts the sacrifice of prisoners Islamic Art General Notes Most Islamic art was based around the prophet Muhammad from Mecca Islam was the dominant religion Elements of the religionreligious art include 0 Individuals not depicted o No religious rituals or symbols 0 No architecture for religion at the beginning 0 Used buildings from other cultures to create mosques which included elements such as I Big open spaces I Simple design with influences from other cultures 0 Most codified of the three religions Christianity Judaism and Islam 0 Accepted Jesus and John the Baptist as inspired prophets but completely rejected Judaism and the complexities of Christianity 0 No saints or priests 0 Face Mecca when they pray and have ritual pilgrimage to Mecca called a Hajj As the religion grew 0 Architecture tool to seduce people into converting and to show religious supremacy 0 Architectural forms still borrowed from other cultures 0 Distinct form of design decoration and purpose 0 Art of calligraphy became very important ornamentation of the Koran and other scripts was used to highlight the power and importance of the manuscript Dome of the Rock Jerusalem Umayyad Dynasty 685 First religious building created to sway people s religious beliefs and show religious supremacy pull people into the faith To this day you can find religious tension in the area Looks like San Vitale andor Santa Costanza Elements of the design include Glazed tiles Guilded dome to represent heaven Panels of marble OOOO Inscriptions Great Mosque Damascus 706715 Monumental building with monumental decorations Included the first Islamic minarets built in the corners used to call people to prayer Form of the building is dictated by the Roman form already in place Had three walls with porticos surrounding an open courtyard and the fourth side is the Qibla wall which faces Mecca It is a long expansive wall to represent the idea that everyone is equal 0 Decorative windows with lattice work to create a sense of a semiopen semiclosed window The carpets mirror the windows in design 0 Has many mosaics depicting the cities environment gardens paradise after life NO PEOPLE Qasr Kharaneh Jordan 710 o Palace that highlights the status of the owner 0 Originally surrounded by a lush garden 0 Symmetric symbolically fortified 0 Beautiful interior architecture Mshatta Jordan 743 o Geometric fortified plan like the Qasr Kharaneh o Centered around the mosque with an open courtyard 0 Outside decorations frieze of quotzigzagsquot framing rosettes depicting people for the 1st time 0 Elements of luxury including holes in the wall that functioned as a form of air conditioning City of Peace Madinat alSalaam Baghdad 762 0 Set within a circle with a palacemosque in the middle 0 Has gates facing the cardinal points to represent the ethnic divisions of the Islamic world 0 Intended to represent the idealistic Islamic world Great Mosque Cordoba 786 0 Attached to palace by bridge like the Near East palaces ziggurats and the Hagia Sophia 0 Created in parts as a process over a few hundred years to accommodate the growing population 0 Gardens used to evoke the idea of paradise o Openings in walls decorated with horseshoe arches which were a very characteristic feature of Islamic architecture 0 Minarets on the wall to call to prayer 0 Interior is huge calming and intimate 0 Some columns have bases some do not spolia from Roman architecture that had to be adapted to fit the building 0 Two sets of arches one on top of the other to raise the ceiling and increase the space makes it feel as if the boundaries of space are constantly receding from you 0 White stone and red brick alternate in the decorations o Dome above the Mihrab decorated with quotations from the Koran and vegetation prosperity 0 3D lobed arches act as a screen in front of the Mihrab highlights the impressive understanding and use of geometry that dominates the entire building Alhambra Granada 0 Architecture of the senses appeals to intellect and spirit 0 Creates an illusion a constant sense of moving through realities through 0 Use of water 0 Water s reflection 0 Play between light and dark 0 Few sharp definitions of space Rather a soft atmosphere where mass and void intertwine through the liminal space created by colonnades 0 Quotes Roman ideas but pushes them further 0 Has a forbidding exterior but the interiors are well lit beautiful and open 0 Courtyards Rhiad are characteristic of Islamic architecture 0 Courtyard of the Lions 0 Founding in the center with lions surrounding it o Crossed by channels of irrigation to represent the ruler s responsibility to provide 0 Has colonnades 0 Has single and double columns most columns are very thin to suggest that they are supporting very little weight that the structure above is lllight as air 0 Extreme shadows contrasting with bright light 0 Arches vary in width edges of arches are not sharp making the building appear to shift between solid and void 0 Treatment of walls above columns decorated to look like lace fabric 0 Court of the Sisters and Court of the Myrtles 0 Highlights idea of reality vs paradise life beyond this life Plays with light and reflections Same treatment of walls and arches called the honeycomb treatment 0 O o Mosaics decorate walls which have recesses in them as well as inscriptions from Koran 0 Floor is made of marble 0 Windows act as frames of draw attention to the countryside and the paradise gardens Romanesgue Art General Notes 0 Increase in monasticism 9increase in education 0 People can buy their salvation from the monastery 9 rapid wealth creation 9 political power 0 Manuscripts become more important detail the history of the ancient world 0 Crusades led to a cross fertilization between art and cultures 0 Huge increase in church construction and building with stone 0 Increase in interest in transcendentalcelestial light 0 Fear of the end of the world 9 increased gratitude 9 increase in church construction 0 Increased interest in how architecture creates sound and how sound creates power 0 Most architecture characterized by rounded arches and columns Bayeux Tapestry 10661183 0 Small objects were used to transfer ideas beliefs and textiles 0 Created in the court of William the Conqueror by English seamstresses 0 Includes cross cultural elements 0 Shows the story before and after the Battle of Hastings death of King Edward fight over throne o 250 foot narrative central story in the center inscriptions on top decorative borders of animals birds etc St Sernin Toulouse 10701120 0 Church 0 Eastern end has a series of apses that break up the larger apse at the end needed so that priests have private places to say mass and also to house relics 0 Increase in immigration 9 meticulous use of plan close application of math and geometry used a module defined by the dimensions of where the naive meets the transept o Naive has columns spaced on this module measurement 0 Piers with engaged columns also used to mark off spaces 0 Increase desire to open and decorate upper spaces through the use of light 9 stone barrel vault 0 Effect of the barrel vault o Creates and moves you through a procession that is combined with a static quality that signifies that this place you are in is a place where you are supposed to stay 0 Idea of with a r 39 pause o Restrict space so they were not commonly used 0 Increased interest in unifying interior with exterior o Groin vault distributes weight of walls to corners to increase the open space and add windows St Etienne Caen William of Normandy and Matilda 10641087 0 Exterior doors divide outside to mirror the interior 0 Three exterior levels each slightly more lighted than the one below 0 Square schematics repeated square modules to clearly delineate space 0 Ribbed vaulting in the roof 0 Inside combines static lingering feeling with feeling of procession and movement Duomo Pisa 10631118 0 Known as victory building constructed with Roman funerary markers spolia to send a message of conquest and continuity interior also has Roman spolia columns and capitols o Pointed arches in aisles and ceiling signature of Gothic though here it is an Islamic influence 0 Used of reused colorful stone alternating white and green Tuscan influence 0 Arches in the exterior were used as a screen in front of the W naive to create a play between light and shadow 9 transcendental light surface beyond reality reality vs void etc Gothic Art General Notes Hybrid with Romanesque art Focus on scale proportion integration buttressing vaulted ceilings wall and facade designs Concerns were similar to Romanesque concerns but were pushed and elevated Focus on light that mediates a message mystical light and mystical faith Church of St Denis 11371145 dea that art should create a mystical experience Monk Bernard of Clairvaux Increasing relationship between monarchy and church 9 expansion of king s power Claims religious and political power Two functions 0 Shrine to the apostle of France the protector of France St Denis 0 Cathedral French kings burial ground Built in two phases adding elements including a new facade huge entrance series of chapels around the apse like St Sernin Again plan dictated by what was already there Cross vaults used to open walls 9 idea of solid vs void space beyond space 9 fluidity between spaces with a great deal of light coming in from the colored glass windows Notre Dame Chartres 11451194 11941220 1st of the fully developed gothic buildings 1st to have flying buttresses that were not hidden 9 weight of walls directed through buttresses 9 higher buildings bigger windows more open walls more light throughout the entire church Rectangular bay system rectangular modules with 4 part vaults reemphasizes static quality Increase in creation and importance of monumental sculptures used to send out messages We can compare and contrast sculpture in different periods because of the two phases In sculpture during the first phase we see 0 Dictated patterns symmetry and clarity in the message 0 Upright slim figures that are llone with the column where even the drapery mimics the fluting in traditional columns 0 Depicts prophets queens and kings and evokes a sense of history and passing of time Q Idea of natural descendants of these biblical figures 9 legitimacy and fusion between terrestrial and celestial world 0 Center above door Christ enthroned as judge and ruler flanked by apostles and elders 0 Right side above door presentation of Christ with the Virgin Mary 0 Left side above door Christ ascending to heaven surrounded by monks In the second phase they rebuilt the transept with sculptures around the doors creating liminal space by creating very deep entryways In sculpture during the second phase we see 0 People are still carved into the columns but they seem to be releasing themselves from the columns as opposed to being completely llone with the columns 0 Figures are more realistic naturalistic poses and features weight shifting different focuses not necessarily facing straight ahead more movement etc Cathedral at Rheims 12251245 Exterior sculptures arehave 0 Classical drapery Roman influences Independent from columns A dominance of women Interaction between the figures demonstrated by the body language Creating a narrative OOOOO Styles in different scenes vary a great deal suggesting that more than one sculptor was involved in the creation of the narrative sculptures Sculpture highlights the idea that architecture requires architects sculptors and glassmakers Glassmaking Influential in the increase in celestial lightfeeling ofa building Transform light into something mystical Flourishes and peaks in the Church of St Denis Goal of gothic architecture dissolve the wallsarchitecture into glass and light Technique glass blowing or glass spinning flattened into pieces and painted Originally required obstructive iron bars for support but they were transformed into frames The technique was essential to the Rayonnat style that lasted from 12501300 Notre Dame Paris 12401250 Created in the Rayonnat style Has a heavy monumental facade and flying buttresses that become more decorative Windows on the end of the transept are called rose windows 0 glass designs help up by a tracery of stone that transforms light as it enters the building center depicts the Virgin Mary with prophets surrounding Old Testament kings surround the prophets OOO Decorated predominantly in blue because the Virgin Mary is always in blue SainteChapelle 12431248 Small chapel off the side of the palace that was built to house relics Very decorated exterior Biggest expanse of glass yet light sends a message floods the building creates cosmic light St Mclau Rouen 14 h Century 0 Built in the Flamboyant style where decoration begins to take on a life of its own floral designs 0 Integration between the exterior and the interior becomes less important 0 Bowed out facade to increase the amount of space for decoration 0 Process of change in styles in like that of the Chinese vessels where both go through a transition from purposeful to decorative Salisbury Cathedral 0 Early English gothic style 0 Double transept with a square end that was very characteristic of British architecture 0 No longer aiming for the verticality of French architecture suggests a later phase of gothic art where the building focuses more on decoration than power 0 Towers are smaller and less powerful o The whole building is low and sprawling as opposed to compact and vertical 0 Columns in the interior are used to divide the space more Gloucester Cathedral 0 Soaring verticality similar to the French style 0 Movement from 4 or 6 part vaulted ceilings to a sprawling tangle of lines that integrate the different elements and create a seamless order 0 Wall at the end has llexploding glassquot an enormous expansive window of glass Cologne Cathedral Germany 124819 h Centry o Extraordinary verticality 0 Light pours in from everywhere because they were able to bring down the windows even further than in France because of the gabled roof 0 Feeling ofa fusion between celestial light and powerful verticality San Francesco Assisi Italy 12281253 0 Late reluctant acceptance of the gothic style 0 Two parts to the church 0 Gothic in its use of pointed arches but there is less sense of a mystical space beyond space 0 More declarative llis what it is no mystical message emphasis on clarity 0 Solid walls decorated with narrative paintings of St Frances teach the life and goals of society 0 Less infusion of light 0 Idea of equality between the people is demonstrated by the large central space not broken up with modules or columns Orvieto Cathedral Italy 1290 Conscious of traditional elements including 0 Decorative facade that acts like a screen Rose window o Pointed arches though some were rounded O r of n I 0 Less verticality even in treatment of stone where the green and white horizontal bands negate the idea of verticality 0 Interior shows no obsession with light has solid walls and a flat wooden ceiling light comes only through alabaster covered windows Doge s Pa lace Politicalcivic building in Venice Extraordinary openness in the bottom which shows complete openness no vulnerability Middle is less open top is barely open few windowscolumns to break up wall Still has gothic arches but has some Islamic influences including 0 Wide capitals o Ornate quality to the decorations 0 Thin columns 0 Treatment of stone to make it seem lighter Huge columns hold up the lower building they don t have bases which creates an elevated appearance of integration with the landscape by harmonizing with the surrounding water Is an unusual form of the gothic style Highlights the commonalities of art across Christian Europe demonstrating that things and people and ideas are all interconnected in a web across time and space Egypt I 1312012 75200 PM o Lived next to the Nile River o Essential for the agriculture o Essential for trading o Used to be more fertile than it is today o Became united under one ruler o Boundaries like deserts kept them together o Had a religious system c Gods Hapy controlled the flooding of the Nile o The Sun God Re or Ra was a very important God 0 King was associated with it and a manifestation of it on Earth o Osyrus and Isis was the God of the Underworld o Seth was the God of Destruction and the God of Death 0 Got irritated with the dominion and chopped up his brother Osyrus Osyrus s wife got the body and put it back together a The first mummy o Things happened in opposing pairs Upper Egypt 0 In the South 0 More fertile and easier to grow crops o Lower Egypt 0 In the North 0 Open plains o Arid and dry o The Black Land was fertilized by the Nile when it floods o The Red Land was near the desert c There is an unchanging quality in Egyptian art o Most of the things we have from the Egyptian world is from the wealthy o Made from perishable materials o Palette of NarmerI ca 315025 BCE o It s a big piece of slate o 25 inches high o palette for grinding makeup o Ceremonial example o Cobra on the King s Crown 0 Lower Egypt o Lower Register 0 Dragons with long necks Powerful creatures for protection a Protects makeup 0 Bull 0 Man who is nude Leaving the captives vulnerable o King is wearing crown of Upper Egypt 0 Bird the son of Osyrus and Isis Horus the God of Upper Egypt 0 Cows represent the sky gods Hathor looking over the King Hieroglyphs continued to be used for formal inscriptions Art very concerned with permanence Unchanging attitude for life and death After life was available to anyone only if the appropriate rituals were performed o Mummification o The body had to be preserved for the spirit to reside in o If the mummy wasn t created properly there needed to be a surrogate for the spirit to live in Khafra Giza ca 2500 BCE o Sculptures placed in temples along a passageway Seated figure on a throne Behind his head is a falcon o Horus is protecting the ruler The King unties upper and lower Egypt Watch over what was being done 0 Rituals were being done appropriately Permanence 0 There aren t that many protruding parts 0 Even where nature gives gaps in the composition there are no spaces of air Face is straightforward 0 Body position is of strength and solidity 0 Made of very very strong stone and hard Menkaure amp Khamerernebtx II Giza ca 2515 BCE O o Stepping towards you in motion and static o They are very unified o Unified royal family Scribe ca 2400 o Made of plaster o Looks like he is getting old and fat o Has status because he is in control of the people and doesn t have to go out and do physical work KaAQer 24502350 c Made of wood o Looks like he is getting old and fat o Overseer of the people 0 Staff in his hand Relief of Hesxra Saggara ca 2660 o Artists used a canon 0 Set of portions that had life like portions o Twisted half profile and half frontal view o Walking towards us o Had to get the correct level of naturalism Tomb of Ti Saggara ca 25102460 c Representations of things you would need in the afterlife o Relatives banquets things you did during your life nourishment o Large figure moving along the Nile the hunters are represented are a lot smaller lower status o Hippos were the animals that represented Seth god of destruction and death Tomb of Nebamun Thebes ca 1350 BCE o Had people and family that had banquets and ceremonies in the tomb 1312012 75200 PM 1312012 75200 PM Ancient Near East II 1262012 75300 PM o Assurnasirpal II 883859 Stretches from the Nile to the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf Stays this way until 612 where they were defeated Art flourished during this time Time of Glorious Warfare 0 Brutality Constantly attacking cities Art types 0 O O O Metalworking Show the king in battle Very propagandists Proclaim and to profect the supremacy by giving a sense of military power which should instill fear and dominance 0 Continuous narrative Architecture 0 From the Sumerians o Ziggurat at Nimrud 883859 Excess is from the palace and often from the roof Excess clearly for the king Effect of more separation Glorify the royal family Shifts to the palaces Palace is the most important expression of the royal family Each of the royal kinds established a royal city which allowed him to be a ruler Sargon II 721705 Dur Sharrukin Iraq a Built with mud brick Ai39t ben Haddou Morocco Large walls Broad staircases for horses Fortified citadel Anyone that comes should gen an idea of power At the gateways there are a set of extraordinary figures that are included in the cage called Lamassu n n n n n
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