PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology, week 7 notes
PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology, week 7 notes Psych 3110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3110 at Bowling Green State University taught by Joshua Ricker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology. Spring Semester 2016 Week 7 Ingroup vs. Outgroup Categorize people as my group or not-my-group Homogeneity effect- everyone who is not in your group; you see them as ones with no identity since they are not in your group o You get to know the people in your ingroup and don’t worry about the people in the outgroup Ingroup favoritism- we favor our own ingroup Predicting our thoughts and behavior Emotional impact of events and how long these emotions will last are often overestimated Why? o We are able to adjust o Other things are happening at the same time o Immune neglect- people ignoring the psychological immune system Predicting behavior Planning fallacy- underestimation of how long it will take to complete a task Recalling the past Memory is fallible o Because it is a reconstructive process Elizabeth Loftus car crash study o Simple re-wording can influence memory (via constructive memory formation) o Leading questions can also influence memory o Implications for eyewitness testimony Autobiographical memory Even memories of our own lives can be victim to outside influences We form Self schemas- memories, feelings, and beliefs about ourselves that form an integrated whole Elizabeth Loftus mall study o We can induce false memories So what’s the problem? Recovered memory phenomenon- people remember horrifying childhood events that were previously unavailable o Did they actually happen? No evidence for yes or no Biases Confirmation biases- tendency to seek confirmation of initial impression or beliefs Hindsight bias- our tendency to overestimate our powers of prediction once we know the outcome o “I could’ve told you that” o Usually erroneous Cognition is conservative First info received is most influential Easily accessible categories are overused Heuristics are misused Stereotypes distort information processing Memory get reconstructed How to prevent conservatism 1. Be skeptical of those creating categories 2. Use multiple categories 3. Think of people/events as unique 4. Remember, you might be wrong Attitudes and behavior Attitudes do not always match behavior o Chinese couple at hotel 1920s (racist south), called hotels for a Chinese couple and 90% said they could not stay, the Chinese couple went in the hotel and asked and all but 1 hotel let them stay Why? o The power of the situation Attitude accessibility The strength of the association between an object and your evaluation of it The more accessible an attitude is, the more likely we use it to assess a situation Highly accessible attitudes guide behavior Explaining behavior Fundamental attribution error- overestimate the importance of personality or dispositional factors relative to situational or environmental influences when describing causes of behavior o Social roles need to be considered to avoid this o 2 step attribution process 1. Attribute to the individual: automatic 2. Adjust for the situation: controlled, accurate and right Actor-observer bias- we attribute our own actions to the situation, but the same actions by others are attributed to personality o Based on where our attention of focused o To eliminate it, change your perspective Self biases o Egocentric thought- we perceive ourselves as more central to an event than we really are Creates an illusion of control Creates illusion of transparency (thinking that people can easily tell how we are feeling) o Self serving bias- tendency to perceive oneself favorably Successes are because of us, failures are because of the situation Ego-defensive behavior But it can also be maladaptive What can change how we view the world? o Our mental health o Mental disorders such as depression have been extensively studied due to how they distort our social views o Possibly more realistic o Depressive realism o Sadder-but-wiser effect Self-justification and cognitive dissonance Self-justification Justifying one’s actions to maintain self-esteem Done to avoid uncomfortable feelings Dissonance- when two things don’t go together Cognitive dissonance- a state of tension that occurs whenever an individual simultaneously holds 2 cognitions that re psychologically inconsistent o Theory by Leon Festinger o We will adjust our cognitions to make ourselves more comfortable o We will justify because we are “rationalizing” begins Decrease dissonance Update your belief Update your actions Lower your expectations Rational: Ego-defensive o Keeps a positive image of one’s self A way for us to make sense of the world Irrational: Keeps us from learning the facts Doesn’t always necessarily make sense You (for your case) Them Plausible (argument) Increases (memory) Decreases (memory) Implausible Decrease (memory) Increase (memory) Dissonance in the lab setting Jones and Kohler o More likely to remember: Rational arguments for your side Implausible arguments from the other side
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