Psych 128 Week 7
Psych 128 Week 7
Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Reader was uploaded by Kaley jorgensen on Monday May 19, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views.
Reviews for Psych 128 Week 7
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/19/14
Week 7 Lecture 51314 Analogical reasoning In a systematic series of studies of analogical reasoning Duncker presented students with a challenging problem and discovered that ppl do poorly on analogical reasoning Problem solving there is a tumor and the x ray will kill the surrounding tissue The solution you turn the source of radiation around the body so that all radiation goes through the tumor but only part of it through the healthy tissue Fortress problem Army general wants to attack a fortress in center of forest Many roads lead to fortress like spokes of a wagon wheel All the roads have land mines that are triggered by heavy traffic If entire army travels down a road land mines will go off Soutions Have to understand how the fortress prob and radiation problem are related People don39t make connections between the two Abstraction process Does performance improve if principle of base problem is stated NO 0 Showing diagram NO Showing multiple problems with related solutions YES Similarity is good 0 In many cases using highly similar background knowledge is good Purchase decisions o Knowing what bran od pickles you buy will not help you decide what ketchup to buy Models of access how do we access analogies Stage 1 search through memory to find things that are generally similar 0 Things from the same domain are often retrieved o Only a small number of items pass this filter Stage 2 find things tat are analogous Determining analogies is effortful Do this task only on items that pass stage 1 Overcoming access problems Experts are better at analogical retrieval 0 They are better at finding good analogies o They are less influenced by cross mappings Forming a schema may help access 0 Comparing a few analogs during learning helps retrieval Similarity and cognition Similarity enables us to use background knowledge 0 Recognize how a new case is like an old one 0 Structure mappingstructural alignment is important Analogical reasoning is a 4 step process 1 access the base 2 align the base and target 3 evaluate the match 4 make inferences about target imagery studies of analogy analogical transfer reason form base problem to target problem recognition identify a potential analog abstraction abstract general principle from base problem 0 mapping apply principle to target lecture 51514 coherence listener and reader assume that anguage based communication will be coherent ideas and facts will be related to each other want to make things coherent so you can figure out what the speakers intentions are need to be able to compute coherence create syllogism logical argument find missing information as the listener as the speaker be clear 0 enthymeme syllogism with missing pieces of information givennew strategy identity given what you already know identify new what you don39t already know john won the race you were supposed to know john otherwise some other descriptor would be used won the race updates your knowledge ofjohn nothing given in a single sentence when the given isn39t clear the message is lost o unless you can bridge the gap between what was said and what you know o this is called bridging add a node to memory and assume it will be filled later add a node to memory the speaker thinks I know thatquot draw and inference an example of bridging the given Juan is a con artist The bastard stole my money Jessie39s grades were great Paul39s were terrible Now an example of bridging the new ELLIPSIS missing words o Ann is an orphan She misses them both o Betty was picked for the team So was joe RELATED Tom is a shortstop Bill is athletic Tom is a shortstop Bill is athletic too Scaffold model of bridging Creating bridges is like solving a logic problem that has a missing premise Verifying missing premises o Shortstops are athletic I Anaphor Refer back When new information relates back to old information Enthymemes are how you solve the anaphor I Cataphor Refer forward I met this guy yesterday you assume the speaker will tell you about the guy Make a direct connection 0 Ed was given an alligator for this birthday The alligator was his favorite present Connect with pronouns 0 Ed was given an alligator for his birthday IT was his fav Present A this takes longer to read because the it consumes time Have to go back and make the bridge make a semantic connection he was given lots of things for this bday the alligator was his fav 0 this takes a lot of time Cases and inferences Instrument 0 Tom sliced the turkey o The knife was dull o The listener assumes 9 case grammar categories of words MAKE A SEMANTIC CONNECTION prior knowledge synonym o the police said I had a right to a lawyer effect of coherence degree of causality jimmy went to his friends house 0 the next day he was covered with bruises jimmy s mother was furious with him 0 the next day he was covered with bruises jimmy s big brother beat him up 0 the next day he was covered with bruises coherence and memory
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'