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by: Kieran Nader
Kieran Nader
GPA 3.79


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Class Notes
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This 42 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kieran Nader on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to YOR 507 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see /class/181603/yor-507-university-of-texas-at-austin in Yoruba at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 09/06/15
DISCRIMINATION CHAPTERS Introduction anecdotes re discrimination l Story about the Black Latino children from the Creative Steps Camp of Philadelphia going to the mostly White Valley Club in suburban Huntington Village After a day of swimming the deposit payment was returned to the Creative Steps administrators saying the presence of Black Latino kids would change the compleXion and the atmosphere of the club I Hurricane Katrina 1 Courts had to restrain Bernard Parish 93 White from limiting rentals to blood relatives 2 A study sent similar Black and White family types amp circumstances to rent housing in New Orleans 60 there was differential treatment Whites granted appointments and Blacks were often not Whites were often told apartments were available Blacks were not Whites were often quoted a lower monthly rental rate than were Blacks Understanding Discrimination l Discrimination I Tye denial of OQQOMm39fz39ey and egm fig7Z3 Z0 z39 dz39w39dmJ andgmaps emme ngVezZdz39ce fOV OZW Whirng redraw In the US it s often difficult to see widespread discrimination Minorities have cars homes go to college It is not absolute unchanging standards that determine deprivation and oppression relative position is evidence of discrimination l Two patterns of deprivation distinguishable 1 Relative Deprivation The conscious experience of a negative Mm between ham ate W m present Whites eg New immigrants often experience better conditions more freedom than in original country but may still feel deprived compared to other Americans 2 Absolute Deprivation l lmplies a fixed standard based on a minimum level of subsistence below which families should not be expected to exist Understanding Discrimination l Dissatisfaction is likely to arise from relative deprivation for members of society who feel frustrated amp disgruntled by social economic conditions but may not be worse off in an objective sense What is most important is how people see or perceive their situation 39 Percep oms w hnpormnt If m de ne situations as ml they are their conscqucnccs m Thom 1923 Understanding Discrimination l Relative deprivation is an old concept in sociology l Karl Marx pointed out that compared to the capitalist class not only were the workers or proletariat oppressed and in misegg due to working in often conditions in their consciousness they also perceived themselves to be deprived when compared to the capitalists class Inadequate Promotion Encmbcred by need Bias in lending 8 lem39ng Pastin present Discrimination I 2 year study by National Fair Housing Alliance amp the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development aka HUD Methods Followed real estate shoppers Sample White and Latino African American 12 Metropolitan areas 73 real estate firms Results 1 White real estate shoppers steered away from mixed neighborhoods 2 Latinos African Americans steered towards minority neighborhoods Another study documented that Black and Hispanic home buyers tend to pay higher interest rates Bocian Ernst and Li 2006 Institutional Discrimination I This mwas introduced by civil rights activists Stoker Carmichael chair of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC later known as KIM726 Tare proponent of Black Power movement and political scientist Charles Hamilton I Imlz39m om Dz39mz39mz39mlz39on 2393 76 denial of OQQOMm39fz39ey and egm fig7Z3 Z0 z39 dz39w39dmJ amigong M reml3 from 76 normal opemfz39om gfa 3062 l Institutional forms of discrimination are covert acts committed collectivelv against an entire group I May be unconscious in that it is not a function of awareness of discrimination can take place without an individual mag intending to deprive others of privileges Bla 1 Po c 4 If 7 quot Ii PLV1quotm I quot quot in h Q QC L39 9 1717 39 unconsdaus at the same time A Preiudice and are and reproduced in the actions of daily These are structural hsdtutionnl level factors involved thatmbcstemsscditmcnnl examples Examples of Institutional Discrimination Standards for assessing credit risks work against Hispanics and African Americans seeking to start businesses eg lack of conventional credit references higher insurance costs IQ testing favors White middle class children I The entire criminal justice system from patrol officer to judge and jury is dominated by Whites who find it difficult to understand life in poveng areas Hiring practices often require several years of experience at jobs only recently opened to members of subordinate groups Many jobs automatically eliminate a person with felony records or past drug offenses which disproportionately reduces employment opportunities for people of color 2 more examples of Instit Discrimin I In some cases apparently neutral institutional standards can turn out to have discriminatogz effects on groups of people eg African American students at a mid western university wanted to use university facilities to hold a dance The university policy was to charge 150 security deposit Q Is this institutional discrimination you ask A Yes it is b c it impacted mainly minority student organizations compared to more majority oriented sororities and fraternities few minority student organizations had their own houses to hold dances eg Transport Security Administration TSA improved wages and training supposedly and one had to be a US citizen Prior to 911 screeners could be from Asia Africa Latin America Airport screening went from overwhelmingly minority to 61 White LowWage Labor Informal economy I Disproportionate shares of minority members are unemployed or work in low wage labor low opportunity amp Virtually no protection of health care bene ts or retirement I Informal Economy lrregular Underground Economy l Commit of Zmiayfm afi oney goody or remice Zmz are 7201 reported to tbe government seasonal infrequent work sporadically moonlight in the regular economy may resemble work of traditional jobs mechanics cooks electricians P Sometimes wo credentials l The regular labor market operates according to the principles of the conventional labor market But the irregular economy operates outside the boundaries of the regular economy as it relates to job stability wages working conditions or benefits I Dual Labor Market Model I According to this model minorities have been relegated to the informal economy I Informal economy offers few safeguards against fraud or malpractice I Few fringe benefits such as stability wages health insurance and pension l Criticized for promoting unfair and dangerous working conditions I Workers are prepared to enter the regular economy permanently Informal Economy and Discrimination l Subordinate groups have often been used as an elastic part of the labor force and relegated to the informal economy I Because of past discrimination workers are unable to secure traditional employment I Many workers driven into such jobs as better paying jobs move far away or as globalization Creates more international trade Discrimination Today I Discrimination is Widespread in the US l Sometimes results from prejudices held by individuals but more signi cantly is found in institutional discrimination and the presence of the informal economy I Quantifying discrimination is problematic as isprejudice I Difficulty assessing attitudes and many factors involved I 2 Difficulty determining assigning a cost to discrimination 4 Lquot w 39 5v 339 v r I39Mgc H I SsL39HIZEMUIIJAE Ip Seep iaSchefum WmWM WMmISm unhhckmen Wammgt IL omtthtcm Eliminating Discrimination l Two major sources for the elimination of discrimination 7 Volanmgg msocz39afz39om church fraternal orgs political parties legal defense funds militant orgs 2 Gavel71772671le agencies malpoz39cz39es l1St Executive branch anti discrimination action FDRoosevelt 1943 and the Fair Employment Practices Commission FEPC had little funding or power I Iudicial Branch Charged with interpreting laws amp constitution and longer history of involvement with rights of racial ethnic religious minorities Supreme court decisions 1857 Dred Scott decision Slaves remain slaves when living or traveling in states where slavery was illegal 1954 Brown 1 Board 0f Edmaz z39on Separate but equal facilities unconstitutional 1964 Civil Rights Act Equal Employment Opportunity Comission Justice Dept waswkmgrawaMauwwmm I Since 1964 several acts and amendments have been made to the original Civil Rights Act to cover the many areas of discrim ination left untouched I Criminal Justice and Housing Rcdlining I The pdz z em 0fd7577777773977577 739077 dgdz39mz people lying 7 0 My 907776551 77777707797 and deZd tmngmg ngykoraoods I Applied to areas other than housing services some businesses do not want to go into certain high poverty areas of many cities I Pastdisc mim mcatxiesinto mprescntand future INomhe tedwc this elementofthepast I Less opportunity of Blacks to accumulate asscts Ilnmme Ifmmw I Wm I meallaprmmm laud mats Mother WJW Environmental Justice I Refers to the efforts to ensure that hazardous substances are controlled so that all communities receive protection regardless of race or socioeconomic cimumstance I Executive order 1994 l R66777765 677f6d6m dg 67 5 70 67757776 76677 ow777607776 4776 77777707797 60676767777765 66766 6766655 70 667767 Zi WdZZO 6760777 76677 66677067776777 4776 66766 6777 0pp077777773997 777 s64p777g ltg06677777776777p07676 76677 7667 76677 60777777767797 5 666776 39 I x v 1 a I Abuse oantiveAmen cmreaemtienhnd I Tribal lands regarded as dumping grenade for toxic waste that go to the highest bidder I Controversy within the scienti c community over potential hazards I Complexity of the issues in terms 0f social class and race are apparent Af rmative Action I The positive effort to recruit subordinate group members including women jobs promotions and educational opportunities I Today has become a catchall term for racial preference programs and goals I Lightning rod for opposition to any programs that suggest special consideration of women and racial minorities Affirmative Action Explained l Af rmative Action has been viewed as an important tool for reducing institutional discrimination l Instead of individual acts of discrimination these are federal measures aimed at procedures that deny equal opportunities even if not intended to be overtly discriminatory l Lack of minority group or female employees may in itself represent unlawful exclusion Commission on Civil Rights 1981 Examples of Affirmative Action and Institutional Discrimination Height and weight requirements that are unnecessarily geared to the physical proportions of White males Seniorigg rules when applied to jobs historically held only by white males l Nepotism based membership policies I Restrictive employment leave policies I Rules requiring only English be spoken at the workplace l Standardized academic tests or criteria I Preferences shown by law and medical schools I Credit policies of banks and lending institutions The Legal Debate I In the 1978 de e case legmly offye Um39wm39g ofCafomz39d v Bak e by a narrow 5 4 vote ordered the medical school of the UniversitV of California at Davis to admit Allan Bakke a quali ed White engineer who had originally been denied admission solely the basis of his l UC violated Bakke s constitutional rights based on Fixedquota system but can use exible admission requirements that include race I Other egs 1996 U Texas Law School U Michigan Law School The debate continues Reverse Discrimination I An emotional term because it coniures up the notion that somehow women and minorities will subject m m in the US to the same treatment received by minorities during the last three centuries Linked to color blind ideology l Supporters of affirmative action I As long as businesses rely on informal social networks personal recommendations and family ties White men will have a distinct advantage built on generations of being in positions of power The Glass Ceiling l Ref rs to the barrier tbat blocks the promotion ofa quali ed worker because of gender or min orig m em bersbip I Additionally they face glass walls that M laLral moves to areas from which executives are promoted I Barriers contribute to women not moving into ultimate decision making positions in the nation s corporate giants I Determinants of the Glass Ceiling l Lack of management commitment to establishing system policies and practices achieving workplace diversng m upward mobiligg I Pay inequities for work of equal or comparable value I SeX race and ethnic based stereogzping and harassment I Unfair recruitment practices I Lack of family friendly workplace policies I Parent track policies I Limited opportunities for advancement to decision making positions I W n R96 15 m mlo M We W W b m I Men who chose to enter femaledanith occupations are often rewarded with promotions and positions of responsibility coveted by their fellow female woxkers I Mm a barrier to moving laterally in a business to positions that are more to lead to upward mobility Questions I Provide an example each of relative deprivation and absolute deprivation I What current in society that you can think of demonstrates total discrimination I Whatemploymcntpmc oes thath can of demanst the informal mommy and dual labor market I Why is it dif cult to quantify disc mination I Based at the numbers in Table 31 how can the wide gap between and Asian income statistics be explained I HowcanAf nnativc Acticmbe bettcrnt ized so that it protects minority gmups from discriminatian while protecting the rights of deserving Whites in upward I Ismersedisc mination amyth crisit an accurate social phenomenon I Provide an mmple each of39thc glass the glass wall and the glass escalator I 1994 racism is pennanent quot


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