Nutrition Management before and during Pregnancy
Nutrition Management before and during Pregnancy FDNS 4050
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 4050 at University of Georgia taught by Alex K. Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
FDNS 4050 Week 3 08312015 Nutrition Management for Preconception Conditions Folic acid most important prenatal vitamin for women Premenstrual syndrome could interfere with fertility o If you know you have this you can seek treatment previous to conceonn Some studies suggest that reducing caffeine intake could reduce PMS also Vitamin D and Magnesium but there is not much evidence for this Metabolic syndrome can be well managed by diet and physical activity o If not well managed it can lead to CVD and diabetes Eating Disorders 0 Women with eating disorders particularly anorexia will hardly get ready because 0 They don t have enough body fat Lower energy levels Less nutrient support They are not menstruating lf pregnancy occurs There tends to be complications with the babies o It is easier for a bulimic to become pregnant rather than an anorexic Female Athletic Triad o Amenorrhea Disordered eating negatively affects bone development Osteoporosis Supplements are important to help with pregnancy Diabetes Gestational diabetes only seen in females during pregnancy o If it is well managed it can go away o If not it could lead to Type 2 diabetes OOOO 0 Type 1 diabetes autoimmune the patient is not secreting insulin previously called juvenile diabetes 0 Need insulin shots to enhance transport of glucose in blood to the cells 0 Type 2 diabetes the body may be secreting adequate or excess insulin but the problem is that the insulin is insensitive 0 Without insulin the sugar is unable to move from the blood to the cells 0 Need medication to sensitize the insulin to transport the sugar into the mitochondria for energy metformin Can enhance weight loss Polycystic Ovary Syndrome o Tends to be in women who are overweight who have fatty ovaries Genetics could play a part in this lnsulin is not sensitive enough for glucose transport 0 Important to limit fat in the diet to help with this weight loss recommended Phenylketonuria If this accumulates in the blood it could affect the mental state of the fetus Monitor the amount make sure it is able to be synthesized Celiac Disease avoid gluten in diet Nutrition Needs and In uences During Pregnancy 0 When pregnant you cannot eat and drink all you want because you have to think about the nutrient value for the baby 0 Everything the mother eats goes to the baby and determines the health and progression of the pregnancy 0 The child develops taste buds for the foods the mother eats The fetus is never a parasite because whatever the mother eats she must satisfy her own needs rst then the placenta and lastly the fetus bene ts from what the mother eats o A parasite takes from the host whether the host likes it or not the fetus does not do this Terms 0 We estimate conception based on the last menstrual cycle Periconceptional one month before pregnancy Conceptus when the sperm fuses with the egg o Zygote between conception and 2 weeks 0 Embryo between two weeks and 8 weeks 0 Fetus between 8 weeks and delivery 0 Very preterm anything before 34 weeks 0 Premature babies Infant mortality is a great indication of a nation s health 0 Strong correlation between infant mortality and life expectancy 0 Infant mortality higher in males male fetus much more vulnerable There is a lot of focus on the rst 1000 days of life pregnancy2 years if the child is healthy the child will grow up and go on to be healthy throughout their lives Health Objectives for 2020 0 Reducing teenage pregnancy is important 0 Teenagers are still growing themselves so they need more of every source she gets normally give birth to preterm babies because when eating they consume most of the nutrients they absorb leaving little for the baby 0 Tend to hide the pregnancy in the beginning which is the most important time of pregnancy early prenatal care Physiology of Pregnancy 0 A lot of dilution in the rst weeks of pregnancy 0 Hemodilution Most weight gain occurs between 35 and 40 weeks Anabolic phase rst 20 weeks Catabolic phase last 20 weeks Glucose provides an energy source for the baby through glycogen and fat Fetal Body Composition 0 In the second half of pregnancy body fat composition occurs where nutrients are extremely critical 0 Small for gestational age 0 Disproportional the baby s body is disproportional the legs arms and head are of normal range but the weight is extremely low less than 10th The malnutrition within the mother occurs at the end of the pregnancy 0 Proportional the child is all around small each part of the baby is small Side effect of chronic malnutrition in the mother There is a de cit in the babies cells because the mother doesn t eat enough nutrients Variations in fetal growth if the mother eats too much protein it results in a high risk for the baby to be overweight later on in life Developmental Programming of Later Disease Risk every chronic disease has the origin from the mother s womb As long as there is weight gain in the child periodically the child is ok not every child will gain weight at the same rate Many chronic diseases begin in the womb with whatever the mother is eating during pregnancy could relate to changes in genes Pregnancy Weight Gain It is important for all expecting mothers to gain weight Even if they are obese As long as the mother is continually gaining weight it shows a healthy intake of macronutrients Even though there is a baby in the womb the mother isn t actually eating for two she just must increase her nutrient intake When a mother breastfeeds she tends to lose the weight faster Undernutrition puts the mother as well as the baby at risk Normal amount of calories needed a day 1650 0 Energy requirements in pregnancy require a gradual increase of caloric intake
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