Sociology 1 Week 7
Sociology 1 Week 7
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This 6 page Reader was uploaded by Kaley jorgensen on Monday May 19, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views.
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Date Created: 05/19/14
week 7 lecture 513 4 major theories of poverty individual characteristics of poor 9 poverty individual ppl rise and fall on their own merits we see poverty mainly because the poor are unfit to compete social Darwinism wealthy have superior qualities and are generally morally upright people poor have low mental ability do such behavior represent causation or correlation o Anemia iron deficiency lack of resources for learning lead to learning disabilities 0 Tests may contain biases and stereotypes can lead to feelings of inferiority that interfere with test performance Parenting stress hypothesis 0 Mental stress esp due to relative depravation leads to detrimental parenting practices yelling hitting focus on obeying authority rather than internal control and reflection Maybe the characteristics of the poor are outcomes of the conditions of being poor Culture of poverty Poitica economic forces gt poverty 6 9 individual characteristics of poor The argument Conditions of poverty prevents the poor with a unique set of probs To cope they develop diff lifestyle Isolation from mainstream society produces a set of common values attitudes behaviors a culture of subculture This culture is sef perpetuating the teenagers teach the younger kids This leads to a inability to adjust opportunities and ways of life that are more mainstream Policy implications Welfare is not a solution earned helplessness and perverse incentives keep ppl poor inability to defer gratification early initiation into sec lack of commitment in relationships strong feelings of being marginalized anger etc oppositional cultures working class disenfranchisement accusations of acting white among young African Americans seems logical and largely sympathetic to the poor focus is still on individual decisions rather than institutions ethnocentric The focus becomes changing their culture so the poor can be more like us but is It right Does culture have a causal relationship on poverty or does it reflect it Do large differences in culture even exist Working poor Experiments and quasi experiments do not support the idea that poor have preferences to not work May explain some relatively small group of truly disadvantaged but is not broadly generalizable in explaining most poverty Situational view of poverty Take into account poitica economic forces Lack of opportunities Attidinal and behavioral differences exist But are largely caused by poverty May be reacting to a realistic situation lack of opportunity Rejects The idea that poor would not prefer to live up to broader societa eve values The idea that differences arise form deepseated differences in attitudes and beliefs Situational view Sociologist William Julius Wilson turned the focus from welfare to factors such as deindustrialization Maybe there isn39t a good theory of poverty Automation ofjobs leads to de skiing and unemployment Unemployment is desirable for many corporations because it depresses waages and discourages unions 0 Monetary policy aims to keep employment low but not too low Concluding poverty Poverty Is extremely complex Research suggests poverty persists due to some combination oc cultural and situational factors arising from broader social and political forces The sociology of health and illness Doctors have a great amount of social power political power and prestige for a variety of reasons Universally valued product health and longetivity But this wasn39t always true Doctors were low status in the past The rise and fall of the medical profession Doctors prestige is something that is modern and linked with professional closure 0 How rare are the sills needed to be a good doctor 0 Should doctors control the medical education pipeline 0 State sponsored licensing and organized authority to determine membership 0 Doctors in countries with less professionalization are less esteemed and consequently have more women in the field Changes in laws economy and the tech may be leading to a decline in the profession since the 9039s 0 Physicians assistant nurses doing many duties 0 Patients have greater access to info Perhaps more internal segregation and stratification What does it mean to be sick Like man other seemingly universal or stable concepts illness is a social construct what it means to be sick or healthy has changed throughout history and differs from one place to another Medicalization The process by which problems or issues not traditionally seen as a medical come to be framed and understood as such Ex alcoholism Revisiting functionaism and role theory rights and obligations associated with social status Parsons developed the concept of the sick role which assigns a sick person rights and obligations A sick person has a right not to perform normal social roles Not to be held personally responsible for his or her condition Obliged to try to get well Obliged to comply with professional orders Revisiting labeling theory Being given the label sick or mentally ill can create a set of expectations and promote behaviors The diagnostic and statistical manual provies a standard categorization of mental disorders and their definitions Changes in this manual particularly form its second to third editions have strongly influenced how mental illness is understood and treated Ex homosexuality Social determinants theory states that social status can determine a person39s health Psychosocial more stress and lack of dignity Materialist un access to healthy products and lifestyle choices Fundamental causes multiple mechanisms lead higher SES groups to better access to info and ability to adapt to knowledge regarding health Lecture 51514 What is education Theories And we can question theories on empirical grounds Is education mostly about learning Learning what How much meritocracy is the educational system Why is higher education so important Education the process through which academic social and cultural ideas and tools are developed Functions or schooling The main functions of schools are to educate students and socialize them 0 Schools teach general skills reading writing arithmetic as well as specific skills for the workplace 0 Human capital refers to the knowledge and skills that make someone more productive ad bankable Schools have been described as sorting machines that place students into programs and groups according to their skills interests talents Critics argue that this sorting process is not based solely on merit and that ultimately it serves to reproduce social in Schools transmit values beliefs attitudes that are important to society o Whose society 0 Socialize by rewarding some cultural beliefs and behaviors more than others The hidden curriculum serves to form a more cohesive society but has also been used to impose the values of a dominant culture on outsider or minorities Do school differences matter Coleman report seemed to suggest that schools resources didn39t matter students achievement was mostly about peer influence and parental characteristics However since then evidence suggests 0 Class size matters 0 Teaching matters principal leadership matters 0 School type publicprivate The problem is we don39t know exactly WHY these tings matter 0 What exact qualities or teachers matter 0 What is it about schools of different types that make a difference Whats going on inside schools Meritocracy or efficiency Tracking is dividing students into different classes according to ability or future plans 0 If peers have a strong influence then maybe its effective in helping students build positive learning communities 0 In practice tracking has a number of negative effects and may be more beneficial for those who are already p v eged Who does and doesn39t get on the college track Labeling theory The Pygmalion Effect or self fulfilling prophecy is the process that occurs when behavior is modified to meet preexisting expectations o Experiments show that randomly telling teachers that some kids are higher ability makes a differences in performances Inequalities in schooling Stereotypes can affect student performance 0 Test design 0 Test taking Cumulative disadvantage o Small differences can be magnified over time Cultural capital cultural resources that ppl inherit and use to their advantage in various settings in order to stay ahead Embodied ways to talking perceiving interacting Objectivized actual objects of cultural value paintings clothing home d cor as well as the eye for perceiving these Institutionalized legitimate credentials that create distinction Whereas human capital sees these qualities as potentially important skills cultural capital sees them as essentially arbitrary valuable because they help those in power to reproduce their privilege Human capital theory Jobs require such cognitive skills Schooling helps produce these skills Cultural capital theory Such cognitive skills are essentially BS Schooling rewards those who already have them Systematic rewards are given to high cultural capital Teachers reward it in the class hidden curriculum Test design rewards it Rewarded in college admissions Rewarded in selection into important clubs which Harvard did you attend Sociologists are still interested in the understanding the achievement gap between white and minority students This has often been attributed to class but other theories circulate Higher education In 1910 3 o of men and women over 25 had a college degree In 2004 28 of men and women over 25 have a degree Why
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