week two notes
week two notes CJC 202 3
Popular in Research Methods in Criminal Justice
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Baldauf on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJC 202 3 at Ball State University taught by Gibbs in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Research Method CJC 220 week 2 Thursday September 3 2015 1209 PM Chapter 1 continued Prevent generalization increase sample size Selective Observation need to pay attention so events are not ignored Increasing the size helps prevent this Illogical Reasoning o The exception that proves the rule An exception can not prove a rule it contradicts o quotGambler39s fancyquot a consistent run of good or bad luck dose not for shadow the opposite Ideology and Politics 0 Basing research on personal beliefs 0 Faith often trumps facts in one39s personal beliefs 0 The scientific method attempts to guard against this phenomenon Purposes of Research Exploration to explore a certain issueexplanation different aspects of domestic violence gt this research may or may not have a true research question outside of quotWhatquot Description observing a specific problem and describing what was observed 0 The description is often in the form of raw number counts and basic statistics or a qualitative account of a specific phenomenon Explanation explains the quotwhyquot of a particular problem Application a need for specific facts andor findings for policy implications 2 types of applied research evaluation determine if a problem is having its intended effect it tests the results of a program Problem analysis tests problems with specific policies often times the potential problems if a policy were to be implemented Drug courts have been around since 1989 Chapter two Theory research and public policy Applied research 0 Research for the primary purposes to affect public policy or that studies public policy The link between theory and public policy 0 Theory guides basic research The results of this research may point to specific policies Hypothesis and public programming 0 A C program is implemented to have a specific effect 0 quotif thequot if greater punishment the future criminal behavior is deterred Take this finding and apple it to pp if harsher sentence are imposed then recidivism is reduced XgtY XgtY Reduce recidivism gt payless Foundation of social science Aggregate not individuals 0 The search of patterns generally eliminates the study of individuals Aggregates reflects combined actions of individuals 0 The focus on aggregates separates CJ research with C practitioners Variables and Attributes o Attributesgt Characteristics of and individualprofessor o Variablesgt logical grouping of attributes employed 0 as a potential variable probation officers and college professors are the same Variables and relationships We use theory to describe the relationship between two or more variables The relationship between two variables is often described through causation o Xgty o Xindependent variable ydependent variable Theory assists in interpreting the relationship between variables The research Process Getting started 0 Choosing a topic 0 Narrowing an objective Why are you conducting this research often times this will determine how the research is written and in some instances how the research is conducted 0 Conceptualization 0 Be clear on your focused of study What are you researching specifically o Operationalization o How will you be measuring your research phenomenon o If studying deterrence what is your deterrent agent What is the measure that suggests deterrence Ice cream r tl ilE an example of a Inimitin relat ionihiip When hath lEE cream a violent Eil39ill39l IE39i increaee tl iiliEi Is a sitiue r elat ion hii Weather lt this is an example of a negative relationship The more you sleep the less time you have to study if vainiaihlies a relationship With il39lE Ein 39lthErg that Helatiomh ip time not mean they cause each Eitl39IEL Recidivism the recurring act of offending Population and sampling 0 Rarely are social scientists able to observe the entire population 0 Adequately sampling the population of interests is the next best thing Observations o The collection of empirical data Analysis 0 Many methods in which to analyze data this is often dictated by the question asked 0 Analysis manipulates the data to allow for conclusions to be made about the observed data Thinking about research problems 0 Establish your research interests 0 CJ policy 0 CJ programs 0 Homicide Review the Literature 0 Research often builds on existing literature and things we all ready know 0 To research your topic you must be familiar with the research that has all ready been conducted 0 Original research should quotfill in the gapsquot of existing literature Chapter two book notes The two pillars of science are 0 logic or rationality 0 Observations Both of these elements are essential to social science and relate to three key aspects of the overall scientific enterprise 0 Theory 0 Data collection 0 Data analysis Social scientific theory has to do with what is not what should be Social science aims to find patterns of regularity in social life The subject matter of the physical sciences appears to be more regular than that of the social sciences Aggregates are more often the subject of social science research Attributes are characteristics or qualities that describe some object such as a person Any quality we might use to describe ourselves or someone else is an attribute Example bigoted old fashioned married unemployed intoxicated Variables are logical groupings of attributes The relationship between attributes and variables lies at the hear of both description and explanation in science Theories describe relationships that might logically be expected among variables Dependent Variables the variable assumed to depend on or be caused by another variable Independent variable the variable that is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable We study the relationship between the variables by observing people ldiographic relating to a mode of causal reasoning that seeks detailed understanding of all factors that contribute to a particular phenomenon Nomothetic seeks to explain a class of situations or events rather than a single one Both idiographic and nomothetic approaches to understanding can be useful in daily life Inductive reasoning moves from the specific to the general From a set of particular observations to the discovery of a pattern that represents some degree of order among the varied events under examination Deductive reasoning moves from the general to the specific It moves from a pattern that might be logically or theoretically expected to observations that test whether the expected pattern actually occurs in the real world Deductive begins with why and moves to whether Inductive moves in the opposite direction The distinction between quantitative and qualitative data is the distinction between numerical and non numerical data Quantification often makes our observations more explicit Quantification requires focusing our attention and specifying meaning Theory is a systematic explanation for the observed facts and laws that relate to a particular aspect of life lntersubjective agreement norm of science whereby different researchers studying the same problem arrive at the same conclusion Objectivitydoesn t exist See above Hypothesis is a specified expectation about empirical reality derived from propositions 0 Another way of thinking about hypothesis is as a tentative answer to a research question Paradigm is a fundamental model or scheme that organizes our view of something Hypothesis testing the determination of whether the expectations that a hypothesis represents are indeed found in the real world Ground theory a type of inductive theory based on field observation or grounded in