Psych 108 Week 8
Psych 108 Week 8
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Date Created: 05/19/14
Week 7 Episodic memory specific events that were personally experienced Semantic memory Defining attribute theory concepts defined by a list of attributes Each attribute necessary and all jointly sufficient Boundaries clearly defined All members of concept are equally representative Concepts organized hierarchally o Nodes represent concepts 0 Pathways represent relationship between concepts 0 Spreading activation moves between nodes along pathways Economical o Properties do not need to be re represented for each concept Support 0 Sentence verification times consistent with some key predictions Faster to verify canary is a bird than the canary breathes Problems 0 Difficulty with negation o Slower to negate butterflies are birds than spiders are birds o Difficulty with typicality effects Problems with defining attribute theories All attributes are not equally salient All members of a category are not equally good examples Some categories to now have defining attributes a game Some categories are fuzzy Inferences Generalization from typical item to category is stronger than form atypical item to category All chickenssparrows on a certain island have a certain bacteria in their gut How likely is it that all birds do Higher probability estimates with sparrows than chickens Prototype theory A concept is represented by a prototypical item central tendency Typicality effects with things that have very clear rules such as odd and even numbers 3 levels of prototypes superordinate very broad categories animal plant tool basic level cat tree saw levels at which categories are represented that contains the most useful information members tend to be similar in shape and how one interacts with them subordinate Siamese cat elm hacksaw highly specific example most ppl operate at the basic level support for basic level categories basic eve names are used to identify objects ask ppl to look at pictures and identify object ppl prefer to use basic eve names ppl produce basic level names faster than superordinate or subordinate names basic eve names are more likely to produce the semantic priming effect priming with basic eve names is helpful priming with superordinate names is not helpful different levels of categorization activate different regions of the brain superordinate terms are more likely than basic eve terms to activate part of the prefrontal cortex subordinate terms are more likely than basic leve terms to activate part of the parietal region caricatures exaggerate distinctive features of an object caricatures are more readily recognized than actual pictures categories are often times represented by caricatures rather than prototypes because caricatures better discriminate between categories conclusions about the prototype approach advantages can account for our ability to form concepts for groups that are loosely structured can be applied to social relationships inanimate objects nonsicoal categories problems concepts can be unstable and variable prototype ratings can shift we often do not store specific info about individual examples or a category not just prototypes exemplar theory concept is simply represented by all of the members in that concept 0 defining attribute bird flying animal with beak that lays eggs 0 prototype bird sparrow like thing 0 exemplar bird sparrow chicken emu blue jay 0 does not throw out instance information as does prototype theory uses the total similarity of an object to all members of the exemplar theory ad hoc categories 0 ppl create categories for items unlikely to have been stored together as such 0 objects that serve as platforms when ppl asked questions about categories ppl don39t just consider prototypes they also include info about less typical examples of the category compare prototype and exemplar approach the exemplar approach may be more suitable for categories with relatively few members the prototype approach may be more suitable for categories with numerous numbers both approaches may coexist schemas and scripts schema generalized knowledge about situation event or a person schemas are helpful when psychologists try to explain how ppl process complex situations and events schema theories propose that ppl encode generic information about a situation then use this information to understand and remember new examples lecture 51414 why is language important Represents unique form of abstract Caution psycholinguistics is English centered As many as 7000 spoken languages 0 The differ o Pitch 0 Passive voice 0 Grammatical genders 0 Brain processing English is outlier language 0 Relatively simple grammar 0 Many more irregular pronunciations than other major world languages Linguistic relativity sapir whorf hypothesis language determines or influences thinking three versions strong hypothesis language determines thinking weak hypothesis language influences perception weakest language influences memory color vocabulary some languages have thousands of color words others a handful ppl might differentiate and remember colors to a greater or lesser brown and lenneberg they found correlation between name ability and memory accuracy easy to name colors are remembered accurately than hard to name heider 1972 tested the Dani a group in the New Guinea highlands only have two color words dark and light colors that were easy to name in English and had been better remembered by brown and lennebergs subjects turned out to be better remembered by the Dania as well heider s interpretation certain colors are inherently more distinguishable perception influences thought linguistic relativity and counting Chinese numerical names are compatible with traditional 10 base numeration system 0 spoken numbers correspond exactly to their written equivalent 0 15 is spoken s ten five and 57 is five ten seven most European systems of number words are irregular up to 100 the Chinese children learn to count earlier than American chHdren similarity judgments mass nouns any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit 0 water count nouns o chair Mayans similarity judgments are more influenced by material as appropriate for mass nouns rather than shape as appropriate for count nouns Evalutation of linguistic relativity Evidence supports the weak and weakest versions 0 Weak hypothesis 0 Weakest hypothesis Key terminology phonology the way sounds function in language single speech sound English has about 459 make up 2 our words Dimensions morphology the study of internal structure of words smallest unit of meaning words parts of words etc over 100000 words formed by morpheme combinations semantics study of meaning understanding link between language and concepts denotation vs connotation syntax how words can be combined into sentences pragmatics knowledge of social rules that underlie language chomsky s approach psycholinguistiscs language abilities can be explained in terms of complex system of rules and principles represented in the minds of language users humans have innate understanding of the abstract principles of language language learning involves the more superficial characteristics of a particular language deep vs surface structure surface structure words that are spoken or written words that are spoken or written deep structure abstract meaning transformational rules 0 rules ppl use to convert deep structure into surface structure 0 the ball was thrown by sara passive o sara threw the ball active same surface structure different deeps tructure o ambiguous sentences 0 they are cooking apples 0 the lamb is too hot to eat reactions to Chomsky extremely influential approach that continues to be explored and developed some aspects of theory not supported 0 ppl do not take longer to process sentences that require numerous transformations development of psycholinguistic theories that emphasize meaning children use flexible strategies to create increasingly factors affecting comprehension negatives negative statements require more processing time than affirmative statements affirmative statements produce fewer errors multiple negatives decrease performance the passive voice the active form of a sentence is easier to understand than passive ambiguity he gave her cat food 0 ppl pause longer when they are processing an ambiguous word 0 when ppl encounter a potential ambiguity the activation builds up for all the well known meanings of the ambiguous item complex syntax
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