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BSC 116 Week 2 Notes- Lectures 5-8

by: Alexia Acebo

BSC 116 Week 2 Notes- Lectures 5-8 BSC 116

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 116 > BSC 116 Week 2 Notes Lectures 5 8
Alexia Acebo
GPA 3.7
Principles Biology II
Jennifer G. Howeth

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About this Document

A collection of the second week of notes from BSC 116 covering material from lectures 5-8.
Principles Biology II
Jennifer G. Howeth
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jennifer G. Howeth in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/06/15
BSC 116 Lectures 68 Plant multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs Cell walls of cellulose Chloroplasts with chlorophyll a and b Traits found in protists as well evolved from singlecelled aquatic green algae charophytes Supported by morphological biochemical evidence 1 Shape of cellulose complexes agellated sperm morphology details of cell division 2 Sporopollenin tough outer coating of charophyte zygotes and plant spores supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis Kingdom Plantae Embryophytes some debate about where to draw line between algae and land plants Land plants share diagnostic traits 4 Key Features 1 Alternation of generations with multicellular dependent embryos 2 Sporopollenin walled spores made in sporangia a Charophytes lack multicelled sporangia and no sporopollenin in spores 3 Multicellular gametangia 4 Apical meristems areas of growth on shoot and root tips Evolved Traits 1 Waxy cuticle waterproofing 2 Stomata pores to exchange C02 and 02 3 Mycorrhizal associated with fungi 4 Secondary compounds to protect from damage Alternation of Generations alternating multicellular haploid n and diploid 2n phases Sporophytes 2n produce spores n by meiosis Spores n development into gametophytes n Majore Events in Plant Evolution Multicellularity Invasion of land Origin of vascular tissue Appearance of extant seed plants Evolution of owers 90 of living plant species are angiosperms earliest land plants lacked vacular tissue Specialized cells that transport water nutrients etc Bryophytes nonvascular plants 3 Phyla 1 Hepatophyta liverworts 2 Anthocerophyta hornworts 3 Bryophyta mosses life cycle dominated by gametophyte but with prominent sporophyte Life Cycle Gametophytes develop from spores 0 Larger and longer living than sporophytes o Spores germinate to form branched protonemata 0 Each protonemata produces 1 gametophores o Anchored by rhizoids Gametophytes have male female gametangia 1 Archegonia produce eggs 2 Antheridia produce agellated sperm Life cycles lack of vascular tissue limit diversity of bryophytes Vascular plants have adaptations to be larger 5 Evolutionary Innovations of Vascular Plants 1 vascular tissue xylem water and phloemfood a reinforced with lignin allows large size 2 Roots a Anchor and allow size increase 3 Leaves a Increase surface area for photosynthesis b Allow size 4 Sporophylls a Modified leaves with sporangia 5 Life cycles dominated by sporophytes fern life cycle similar to bryophyte sporangia in sori on sporophylls Excepts Gametophyte bisexual stage much smaller than sporophyte Sporophyte NOT dependent on gametophyte 2 extant phyla of seedless vascular plants 1 Lycophyta club mosses Etc 2 Monilophyta ferns etc Ecological Importance of Seedless Vascular Plants Warmer climate Paleozoic more carbon dioxide in atmosphere Lycophytes and monilophytes highly diverse o Formed 1St forests o Dense wet forests 0 Drop in C02 global cooling Cooler drier climate favored seeded Remnants of coal forests important to modern economy Fungi are generally multicellular heterotrophs that represent diverse ecological roles heterotrophs absorb nutrients without ingestion FungLquot Secrete enzymes to break down compounds Can be parasitic pathogenic Can be mutualistic Fungi Body Structure Single v Multi celled o Singlecelled yeast 0 Multi celled filaments hyphae o Filaments form masses mycelia increase surface area uptake Cell structure 0 Cell wallchitin o Hyphae may be 1 Divided by septa 2 Undivided coenocytic fungi Relationships with Plants Parasitic mutualistic relationships use haustoria o Perforate plant cell wall but not plasma membrane Mycorrhizal fungi mutualism with roots 0 Fungi provides phosphorus other nutrients 0 Plant provides carbs I 2 kinds arbuscular haustoria ectomycorrhiza form sheaths around roots Extremely important to plants almost all vascular plants have mycorrhizal Complex Life Cycles reproduce by spores o haploid hyphae and spores I n vs 2n 0 sexual meiosis and asexual mitosis sexual reproduction o plasmogamy fusion of cytoplasm of 2 different mating types 0 Heterokaryondikaryon 2 parental nuclei in 1 cytoplasm nn o Karyogamy fusion of nuclei 2n 0 Spores n produced by meiosis Asexual reproduction molds o Spores n produced my mitosis Fungi Evolved From SingleCelled Protists Unikonts divided into 2 main groups 1 Amoebozoans slime molds other amoeba 2 Opisthokonts a Animals plus dino agellates b Fungi and nucleariids amoeba that fees on algae and bacteria Unclear when 1st fungi appeared Oldest Fossil 460 My terrestrial DNA suggests animals and fungi evolved independently from protist ancestors approx 100000 fungal species in 5 clades 1 Chytrids earliest Zygomycetes spores fruit mold Glomeromycetes assoc with plants Ascomycetes spores asci sac fungi Basidiomycetes club fungi spores mushroom P1990 Ascomycetes 65000 spp yeats multicellular some mycorrhizae 40 lichens with green algae or cyanobacteria Neurospora example life cycle 0 Conidia asexual spores I Form at hyphal tips Conidia also involved in sexual reproduction o Plsmogamy with different mating type Dikaryotic cells develop into asci Karyogamy meiosis mitosis Ascopspores form in asci arranged into ascocorps OOO Basidiomycetes Decomposers especially of wood Life cycle has prominent dikaryotic mycelium Plasmogamy of haploid n mycelia Dikaryotic nn mycelium grows quickly 0 May produce basidiocarp Gills of basidiocarp lined with basidia dikaryotic cells at end of hyphae Karyogamy of basidia 2n meiosis 4xn produces basidiospores Harmful Fungi About 13 fungi parasites pathogens esp on plants Plant parasites o On crops I Decrease yields I Toxic to humans Animal Parasites 0 Skin external mycosis athlete s foot yeast infections 0 Systematic internal mycosis caused my inhaled spores Helpful Fungi Mycorrhizae and Lichens 0 Photo and hetero exchanging products Ascomycete endophytes between leaf cells 0 Release comp that protect plants from insects Mushrooms truf es cheese bread beer Antibiotics other drugs Gymnosperms ancient Angiosperms owering Bryophythes are dominated by gametophyte stage no chloroplast in sporophyte 4 Evolutionary Innovations of Seed Plants Further reduction of the gametophyte stage Variation in spore size density 0 Most homosporous one type I Bisexual gametophyte o Heterosporous male female I Female megaspores megasporangia I Male microspores microsporangia Seeds embryo and food supply in protective coat desiccation resistant long dispersal distance Ovules and pollen water not needed Advantages of Seeds Better dispersal than spores longer viability Sporessingle cells Seeds multicellular coats with store of food seeds can remain dormant until conditions are right for germination dispersed via wind water and animals Male gametophyte pollen seedless plants agellated sperm swim from male gametophyte antheridium to female gametophyte archegonium seed plants tiny male gametophyte transported to female gametophyte Microspore develops into pollen grain male gametophyte in sporopollenin coat Pollination transport by wind animal to female ovule fertilized female ovules become seeds Megasporangium retained within parent sporophyte Ovule mega sporangiummegasporeintegument o Integument sporophyte tissue 2n 0 Megasporangium sporophyte tissue 2n 0 Megaspore develops into female gametophyte n Female gametophyte n produces 1 eggs n Egg n fertilized by spermn produced by male gametophyte n following pollination o Sperm transported via pollen tube through micropile Seed sporophyte embryo 2n encased in maternal sporophyte tissue Gymnosperms naked seeds on cones Phylums Cycadophyta Gnetophyta Ginkophyta Coniferophyta Angiosperms owering plants Phylum anthophyta Gymno life cycle Pine tree mature sporophyte 0 male pollen comes with microsporocytes 0 female ovule comes with mega sporocytes microsporocyte develops into male gametophyte pollen 9 sperm megasporocyte develops into female gametophyte eggs pollination leads to fertilizations


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