New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Sigrid Breitenberg


Sigrid Breitenberg
GPA 3.89


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Architecture

This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sigrid Breitenberg on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARC 415K at University of Texas at Austin taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see /class/181643/arc-415k-university-of-texas-at-austin in Architecture at University of Texas at Austin.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/06/15
Test 1 Construction 1 Page 1 ExteriorInterior Environment Tuesday August 31 2010 Weather vs Climate Weather day today no one cares minimal effect Climate more important to project Affects energyresources Macro lglobalgeography Micro morespecific Characteristics ofClimate 0 Temperature fluctuation 0 Relative Humidity The amount of water in the air com pared to the amount of waterair can hold percentage 0 Solar characteristics Insolation passive solar d inquot 0 Win Pressure andtemperature convection currents Macro Climates l Arid 2 HotHumid 3 Temperatezones Cold Micro Climates Smaller consideration more subject to change Valley seashore urban site etc Can be changedcreated Measures of Human Comfort Temperature The body39s eatexchange withthe surroundings Radiation 39 quot39L39 v on 39 wavesthat39 min Anna L L 4 u AbsorptionRelease Convection Air current circulation Hot air 39 quot g a 1 439 which causes cooler air to rush in wind makes it difficultto heat tall buildings Conduction quotquotquot 39 39 t 39 39 iond 4 nnthelllatullall quot39 39 Conductor vs Insulator Eva poration Mean Radian TemperatureThermal Effects of Materials Farnswolth House Mies van der Rohe Sidri Driss HoteI Tunsia Humidity Solar Radiation Sun Study keep in mind how the sun moves throughoutthe day and duringthe year Psychrometric Charts describetemperature humidity energy and more International climactic Prototypes Ice Ca ps Climate sub zero temperatures l Building materials snow ice animal skins TundraTaiga ll Climate I moderate summers cold winters Building must be designed for easy dismantling portability and a wide variety ofclimactic conditions types ex yurts Mountains Construction 1 Page 2 IClimate snow avalanches wind and rain limited locations and orientationsI II BuildingtypesI trquot hquot areefficient 39f ffquot t quot Il Continental IIClimate Itemperatures can swingfrom l4quotF in winterto 80quotF in summerI IBuildingtypes I buildings have to offer an ideal indoor climate year round I I Building materialsI must be able to absorb heat in summer and insulate in winter Ma ri neWest Coastal IClimate I moderate due to calming ocean influence strong winds and rain I I Buildingtypes I must offer protectionfrom the elements II Climate I closest to an ideal climate I IBuildingtypes I require shading and high thermal massingI Subtropical r I Climate I pleasant most ofthe year high humidity and solar radiation I IIBuildingtypes I ventilation and shadingare a must Tropical IClimate I hot and humid I IIBuildingtypes I ventilation and protection from heat and rain are requiredI Savanna Wa rmWet IClimate idealtemperature year round I IBuildingtypesI 39 39 39 1 quot quot VVlLll quot 39 39 39 quot I Steppe HotDry II Climate I hot and dry with cold winter nights Building shade and heat protection in the summer and high thermal mass to balancethe diurnal types change oftemperatures Desert IClimate I extremely hostile hot and dry I IBuildingtypesI nomadic people homes are temporary and portableI US Climatic Prototypes phrata Cloister Pennsylvania 1732 Translated building types from other countriesclimates Less windows and pitched roofs quotSaltboxquot Sturgis House Connecticut Windows face South and roof slopes off to the North Hope Lodge Philadelphia Poplar Forest Thomas Jefferson Large win ows quotShotgunquot House New Orleans Urban location Rooms are all in a row to get as much cross ventilation as possible Constructed of wood quotDogtrotquot Cabin East Texas Rural location Void in the middle for outdoor shadingand cross winds Case Studies Kunsthaus Bregenz PeterZumthorAustria Glass skinsteel frame houses with independent concrete structures quotDouble skin39I passive solar heatin Water piping runningthrough concrete Sense of natural light Construction 1 Page 3 Curtain Wall House Shigeru Ban Tokyo Japan Literal wall of curtains not glass controls sunlight and wind Lifted offthe ground for privacy Heat Parking Saute Chapelle Paris Masonry and lots ofglass absorb and store as much heat as possible Duomo Brunelleschi Paris Has less glass and more thermal insulation Construction 1 Page 4 E n e rgy Flows Tuesday September 07 2010 World Energy Production and Consumption Total Energy See slides In what ways can we as designers directly or indirectly affect this Oilderived Energy See slides US Energy Sources Production Consumption 1015 Quadrillion BTUs of energy Commercial Use Site Energy 20 is used for lighting 36 is used for space heating Site Electricity 38 is used for lighting 13 is used for cooling 13 is used for ventilation Is sustainable and passive design practical for commercial buildings Achieving Thermal Comfort Vernacular designs Saltobx dogtrot shotgun etc Technology Energy tradeoff Psychometry the determination of the thermodynamic properties of moist air and the utilization of these properties in the analysis of conditions and processes involving moist air Specific heat the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a material 1 C Enthalpy the total heat energy of a substance specific and sensible Latent heat of fusionof vaporization energy needed for a phase change Dry bulb temperature the actual air temperature Wet bulb temperature what it feels like Related to moisture Evaporative potential 0 Specific volume how much space mass occupies Humidity ratio vs relative humidity OOOOO Case Studies Reichstag Foster amp Partners Berlin 1999 Converted a traditional building into something more contemporary climatewise Steel spiralglass dome was designed to heat and cool the building which is partly outside unconditioned space Construction 1 Page 5 Geothermal heating Mirrors amplify daylight Rain sheild Construction 1 Page 6 Energy Flow in Buildings Thursday September 09 2010 Factors of Heat Loss Winter Transmission conductionl Conductance opposite of insulation Infiltration convection Supply Duct Losses conduction Ventilation direct exchange Humidification evaporation Factors of Heat Gain Summer ll Solar Heat Gain radiationl Transmission Infiltration Supply Duct Losses Ventilation Humidification Internal Loads Machines appliances electronics people etc Heat Loss Calculations Small Restaurant Total Loss 158373 BTUshr Transmission l Glass 10 l Walls 7 l Roof 9 Lade 2 Infiltration 34 Supply Duct Losses 3 Ventilation 27 Humidification 7 Heat Gain Calculations Transmission Glass 3 3 Walls 1 2 Roof 6 2 Grade 3 3 In ltration 15 13 Construction 1 Page 7 Supply Duct Losses 2 l 2 l l Ventilation ll 20 l 17 l Internal Loads 7 People 13 9 Lights 23 19 Other 6 5 Is a building39s energy use dominated by heating or cooling Heating Residence Upstate NY Tom Phifer Cooling Housing Project Scottsdale AZ Circle West Architects Neither Kauffmann House Palm Springs Neutra Is a building39s energy use dominated by internal or external loads Internal IAC Building NY Frank Gehry Lighting External 10 Akron St Cambridge MA Kyu Sung Woo Residential Case Studies Lewis Center for Environmental Studies William McDough Oberlin College OH Tripleglazed amp argon sealed windows Geothermal wells Heat exchanger makes heating more efficient Philip Merrill Environmental Center SmithGroup Chesapeake Bay Annapolis MD Natural ventilation lighting and heating open plan Structural insulation panels Southern exposure Operable window system Concrete Geothermal heat exchanger Low energy use and onsite renewable energy production Byzantine Fresco Chapel Menil Collection Francois de Menil Houston TX Light quality Layered concrete walls Construction 1 Page 8 Solar Energy Direct Use Tuesday September 14 2010 Heating Collection Greenhouse Effect light enters through glass or another translucent medium and its solar radiation heat is absorbed and reradiated into the space It cannot go through the glass at the lower wavelength and therefore becomes trapped heating up the space TransmissionReflectionAbsorption Affected by incident angle Material Properties Youth Education Center Speci c heatheat capacity Hertzog amp Partner Windberg Munich 1990 Storage Highly insulated lowmass timber construction Direct Glazed windows and trombe walls glazed massive walls N0ndiffusing Thermal collectors I Diffusing Jacob39s House quotHemicycle Housequot Frank Lloyd Wright Built into a burm Large Southfacing windows I Direct gain sunspace I Clerestory I Direct gain roof Indirect I Mass wall Concave shape thin section I Trombe wa Kellet House Keck amp Keck I Remote storage wall I Water wall I Roof pond Isolated I Sunspace I BarraCostantini I Isolated wall collector I Black attic Control of Release Concave shape gets as much sun as possible Stone floor storage medium Brochstein Pavilion Cooling Tom Phifer Rice University Houston TX Mlmlelng Heat Storage Glass building surrounded by wide shaded portch Window Ventilation Ewha Women39s University Shaft Ventilation Dominique Perrout Seoul Korea Commlllng heat flOW Openscale version of courtyard house Minimizing heat gain in summer Lots of glazing Maximizing heat loss at night Shading Geometryform of elements louvers eggcrates direct gain mass wall roof pond sunspace etc Nighttime Cooling Radiation into the open sky Directindirectisolated Ventilation Convectiondriven Release Stack Effect movement of air driven by buoyancy due to a difference in indooroutdoor air density resulting from temperaturepressure differences aka the quotchimney effectquot Ground Cooling Cave House Earthshlp l D39rECt Conducnon Gharian Libya John Reynolds Taos NM Isolated Heat exchanger J Earth House San Antonio Botanical Gardens Tires Emilio Ambasz Construction 1 Page 9 Daylighting Technical terms Coefficient of heat transmission the ability of a material to conduct heat Uvalue Solar heat gain coefficient the total transmittance of solar radiation in percentage SHGC Shading coefficient the ratio of primary transmittance of solar 399 O Visible transmittance an optical property that indicates the amount of visible light transmitted in percentage VT value Daylight factor the ratio of outside luminance over inside luminance expressed in a percent DF DeflectorsSection Depth 000 O Optimize light distribution Baker House Multiple Sources Aalto MIT Heliostats Skylights with artificial lights lVlt Angel Abbey Library Aalto OR Skylights and clerestory Genzyme Center Behnisch Behnisch Cambridge 2 sections with light well in between atrium Mostly glass some doubleskinned Mirrors Construction 1 Page 10 Solar Energy Indirect Use Tuesday September 21 2010 Timing Need vs Availability Demand is high when radiation intensity is low and demand is low when radiation intensity is high This creates heat requirements in the winter and heat excesses in the summer Orientation and inclination of roofs and walls must respond to these factors Heat Collection water Flat Plate Collector Reduces the need for conventional water heating by as much as 80 Is most effective in residential buildings Roof integration vs facade integration Vacuum Tube Collector with Absorber Plates Tubeintube collectors with reflectors Photovoltaic Cells How do they produce electricity 1 Sunlight photons are absorbed by semiconductors like silicon 2 Electrons are removed from their atoms and move producing an electric current 3 Positive charges holes flow toward the panel An array of solar panels converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current DC electricity In use for heating they are less efficient than thermal collectors Types 0 Monocrystalline o Polycristalline o Amorphous silicon thin film PV cells 0 CISthin film cells Solar Umbrella House Pugh amp Scarpa Austin City Hall Predock Colorado Courts Housing Pugh amp Scarpa Austin Convention Center Expansion Case Studies Faculty of Law Foster Cambridge Long sides North amp South short sides East amp West thin section Daylighting controlbalance Internal mullions steel structure Mechanical systems Ventilationair distribution Avoidance of direct radiation London City Hall Foster London Maximizes interior volume minimizes exterior surface area Glass curtain wall South facade is cantilevered to create sun shading Ground cooling and heating Construction 1 Page 11 Mechanical fresh air supply Cartier Foundation Jean Nouvel Paris Hoshakuji Station Kenzo Kuma Hearst Tower Foster amp Partners New York Fiftytwo Degrees Mecanoo The Neatherlands Construction 1 Page 12 Test 2 Construction 1 Page 13 Building Mechanical Systems Tuesday September 28 2010 Heating Processes ll Burning fuel Heats air Boiling water Heats water l l Electric resistance Metal fins heat up and radiate l Key Dates in Cooling History 188 President Garfield Assassinated lived for 11 weeks after being shot in desperation ice and fans were used to keep him cool 1882 Electric fan invented 1902 Willis Carrier installs first cooling system in a publishing company in Brooklyn 1922 Carrier perfects cooling system installed in movie theaters throughout the US 1931 AC installed in Supreme Court 1950 Widespread use of AC in the US I Cooling Processes Natural ventilation Cool North air vented on South side Vapor compression Natural gas law PVan pressure volume and temperature Absorption refrigeration Evaporative cooling Change of state involves change in energy latent heat HVAC heating ventilation air conditioning Most mechanical systems involve one or more loops that add heat to or reject heat from the interior environment Mechanical Equipment Rooftop direct exchange DX Vapor compression chiller and cooling tower Furnace and boiler Electric resistance heating 0 Could replace gas heaters Location and Expression of Equipment Distribution by Fluid Type Allair direct exchange 0 Rooftop DX Allwater fan coil at point of use 0 Chiller Water and Air 0 Chilled water circulates to area of use air circulates to point of use 0 Temperature Control Methods 0 Constant air volume systems 0 Terminal reheat systems 0 Variable air volume systems I Thermostats Construction 1 Page 14 Distribution by Building Type SmallResidential Buildings 0 Residential split direct exchange system 0 House in Bourdeaux OMA 0 Typical AC distribution in a wood frame house I Supply and return of cooling I Where do you put things Multifloor Buildings 0 Need different not centralized systems for 3 or more floors I Underfloor plenum I Ceiling plenum o Distribute vertically then horizontally o GSW Building Sauderbruch Hutton Berlin I Core of human plumbing and air circulation is used for stabilization I Stack ventilation thermal buffer thin section 0 Single Floor Buildings 0 Home Depot China I Reflective white roof with DX units I Skylights 0 Pittsburgh Convention Center Vinoly I No visible roof equipment I Fabric air ducts 0 Halle 26 Thomas Herzog Hannover I Roof scoops and wind wing over trombe wall I Northfacing glass I Very expensive technical systems I Translucent ductwork Case Studies Walmart South Austin University of Texas Mechanical Plant Texas Capitol Building Austin City Hall Antonie Predock Apartment Building Austin DX units De Young Museum Herzog and Demuron California Academy of Science Renzo Piano Chilled Water Plant University of Pennsylvania Construction 1 Page 15 Structures and Statics Tuesday October 05 2010 Structural Types Result From 0 Static analysis of loads 0 Material properties Construction techniques Basic Structural Types Load Bearing Walls 0 Lion39s Gate Mycenae o Parthenon lintels o Basilica Maxentius arches Cantilever o Wozoco Housing MVRDV Amsterdam Truss 0 Bridge House Saitowtz Australia Braced Frame 0 Colorium Will Alsop Dusseldorf I Idea of separating structure and enclosure I Stiff core provides support 0 Rigid Frame 0 Chinati Foundation DonaldJudo Marfa I Concrete frame Terms Mechanics the branch of physics concerned with the motion of bodies in a frame of reference 0 Static vs Dynamic Statics the equilibrium mechanics of stationary bodies 0 Static Equilibrium a system of particles is in static equilibrium when all the particles are at rest and the total force on each particle is permanently at zero Equilibrium vs Stability Shapebased Structural Types Vault o Kimball Art Museum I Ft Worth Louis Kahn Shell 0 St Mary Cathedral I San Francisco Pier Luigi Nervi Dome 0 San Carlo Alla Quatro Fontaine I Rome Borromini Folded Plate 0 Folded Plate Hut I Osaka Ryuichi Ashizawa Architects Space Frame 0 Pavilion I Singapore Biennale Shigeru Ban I Large open spaces with fewer supports Tension Membranes 0 Olympic Stadium Construction 1 Page 16 I Munich Gunther Behnisch I Compression members keep it in tension Pneumatic Membranes 0 Soccer Stadium I Munich Herzog and De Meuron I Airsupported Load Directions Vertical Loads How do forces working in the direction of gravity flow through the structure Horizontal Lateral Loads How do wind forces transfer to the foundation Case Studies NelsonAtkins Museum 0 Stephen Holl Kansas City MO Glowing blocks 0 Lack of evidence of structure Translucency thinness Modern Art Museum Tadao Ando Ft Worth TX 0 Interest in structure and material Restaurant in Kobe Franck Gehry Fish fetish DG Bank Building 0 Frank Gehry Berlin Visual interest in structure Construction 1 Page 17 Loads Thursday October 07 2010 Types of Loads Dead Load weight of the structure does not move or change Live Load changingmoving loads people furniture environmental forces etc Sendai Mediatheque interior Toyo Ito Structures Develop Responses to Stimuli Load Force externalinternal stimulus Reaction Force structural response to load 0 Structure transfers load to ground external reactions balance external loads to maintain static equilibrium 0 The design of the structure controls the responses to loads and determines the size and location of internal forces Free Body Diagram a graphic dematerialized symbolic representation of the body in which all connecting quotpiecesquot have been removed External and Internal Forces and Directions Tension vs Compression Moment force working through a distance Static Equilibrium Construction 1 Page 18 Structural Responses to Loads Tuesday October 12 2010 External vs Internal Forces 0 Location of the load determines the value of reactions 0 Scale of the members scale of the structure Freebody Diagrams Trigonometry Joint isolation Load paths Internal forces 0 Internal shear Internal tension and compression Lateral force and stability Changing Geometry gt Changing Reactions Stimulus load force Internal Response axial stress shear stress moment stress deflection External Response reaction force Case Studies House in Tokyo Kazuyo Sejima amp Associates 0 Central point loads with equidistant supports House in Mullheim Pfeifer Roser Kuhn Houston Steel Frame Building Canver beams slightly concave down so that when you load the structure they will be perfectly level Austin Convention Center Expansion 0 Page Southerland Page Construction 1 Page 19 Trusses Thursday October 21 2010 Trussed Beams 0 Matching structure shape to moment diagram shape to respond to loads 0 More effective depth with less material Requires lateral crossbracing perlins Trusses 0 Held together by geometry triangulation 0 Types 0 Triangle o Webjoist o Truss hybrid o Bowstring truss 0 Loading a ofthejoints helps avoid moment Thinking of nonstandard ways of using these structural ideas Case Studies Sheldonian Theater 0 Oxford Wren 1668 0 Analysis by David Billington 0 Method of joints solving of individual joints independently in freebody diagrams O Efficiency how much stress the load causes vs the maximum stress each member can resist Statue of Liberty Sculptor Bartholdi Engineer Koechlin 0 Adaptation ofa structural principleto a form St Mary Cathedral 0 Austin Nicholas Clayton 1872 0 Wooden truss framing and infill aesthetics Middle Ages Thorncrown apel FayJones w Construction 1 Page 20 Tod39s Construction 1 Page 21 Rigidity Tuesday October 26 2010 Questions How is lateral force distributed How does the design relate to internal loads Types of High Rise Structures 0 Tube Structures 0 Tubeintube structures Diagrid structures Trussed tubes Braided tubes Space trusses Megaframe structures How can you turn form into structure Towers Eiffel Tower 0 Paris Gustave Eiffel o Wrought iron 0 Four composite columns made of trusses I Transfer gravity and lateral loads frame braces itself symmetrical I Supported by stone piers at 45 degree angles gentle curve upward I Horizontal connections belts o Centering structures supported the platforms during construction 0 Triangulated in three dimensions Shukhov Radio Tower 0 Moscow 0 7 leinder of trusses and braces 5Q Hancock Tower 0 Chicago 0 Skinny residential tower on top of a fat office tower tapered 0 Structure responding to form responding to program 0 Crossbraced diagridtruss Construction 1 Page 22 Bank ofChina o M Pei 9 Threedimensional triangulated truss Sears Tower Willis Tower 0 Chicago 0 Braided tubes 9 square which stop at different heights 0 Asymmetrical form with symmetrical plan 0 Shanghai World Financial Tower 0 SOM o Symmetrical form tapers in two dimensions 0 Belt trusses Burj Dubai 0 SOM o Tallest ower now Case Studies 0 Filter Building 0 Maillart Construction 1 Page 23 0 CCTV Building 0 OMA o Formdriven structurally shocking o Diagrid cladding wraps around gridded tube 0 Continuity of forim is disrupted by the structure and becomes decorative Housing Block The Whale 0 Amsterdam Fritz van Dongen 0 Cellular nature transfers to columns Simmons Hall 0 MIT Stephen Ho 0 Concrete tubes interrupt grid I 395 9 0 Points ofdiscontinu WTquot 33 i l 5 0 Transparent structural roof covering multiple buildings 0 How does the diagrid bend How do forces move to the ground Construction 1 Page 24 7 4H3 0 Cloud Gate The Bean 0 Anish Kapoor Chicago The importance of concrete construction Construction 1 Page 25 Testing vs Analysis Thursday Odobel 28 2010 O nerway vs Tworway structu res Ri d Structures I Postamp beam I Frame I russ I LoadebearingwaHs I Piateampsia I Archround orpointed o Biock o Hinged2or3 o Fixed orrigid o Tied o Buttressed I Vauit O Foided piate o Cyiindricai I Hyperboi ic pa ra boioid Vaults I Romanesque vs Gothic 0 Reiiant on surface vs ribs I Groin Vauit o Rectangulareshaped open space 0 Produced by two intersecting vauits I Amiens Cathedrai 1288 B resses extend structurai depth 0 High verticai space out of masonry O Compiex system of ribs and vauits I KimbaiiArtMuseumKahn o Onerwaystructure o Oppo direction of de ection Domes I Monoiithic vs discrete pieces I Pantheon Rome 0 Concrete step ped dome supported by thick base 39 39 39 39 39 39ght o Ocuiusand quot quot Construction 1Page 26 Frenze Duomo Bruneiieschi 129671436 0 Two sheiis ribbing banding o Buiit without centerin I St Paui s Cathedrai London Wren O Doubie dome with trussed bracing 7 Internai buttressi Paazetto Deiia Sporte Rome Nervi 1957 Discontinuous dome heid by thrusting members 0 Trianguiation dome made of diamond shapes 0 Reinforced concrre Reichstag Foster 0 Steei ribs supporting spirai ramp r I 1967 Expo Paviiion Buckminster FuHer phere trianguiated in three dimensions 0 Least amount of materiai enciosingthe most amount of space Construction 1Page 27 M 39 5313 Cunstxumun 1 Page 28


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.