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by: Rebekah Christiansen


Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Geography > GRG 305 > THIS HUMAN WORLD INTRO TO GRG
Rebekah Christiansen
GPA 3.63


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This 242 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebekah Christiansen on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GRG 305 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/181647/grg-305-university-of-texas-at-austin in Geography at University of Texas at Austin.




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Date Created: 09/06/15
Agricultural ecology Cultural adaptation How weather and climate probably exert the greatest influence on different forms of agriculture Cultivation of frostsensitive crops is very expensive outsrde tropical areas Plantation agriculture thrives because it produces cash crops wanted by people in the middle latitudes where the crops cannot grow Market gardening in the southern and southwestern United States provides citrus fruits winter vegetables and other crops to the urban markets of the Northeast Agricultural ecology Cultural adaptation Need for abundant irrigation water confines paddy rice farming to its present limits in Asia Soils also play an important role in agricultural decisions Shifting cultivation reflects an adaptation to poor tropical soils The practice of peasant grain root and livestock agriculture is often successful because of the long lasting fertility of local volcanic soils Terrain influences agriculture because farmers tend to crop farm in level areas 75 55 33 Percenta e 0 mlal farrmand occupwe bycammema 9 farms 0 sun km 79 an 4a 2a Perczntag 01 land claxsmed as quotat a Agricultural ecology The subtle influence of farming in marginal areas Paddy rice farmers developed complex strategies to avert periodic famine because of unreliable rainfall which included many varieties of rice Farmers in Thailand rejected the Green Revolution because its methods were not appropriate for their marginal lands Example of West Africa Many crops are grown in the more humid lands near the coast Moving inland only a few droughtresistant basic crops are grown Agricultural ecology Many geographers believe we must cease imposing Western innovations on farmers in the lessdeveloped countries Traditional agriculture and resource management merit serious consideration We should stop assuming our innovations are superior to the old ways We have caused irretrievable loss of traditional farming knowledge Agricultural ecology Agriculturists as modifiers of the environment Started after the domestication of plants and animals Natural vegetation has been altered in a major way To the hunter and gatherer the forest harbored valuable wild plants and animals To the agriculturist woodlands had to be cleared to make fields As populations grew farmers expanded small patches of cleared land until these areas merged with other clearings Agricultural ecology Agriculturists as modifiers of the environment In parts of China India and the Mediterranean region forests vanished Forests were greatly reduced in trans Apine Europe and the United States A thousand year clearing of forests in central Europe Shifting cultivators in Africa s rain forests produce acid rain levels comparable to those of industrial areas through their slash and tun practices Humans as modi ers Forested Nonm restew 20039 ml J 6 300 km Agricultural ecology Desertification Grassland modifications Prairies gave way to plow Overgrazing caused severe damage First studied a halfcentury ago by Rhoads Murphey Assembled evidence farmers caused part of North Africa to be added to margins of Sahara Desert Deserti cation Risk Mnderate Severe Very severe III EDI mi El 1200 km FDRMER HGMAN AFRICA Agricultural ecology Desertification Rhodes noted catastrophic decline of countries such as Libya and Tunisia During Roman times served as granary of the Empire Yielded huge wheat harvests Many districts had substantially larger populations Steady decline in agricultural production Recent research centers on the Sahel region just south of Sahara Desert Deserti cation Risk Mnderate Severe Very severe III EDI mi El 1200 km FDRMER HGMAN AFRICA Agricultural ecology Desertification Destruction of land could pass a critical threshold Plant life could not regenerate Rainfall could be reduced Temperatures could increase Region could become permanentlyjoined to the adjacent Sahara Asia Australia the Americas and Europe may also have endangered districts Agricultural ecology Some scholars challenge the world s deserts are on the march Satellite imagery suggests since 1960 the SaharaSahel boundary has fluctuated as it always had Boundary responds to wetter and drier years Natural fluctuations need to be distinguished from actual soil degradation Agricultural ecology Solutions proposed by those who accept notions concerning desertification The Poppers proposed huge areas of the Great Plains be withdrawn from farming and ranching Poppers want to create a buffalo commons an expanse of restored natural grassland grazed by native animals Agricultural ecology Desertification and irrigation Benefits of ditch and canal irrigation often cause unintentional environmental destruction Can cause water table to rise waterlogging the soil and salinizing the ground In Pakistan the water table rose 10 to 30 feet adding 800 to 2000 pounds of salt per acre Agricultural ecology Well and pump irrigation has caused a lower water table in Texas Ancient springs have gone dry An early end to promising intensive agriculture is foreseen Other parts of the American Great Plains are also suffer from a lower water table caused by well and pump irrigation Agricultural ecology Irrigation caused desertification of the Aral Sea Caused by diversion of water from inflowing rivers Large areas of dry lake bed are now exposed Local fishing industry is destroyed Health problems have been caused by dust storms from the dry lake bed blowing chemicalladen dust onto nearby settlements Agricultural ecology Increasing contamination of the land by fertilizers and pesticides Used mainly by commercial farmers in Western cultures Chemical fertilizers first used in Germany in the middle 1800s Central Europeans still remain very dependent on chemicals today Chemicals diffused widely with the Green Revolution and neoplantations Along with the use of large machines chemicals allow drastic reductions in labor In some areas serious contamination problems have appeared Use of Artificial Fertilizers in Agriculture Shawn in kg per hectare 0f arable land 1 kg 39 Data nut available or 393 larger nmagnmltural 1 3 1 4 1 II nil 22 lbs 1 hectare 21x2 acres u Extreme de endence abnve 15D gperhecmre Heavy users 35 115 0 kg par hectare Dependent Til 35 kg per hectare Low users Delaw PD kg per he are Ell FAGFIE OCEI IM 121 n gt man 2am mi 0 1mm 2000 3000 m Scale at latitude 35 Flat P ular uartic equal area prnjectien 39 DE I if yPIICI39FJC DEAN Agricultural ecology Chemical dependency may be no more sustainable in agriculture than in the human body Sustainability the survival of a landuse system for centuries or millennia without destruction of the environmental base Agricultural ecology Environmental perception by agriculturists People perceive the physical environment through their culture Example of perception using the American Great Plains Farmers from the humid eastern United States underestimated problems of drought when they first moved to the plains In the 1960s older experienced farmers had the most accurate perception of drought but still underestimated its frequency German immigrants from the steppes of Russia and Ukraine accurately perceived the new land and experienced fewer problems A sudden rash of unusual weather can cause a change in environmental perception Cultural integration in agriculture Introduction A system of crop and livestock raising can become so firmly enmeshed in culture that society and religion are influenced Agricultural borders often parallel other cultural boundaries Many elements of agriculture roughly follow linguistic rather than a political boundary Cultural integration in agriculture Intensity of land use Great variation exists in the intensity of rural land use Intensive agriculture large amount of human labor capital or both is put into each acre of land to obtain the greatest output possible In much of the world high labor input creates the high intensity agricultural output Cultural integration in agriculture In Western societies high intensity is achieved by a high capital investment in machines fertilizers and pesticides resulting in the highest agricultural output found anywhere Increased landuse theories using the socialscientific method Population growth forces the need for additional food and reduces amount of land each farmer can have Population increase is accommodated Resulting farming system offers fewer options and has greater potential for environmental modification Population increases following innovations of greater landuse intensity The Von Th nen Model Profile Johann Heinrich von Th39Linen Economic determinists look to market forces and transportation costs using von Th39Linen s model Proposed an isolated state Had no trade connections to outside word and possessed only one centrally located market in the s ate Assumed all farmers living same distance from the market had equal access to it Model created to study influence of distance from market and transport cost influence on type and intensity of agriculture The Von Th nen Model Next slide presents a modified version of von ThUnen s model Improvements in transportation render some conclusions obsolete Intensity of cultivation declines with increasing distance from market Land values decrease farther from market Perishable products need to be produced near market The Von Th nen Model Central city thug market fur agricultural pmduce 1 zone of market gardens and feedlnts l 2 lune of dairying A Fluid milk 7 B Extensiva mainly pasturage 5 r El 3 lune of livestuck fattaning A Intensive cultivation of feed crops i B Extensive mainly pasturage l l 4 Zane of commercial grain farming l I 5 En rte of livestcuck ranching l I 6 Nunagricultural The Von Th nen Model Models are not meant to depict reality On a world scale we see intensive commercial types of agriculture tend to occur commonly near huge urban markets Even close match occurs in smaller areas Uruguay SA The value of von ThUnen s model can be seen in less developed countries Region centering on Ethiopia s capital city of Addis Ababa Similarities can be found in the farming patterns of colonial Mexico during the period of Spanish rule As Predicted by the Modified van Thijnen MUdEii an quotE ARGENTINA 55 525 El El 4D Hm ll mi 1 if an Hm EMZII Actuali Types of Agriculture 39 v 5639 55 51 Ln 539 AH EN39i INA Eli ii Market gardening u i Dairying Iquot if Commerciai Divesth grain framing W L ran ch in g Cultural integration in agriculture Can the world be fed Today we face a paradox Some 850 million people are malnourished Famines usually occur in one African Country or another each year Food production has grown more rapidly than population over the past 30 or 40 years Per capita basis food is more available than in 1950 when the population was about half of today s Fund Pruductian Pupulatinn 1 951 mm 350 3D 250 103 1IIliiliillIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIlllllllllili 50 1951 55 69 55 U 5 ED 35 9G 95 Cultural integration in agriculture Poverty not food shortage causes hunger Developing nations Do not grow enough food for their people Do not have the money to buy enough imported food Cultural integration in agriculture Lack of an infrastructure in developing countries Poor transportation prevents food given by wealthy countries to distributed Political instability can disrupt food shipments Donated food often falls into hands of corrupt local officials Famine is mainly a cultural phenomenon Immediate causes could be environmental Failure to relive hunger has a cultural explanation Agricultural landscape Survey cadastral and field patterns Cadastra pattern one describing propertyownership lines Field pattern reflects the way a farmer subdivides land for agricultural use Survey patterns lines laid out by surveyors prior to the settlement of an area Regional contrasts exist in all three patterns Unitblock versus fragmented landholding Regular geometric survey versus irregular or unsurveyed property lines Agricultural landscape In the Eastern Hemisphere fragmented farms are the rule Farmers live in farm villages or hamlets Fields are situated at varying distances and directions from the settlement One farm can consist of one hundred or more separate parcels of land In Asia and southern Europe individual plots may be roughly rectangular Narrow strips are most common in Western and central Europe Buildings Df the villagE Hald ings of me farmer I Garden vineyards and orcharda Agricultural landscape Fragmented farm systems go back to an early period of peasant communalism Unitblock farms all the farmer s property is contained in a single contiguous piece of land Occur mainly in the Americas Australia New Zealand and South Africa In the United States the checkerboard pattern of farms and fields is a good example of the cadastral pattern Original Survay Linea Pmperty Linmr Abnm 1955 Field and W39mdlot Binders Thus that fallmw miginal wrvey A mm 1955 lines are shown by thicker ivea US RECTANGULAR SURVE r39J HANCOCK AND HARDIN COUNTIES Ci HIUI METES AND EOLJNDS SURVEY UNION AND PctMDI39SDN COUNTIESi OHIO Agricultural landscape The American rectangular survey system appeared after the Revolutionary War Imposed a rigid square pattern on much of the American countryside Sectiona one square mile piece of land containing 640 acres Township a six square mile parcel of land Serve as political administrative subdistrict within coun es Roads follow section and township lines Canada adopted a similar rectangular survey system which is very evident in the Prairie Provinces Agricultural landscape Longlot farms A landholding consisting of a long narrow unitblock stretching back from a road river or canal Lie grouped in rows allowing the cadastral survey pattern to dominate entire districts Long lot farms Occur in the hills and marshes of central and Western Europe parts of Brazil Argentina along rivers of Frenchsettled Quebec southern Louisiana and parts of Texas and northern New Mexico Used to provide farmers access to transportation facilities In French America water transport provided movement during colonial times In hill lands of central Europe roads along valley floor provided transportation Agricultural landscape Metes and bounds surveying Makes use of natural features such as trees boulders and streams Farms are more irregular in outline It is very visible where the two survey systems meet Original Survay Linea Pmperty Linmr Abnm 1955 Field and W39mdlot Binders Thus that fallmw miginal wrvey A mm 1955 lines are shown by thicker ivea US RECTANGULAR SURVE r39J HANCOCK AND HARDIN COUNTIES Ci HIUI METES AND EOLJNDS SURVEY UNION AND PctMDI39SDN COUNTIESi OHIO Agricultural landscape In Eurasia changes made in cadastral and field patterns during the last several centuries have consolidated holdings into less fragmented farms ChunkEm CountyMayo gt BEFORE CDNSDMDA39ITIUEN I if d F jll Land hc ldings H Buildings Fannsteads 1 W0 21m 30039 a 39 39 39 m M Ema meters sampl farmers Pmperty Fines Agricultural landscape What humanistic geographers might read from survey and cadastral patterns Example of Canada prairie province road building practices Roads along section lines do not go around sloughs low wet places often filled with water they will go right through them May indicate a disregard for the natural habitat North American culture seeks through technology to conquer and ovenNhelm nature rather than live in harmony with it Agricultural landscape Cultural determinist might ask different questions Agricultural landscape Fencing and hedging Different cultures have their own methods and ways of enclosing land Fences across the world consist of diverse substances New England western Ireland and the Yucatan use mile after mile of stone fencing that typify the landscape Barbed wire swept across the American countryside a century ago In Appalachia traditional splitrail zigzag fence of pioneer times survives here and there Fence types can serve as indicators of cultural diffusion Agricultural landscape Hedges are living fences Mazelike hedgerow country can be found in Brittany Normandy in France and large areas of Great Britain and Ireland In hedgerow country one experiences a unique feeling of confinement Conclusions Forms of agricultural vary from place to place Patterns expressed as agricultural regions Range from traditional to highly mechanized All diverse systems rooted in ancient innovations of plant and animal domestication Diffused from multiple points of origin New innovations arose and diffused by expansion and relocation 11 H 7 mc l fmi f f e 439h aquot 1 IE A g IE 1quot ECE 39 ar J 1 7 I ll 393 Hui 1 a ii a I Eula alfn5j IL Fquot 1 I Itquot um I I I 395 I g rmarg i 3951 Qg II quot HF I 7 739 1 b m if 7 V V F v 7 j H w In 7 J In IEI I i 39 9 l L I u I I I T 7 1 I H E a Differences between popular and folk culture 9 Popular culture Consists of large masses of people who conform to and prescribe to everchanging norms Large heterogeneous groups Often highly individualistic and groups are cnstantly changing Pronounced division f Iaor lead i n t l i nt f pi a l i ze p rfei n i a n t k h l a f i i d f i i i r Differences between popular and folk culture 9 Popular culture Money based economy prevails Replacing folk culture in industrialized countries and many developing nations Folkmade objects give way to their popular equivalent Ite m i m re q u ikl or hea I produce Easier r tin to Differences between popular and folk culture 9 Folk culture Made up of people who maintain the traditional Describes people who live in an oldfashioned waysimpler lifestyle Rural cohesive conservative largely self sufficient group homogeneous in custom Stro n fa mily or clan structure and highly devel ped ritu a Is Tra iti i pa ra o u nt h a e Differences between popular and folk culture 9 Folk culture oLittle specialization in labor though duties may vary between genders oSubsistence economy prevails oIndividualism and social classes are weakly developed 9 In parts f the lessdeveloped worl folk cultures rmai n mon oInustrialize ntries lnr hve U 2 r f I k ijU 61 Differences between popular and folk culture 9 Folk culture oThe Amish in the United States Perhaps the nearest modem equivalent in Anglo America GermanAmerican farming sect Largely renounces products and laborsaving devices of the industrial age Horsedrawn buggies still use and faithful own no a r a pplinces Central religion cncet f em ut humilit reflects aes of i ndii du a ism social a Ra re rr e t h i r ll Differences between popular and folk culture 9 Folk culture oTypically bearers of folk culture combine folk and nonfolk elements in their lives 9 Includes both material and nonmaterial elements Material culture includes all objects or things made and used by members of a cultural group material elements are visible Nomnateria culture incluing folklore can be defined as oral including the wide range of tales songs lore be I i efs 1 perstitir and custo Other nlonmate rial culture inclue ialects rmligi a n a rl o v h e u tin i p ti al l m n ife Culture Regions 9 Folk Culture Regions 9 Folk Cultural Diffusion o Folk Ecology oCultural Integration in Folk Geography F k Landscapes Material folk culture regions oVestiges of material folk culture remain in various parts of the United States and Canada 9 Material artifacts of 15 culture regions in North America survive in some abundance thu h they are in e n e r e i n e 1 7 7 Emu If ix V I n 17 In a u M A 1 suf x w s 4 1 39 pi h i Lg 7 E i n Jim x 77quot a L d E E gruig i 39I I 531 lg lg g quoth a LJ tlEI Fremh adia Fremh I Ll piper Canaldim j Fernn gphania Upland saumem M3 igarjl 39 7quot Hihland Higpanin H 39 Illle r 539 c a M rr39ugn F I M Lllf39ltEli WE39EIE39FH Africa u nerimn H rthern F l39E39St Hastier merimn EDUII EWESIEI H Hatfa39e i e rzan Flii ai r12 marlJ1 Ukrainian Material folk culture regions 9 Each region possesses many distinctive items of material culture Germanized Pennsylvanian folk region has an unusual SwissGerman type of barn Yankee folk region trd ition a graveston art with winge death h s n tta h e t t h e f h lea 4 Material folk culture regions 9 Each region possesses many distinctive items of material culture Upland South region notchedlog construction used in building a variety of distinctive house types such as the dogtrot 7 84 7 gig Eliams 1i h xll quotvi41 39 mlm m x I L IJMEIJI39 a nlilld llwir quot J 51 4 I Material folk culture regions 9 Each region possesses many distinctive items of material culture AfricanAmerican folk region scraped earth cemetery banjo that originated in Africa and head scarfs worn by women IJU I I H v gtl i h m In a D E fl quot n v 7 5m 7 4 3n 39 r 7 w g i L I 7i M E i E F Egg Material folk culture regions 9 Each region possesses many distinctive items of material culture Quebec French folk regiongrist windmills with stone towers and a bowling game played with small metal a ls Mormon folk culture distinctive hay derricks an ri i r n fa rml villa e t rn i h i n f l ri n I if o Petanque a bowling game Iaye ith eta ID i ffu t amada m mm Wmh 39 7 K x J IJ I a a x41 x e e y ml A n E 39I m 39 39JL m 5quot m a W A FE Folk food regions oTraditional foods of folk cultures probably endure longer than any other trait o In Latin America folk cultures remain vivid with diverse culinary tl a it i O n S iummm 1 NM 395 E I ma Egmma39m gm 5 39i 39f L III 553339 Ii mi E ii Willi El i Fm i Folk food regions 9 Mexico abundant use of chili peppers in cooking and maize for tortillas 9 Caribbean areas combined ricebean dishes and various rum drinks 9 Amazonian region monkey and caiman 0 Brazil cuscuz cooked grain and sugarcane brandy Pa is style ca m e asad a ra sted 3 beef I e I a n rb a m te hrbl t P i fic c a sta re e nj n u I Folk food regions 9 Latin American foods derive from Amerindians Africans Spaniards and Portuguese 9 Pattern of Latin American is not simple and culinary regions are not as hmoeneous as the map we saw S U g 5125 iummm 1 NM 395 E I ma Egmma39m gm 5 39i 39f L III 553339 Ii mi E ii Willi El i Fm i Folklore regions 9 Displays regional contrasts in much the same way as material folk culture 0 Folk geographers consider diverse nonmaterial phenomena as folktales dance music myths legends and proverbs Most thoroughly studied in Europe Fi rch a pea re a rly in the ninteenth e n m r a b u t n i h f I l u r i I f Fl l C SEE km SE I39Tili Pm m i i at mer u M I i if the 39F r i39it r h rr nit Ehul fl i EhEIp l EHquot 39TIIZlFI EIE39l39jy E Eabbage m pumpkin H l w tI39EE Dr lug 5mm r u L m Folklore regions 9 Four cultural folksong regions of North America as recognized by Alan Lomax Northern tradition Unaccompanied solo singing in hard Open voiced clear tones 9a sed on British allad Folklore regions 9 Four cultural folksong regions of North America as recognized by Alan Lomax Southern tradition oUnison singin is rare oSolo hihpitched and nasal bi ne Eng l in a n Scotch I ri sh el e e 9 al a re u i It ri n i s nt th n h f h rth Folklore regions 9 Four cultural folksong regions of North America as recognized by Alan Lomax Western stylesimply a blend of the Southern and Northern traditions AfricanAmerican tradition Contains both African and British elements Polyrhythmic songs of labor and worship with instrumental a ccom pa n i me nt Ch rus ru sing i n cla pi ng b swaying a n r i ng o E h tr i t i gt n h i ti n cti i e I tru ttI f Culture Regions 9 Folk Culture Regions 9 Folk Cultural Diffusion o Folk Ecology oCultural Integration in Folk Geography F k Landscapes Folk cultural diffusion o Diffuses by the same methods as other cultural elements but more slowly oWeakly developed social stratification tends to retard hierarchical diffusion o Inherent c nservatism produces resistance t c h a g e E sse n ti a i ffe re n Io et n fl k a n t U I 39 gt i l i C h Netherlands 0 The town of Bu nschoten Spakensburg is one of several in the Netherlands retainin lemnts fr fl k rl m l f r E 39 a A r k A xx x x f F x x I an E relha an expert l l e n m h e r Folk cultural diffusion 9 Folk songs Slow progress of expansion diffusion in Anglo America religious folk songs in the United States 0 Eighteenth century core area based mainly in Yankee Puritan folk culture 9 White spiritual sons spread southwest into the Uplan South 9 Toay ret in reatest accept in pland u th 0 Disapparance from nwrthern sou reg ion ma boause of urbnizatin and ppulrization culture in th Emma area 1 F534 5 1 i iE E If i ur rer39ite 1EIE i Area Elf ri ursren a 1331 19i mg m 11 195 a Hisman Emmi g I my 4EJMH k d 5 ll II J i an i 1 2m 33 mm L Folk cultural diffusion 9 Folk songs Simple folk melodies of the spirituals diffused by means of outdoor revivals and campmeetings NonEnglishspeaking people and non protestants were little influenced by spiritual movement o Lang uae nd rel i ion prove absorbing ba rri iffux Fr n h i n s n L u i i Fre h I re n ff site in ml n Agricultural fairs o Originated in the Yankee region spread west and southwest by expansion diffusion 0A custom rooted in medieval European folk tradition 9 First American agricultural fair was held in Pittsfiel Massachusetts in 110 Idea gained favor thru hout Enla n an ajcent Hu I Iy ifo se i m tit i a i h r i t a i n i 5 I avg I i i l I l i ial I m i I a a I i I In i Firat agricultural faff it l ld Mag 1E1I 139 Faim I393 I 13233 a fairs 339quot 1355 New fairg by 1913 39 EliI 39 milI lam i 1151 Em mi 1391 Agricultural fairs o Originated in the Yankee region spread west and southwest by expansion diffusion 0A custom rooted in medieval European folk tradition 9 First American agricultural fair was held in Pittsfiel Massachusetts in 110 Idea gained favor thru hout Enla n an ajcent Hu I Iy ifo se i m tit i a i h r i t a i n i 5 I avg I i i l I l i ial I m i I a a I i I In i Firat agricultural faff it l ld Mag 1E1I 139 Faim I393 I 13233 a fairs 339quot 1355 New fairg by 1913 39 EliI 39 milI lam i 1151 Em mi 1391 Agricultural fairs 9 Normally promoted by agricultural societies Originally educational in purpose Farmers could learn about improved methods and breeds Entertainment function added racetrack and petiti fr pri for peri r a riltu r p r u t h rl t ti t h n t u r fa i h i i ftu t h h gt f t h U i te if i Hay stackers 9 Mountain Western American folk culture produced innovations o Bea verside hay stacker Originated in 1907 in Montana s Big Hole Valley ecau f recent rig in kn re a but its i ffu i n e 3 feet t e n st ru ctu r u t i h r t t h m t f c k m z I a A l x l l x I H HIK H x J A I39M u E W flellllil l vu Illl n x H a 1 y K ax I g x F T N Elr IU 1i gigF qu 111 FE w w r 13 e E Hay stackers o Bea verside hay stacker Employed horsepower to pull a basket up an inclined surface Use spread to at least eight nearby states and into three Canadian p rvi n Hill I I 32 J4EE l EDD W 4W mi l Flam Elf migin 1 Q a FiEld nbaewat n f NEEEVEFEIIHEH hay staqtkgrg Blowguns o Often past diffusion of a folk culture item is not clearly known or understood which presents problems of interpretation 0 Example of the blowgun long hollow tube through which a projectile is blown by force of breath o Geographer Ste hen Jett maped i stri bu ti n of b wgun a u n a m on f l k societi i n ot h the Earn a n Cl e rn H e m i p h e re Use frm the i sl a n f a a sca r j I J les f uth n 1 a Ih39quot If a 1m Entin LILI5 IEHIIEIJFI39EFiEE v Imlatad mm France Ii F El Will F39Eilll n39ii mun F39El EIiETi Icrn Scale at latitude 35 HEN IEF aming Equal area pr i izti uf wl Elli f I n I n r 1 W m g I m 7 7 In x i m I I 7 I I E T i i I W a am a l I 7 A 39 39 D J IX u m n I 1 TI TI 4 I a U i a m m I n u V I III aquot i I quotM H l m g a LI I H I gr 3 Lquot I m I l DH n39 nu I m l I I L n W E a l r A 7 UK I I 1 Ian 7 g A I 7 I I 7 u n n I s I k a I gt a gt I E E u E 7 I I r r A a ll 7 I H L IT l V r quot7 395 m1 7 I ll F 3 V Iquot a 2 EH 2 El m M N My h KI j Cl I 7 I k A 7 A I J l E H71 2 H E E a H I a a n I 7 1 L a g a 7 m U W L E J aft 7 L I I V I 3 E i U a a L n r E L H E a w 7 g E B E r I m l a a J m J31 V W I u In 1 m ml 1 D g E H U 7 u H P g 7 7 L a m E gt E gt r Iquot H 7 7w a ii a E a J l 7 E M m a E E 7 a g g D Ia U n g I Q g 3 N namp W n H 3 g a a Lquot E 1 M E V D an 39 n5 Blowguns o Apparently first invented by Indonesian people on the island of Borneo o Diffused with the Austronesian linguistic group 0 Spread through much of the equatorial island belt of Eastern Hemisphere o Hard to account for its presence among Amerindian groups in Western Hemisphre it indepenently invented by Am eri nians i it brug ht by relcatio n diffu in pre Co lu mia n i it real t 4encaa to a b l u i after Eu ro ea n f African Stone Game Malawi 5 jquot o T h e s e m e n a re playing a game commonly known as mancala A FCh a 80 I 0 g i ca I i n h t h t t h 9 e s a in 1 Equot Equot I quot quotr39 L 1 f quotquot C J u 7 quot K x 1 Xv 9791 39 LV i j 7 39 LV 4quot E 1 7 d a W M 73 X 7 x A r V 1 l X Illaquot n I J quot if 2 I g E e x K I 1quot P x lj If 7 x z African Stone Game Malawi o The 200 million years ago existence of Pangaea a single landmass that s u bseq ue ntly broke a Pi rt with cntinental rift I hit iquot i ix f th I i ti r i p i Blowguns o Nonliterate condition of many folk cultures precludes written records that might reveal diffusion o Jett favors transpacific diffusion from Indonesia before the time of Columbus You must explain why it is not found in the South Pacific islans an Africa If you 313th inpennt i Y t id i I d i s n Blowguns 9 Independent invention is always possible 9 Carl Sauer s proposal that plant domestication occurred independently in both hemispheres helped free cultural geographers from deterministic view that each invention ha a single origin If e or ore nnfunctina features of bl u ns uh a a de orative mtif u r i n t h h e i p h e r iffu i n frr Cl 8 t h r i n Culture Regions 9 Folk Culture Regions 9 Folk Cultural Diffusion 9 Folk Ecology oCultural Integration in Folk Geography F k Landscapes Folk ecology o Folk group s close relationship with the physical environment Adaptive strategies possess sustainability Livelihood gained directly through primary activities farming herding hu nti n atheri n an fiSh i n La ear bu lari re u i re t i t th h a i ta t h r l ta i te r i Folk ecology 9 Folk tales honor great hunters o Proverbs offer wisdom concerning weather and proper time for planting 9 Architecture reflects local building materials and climate One is tempted to con c ue fol kways exist t fai ita t t h a j ustent t phy i a i t 39 t e i s t h l t h t ILi F lliE el l rn l nut Alpine EIIZIHE Eva itquot wi ltHl a IEJ E39IE LiIIEEJEI l4 l Fi aws F39if39iiE E litF11 m a m quot rmly H ab s q Egg whatI 2 l 51 m ll l 39lFJE39FF39i l39l ring MW quot u E 39iquotE 5H leima 1 E39sFf rr39i DIE5th Earma Lina Palisades EmW tlintm I inf ia ia39all Zr mtniuiiilm Folk ecology o Folkways involve more than merely cultural adaptation A variety of folk cultures can exist in any particular ecosystem They are not enslaved and wholly shaped by their physical surroundings Not necessarily true that they live in close hrmony ith their environent fte i i n d f re tt i n l n d rllti o It 39 n i ttri u te ti tr i H 7 I F F I I I Geophagy o Defined the eating of earth 9 Most common in parts of Africa and in the American South among Americans of African ancestry Certain kinds of clay are the preferred earth for eati n g Geophagy o In African source regions clays are consumed for a variety of reasons As a treatment for certain diseases and parastes Provides nutrients for pregnant women and growing children Consumed as pa rt of rel iious ceremonies I n t h l fri n A ri n f r ion f t h e u t h stl i i n I e h a n in a k a i r t h i f ti Ewphag by Gwphamr am Hegm w a g v w h m 39 phagjf Tram Mm far EEFWQF 13955 Ef k if Farizgitir Magma5 SWWDE quotE H E39 l h 11 3312 W K b F 1 1 w r 39 quot a it NL If V 5 a x Folk medicine oCommon to treat diseases and disorders with drugs and medicines derived from the root bark blossom or fruit of plants In the United States folk medicine is best preserve i n the U p la n South 9 Pa rti r southern Apa Iah ia In i n 9 Th i n r rl a n Folk medicine 9 Many folk cures have proven effectiveness o Root digging in the Appalachians Much of the produce is now funneled to dealers who serve a larger market emain at heart a fl enterprise rri n i n th 0 ay e i th t iti n th rv h f t h t K 39 t Folk medicine 9 Mexican folk culture region along the southern border of Texas Still widely practiced by curanderos or cu rers Over four hundred medicines derived from wild and mestic plants P rt u tes a tra itin rt i n i te nth nt r I n i n a n i h JGUFCE Folk medicine 9 Local folk medicine along the Texas southern border is based on the belief health and welfare depend on harmony between natural and supernatural Disease and misfortune thought to involve some disharmony The curandero strives to restore harmony by use of counseling and botanical medicines In recent years fe people have sought herbal reeies fr i nfectio sprai n or brken b n es Cura ers n tret mr r ia nd hy 6i n a n efre In to chane cu r nros have ecrme i l ti i Traditional healers in Africa use an arra 0 environmental products for rituals and curatives Various roots seeds and horns as well as skins from endangered animals can be seen in this healer s hut o In frican culture traditinal medical practitioners are cnsidere influent a b reputa ion on knowledge of biotica some laim supernatural diagnostic and healing powers and others re witch doctors abl to i terept or eorcis evil pirits Environmental perception oWhen folk culture groups or individuals migrate they seek environments similar to their own homelands oThey fu nctin best in similar e nvi r n m ents beca use the I re of the n a e n r ates t n p rt i C U I a I t rt m 539 h f if Li if 2358 fr I l I U 5 1E m i g I to ElliIIIID A thi n plane Df ur iin m families r n i i duali migrating m the Up uwiitz Emir Sattl mant ar m rl Ampala hian hill l lIa r1 Waihngmn Hale V quot u h I q i if 39EI w Iquot 4 1H ullllmmm quot TWMEEEEE a r EMDWFM A II39quot A r y 7 ll 391 gt I my I a u a a a A MA a Environmental perception 9 Migration of Upland Southerners from Appalachia between 1830 and 1930 Moved as Appalachians filled up Normally moved in clan or extendedfamily groups Initially found environmental twin of Apalachians in the OzarkOuachita Mountains Of iSSOuri an Arkansas Later he ug ht hi I I a P if h e n r 39Iie H i ll u n r 1 1 1 i th nta i Environmental perception 9 People so close to nature remain sensitive to subtle environmental quaHUes o Planting by the signs is still found among folk farmers in the United States a n e se h e re Environmental perception 9 Folk groups are much more observant of their ecosystems than those in popular cu ture Folk groups strive for harmony with nature though they do not always achieve it Often ascribe animistic religious sanctity to w environmental forces and particular parts of their habitat Many peple tdy lament th loss f a e n t n atu re 9 n t h e e s f tu i st i t i I p I t r a I b se I t t h r f t rI f t r I l I n r Culture regions 0 Ethnic regions 0 Cultural diffusion and ethnicity 0 Ethnic ecology 0 Ethnic cultural integration 0 Ethnic landscapes Migration and ethnicity 0 Chain migration is usually involved An individual or small group decides to migrate to a foreign country These innovators are natural leaders who influence others especially family and friends to migrate with them Word spreads to nearby communities starting a sizable migration from a small district All gather in a comparably small area or neighborhood in the destination country Birthplace m HI immigrants tn Brunswick Mainej 13801900 Birthplace D I DI39IE immigrant tn Watemille Maine 1 SEQ 1925 If l Brunswi gquot 1 3 Yr n mmnwr J I l 6quot dr i l Iil r I l I AIMNTi39C 00 I HL w HIMPEHLHE f quot 5 lr l39 39 quot3951 ll I K I r I K k Mk jgquot ILA Communlty sendlng J u an 9 Jag earliest emigrants 39 quotx1 70 h 39 13am 353 I1 7quot quot xl I 7 i a 1 3 II a Ermgratngn began I an 6 W 1 1364 136 quotf x a vh 5 39 Ira o Emigration began 1363 a u t x i 10 mi 339 W 21 Emigration began 391 I1 km xquot Ixquot 39 quot393 39 1359 1875 quotMax 39139 I is o I I II I A 62 quot gk 039 IIIII I Iquot 1quot i J H J x i ll H quotI xj N r O u 39 I x 53 1I on a fJ a i I 39 I39 l Migration and ethnicity 0 Chain migration is usually involved The first to opt for emigration often rank high in the social order as hierarchical diffusion comes into play The decision to migrate spreads by both hierarchical and contagious diffusion Actual migration represents relocation diffusion Migration and ethnicity 0 Chain migration is usually involved Chain migration continues as migrants write letters back home extolling the virtues of their new life and imploring others to join them Letters written from the United States became known as America letters Migration and ethnicity 0 Chain migration caused movement of people to become channeized Linked a specific source region to a particular destination Neighbors in the old country became neighbors in the new country It started three centuries ago and still operates today Example of the recent mass migration of Latin Americans to AngloAmerica Different parts of the Southwest draw upon different source regions in Mexico South Texas Major SDLLII39CES Secundlary sourcas Southern Califurnia Major sources I Secondary sources Municipalities with unusually high per tapiba emigration rate Migration and ethnicity o Involuntary migration contributes to ethnic diffusion and formation of ethnic culture regions in the United States Refugees from Cambodia and Vietnam immigrated Guatemalans and Salvadorans fled political repression in Central America Forced migrations often result from policies of ethnic cleansingquot countries expel minorities to produce cultural homogeneity in their populations Newly independent country of Croatia has systematically expelled its Serb minority ethnic cleansing Migration and ethnicity Following forced migration relocated groups often engage in voluntary migration to concentrate in some new locality 0 Cuban political refugees scattered widely in the 19605 then reassembled in South Florida 0 Vietnamese continue to gather in southern California and Texas 0 Return migration involves the voluntary move of a group back to their ancestral native country or homeland Migration and ethnicity o Largescale channelized return migration of AfricanAmericans to their Black Belt ethnic homeland in the South has occurred since 1975 Over twothirds of the migrants follow well worn paths back to homeplaces or other locations where relatives have settled Seven percent of blacks in Los Angeles County California moved away between 1985 and 1990 Many went to the American South By the year 2000 the dominantlyblackSouth Central district of Los Angeles became largely Hispanic Migration and ethnicity 0 Many of the about 200000 expatriate Estonians Latvians and Lithuanians left Russia and former Soviet republics to return to newly independent Baltic home countries in the 19905 losing their ethnic status in the process Simplification and isolation o In theory migrant groups that become ethnic in a new land could introduce by relocation diffusion the totality of their culture 0 Instead of introducing their total culture overseas a cultural simpli cation occurs Happens in part because of chain migration Only areal fragments of a culture diffuse overseas Some simplification occurs at the point of departure Simplification and isolation 0 Instead of introducing their total culture overseas a cultural simpli cation occurs Only selected traits are successfully introduced Other traits undergo modification before becoming established in the new homeland Absorbing barriers prevent the diffusion of many traits Permeable barriers cause changes in many other traits simplifying the migrant culture Simplification and isolation 0 Instead of introducing their total culture overseas a cultural simpli cation occurs Choices that did not exist in the old home become available They can borrow alien ways or modify them from groups they encounter They can invent new techniques better suited to the adopted place Most ethnic groups resort to all these devices in varying degrees Simplification and isolation o If remote how an ethnic group s new home affects their culture Diffusion of traits from the Old World is more likely Rare contact with alien groups allow for little borrowing of traits Allows preservation in archaic form of cultural elements that disappear from their ancestral country Simplification and isolation o If remote how an ethnic group s new home affects their culture Language and dialects offer examples of preservation of the archaic o Germans living in ethnic islands in the Balkan region preserve archaic South German dialects better than in Germany 0 Some medieval elements of Spanish are still spoken in the Hispano homeland of New Mexico 0 Irish Catholic settlers in Newfoundland retain far more of their traditional Celtic culture than did fellow Irish who colonized Ontario Culture regions 0 Ethnic regions 0 Cultural diffusion and ethnicity 0 Ethnic ecoloqv 0 Ethnic cultural integration 0 Ethnic landscapes Cultural preadaptation 0 Defined involves a complex of adaptive traits possessed by a group in advance of migration that gives them the ability to survive and a competitive advantage in colonizing a new environment 0 Most often results from groups migrating to a place environmentally similar to the one they left 0 Results in what Zelinsky called the first effective settlement allowing them to perpetuate much of their culture Cultural preadaptation o In most cases the immigrants chose a colonization area physically resembling their former home 0 Examples in the state of Wisconsin Finns from a cold thinsoiled glaciated lakestudded coniferous forest zone settled the North Woods Icelanders from a bleak remote island in the North Atlantic located their only Wisconsin colony on Washington Island an isolated outpost surrounded by Lake Michigan a Madison v Milwaukee La f Harder nf the lead mining district Cultural preadaptation 0 Examples in the state of Wisconsin The English used to good farmland generally founded ethnic islands in the better agricultural districts of southern and southwestern Wisconsin Cornish miner from the Celtic highland of western Great Britain sought out leadmining communities in the southwestern part of the state Cultural preadaptation 0 Wheat growing RussianGermans from open steppe grasslands of south Russia Settled the prairies of the Great Plains Established wheat farms like those of their east European source area Used varieties of grain brought from their semiarid homeland o Ukrainians in Canada chose the aspen belt Mixture of prairie marsh and scrub forest Manitoba Saskatchewan and Alberta because it resembled their former European home Cultural preadaptation 0 Ethnic niche filling has continued to present day Cuban in southernmost Florida because it has a tropical savanna climate identical climate to that in Cuba Vietnamese settled as fishers on the Gulf of Mexico especially in Texas Ethnic environmental perception 0 Some immigrant groups had an accurate environmental perception of the new land 0 Generally immigrants perceived the new ecosystem to be more like their old home than it actually was Perhaps the search for similarity resulted from homesickness May have resulted from an unwillingness to admit migration brought them to an alien land Maybe growing to adulthood in a particular kind of physical environment retards one s ability to accurately perceive a different ecosystem Ethnic environmental perception o Distorted perception occasionally caused problems for ethnic farming groups Trial and error was often necessary to come to terms with New World environment If economic disaster resulted and the ethnic island had to be abandoned maladaptation is said to have occurred Ethnic environmental perception 0 Examples of groups who picked rural settlement sites different from the homeland Germans and Czechs consistently chose the best farmland Findings of geographer Russel Gerlach who researched German communities in the Ozarks o Appalachian southern settlers chose easyto work sandy and bottom land soil Ethnic environmental perception Findings of geographer Russell Gerlach who researched German communities in the Ozarks o Germans often chose superior soils that were harder to work 0 In Lawrence County Missouri Germans were latecomers but still obtained the best land by picking darksoiled prairie land avoided by earlier AngloAmerican settlers o A map showing the distribution of Germans can also be a map of the better soils in the region Ethnic environmental perception Ability to select choice soils can be detected among Czechs in Texas oTexas has the largest rural population of Czechs in the United States 0 Czech farming communities are concentrated in tallgrass prairie regions underlain by dark fertile soils 0 AngloTexans tended to avoid open prairies as farming sites 39Tallgrass prairie areas Czech farm settlement Map area o f detail Ecology of ethnic survival 0 Many groups become ethnic only when their ancestral home districts are conquered and surrounded by invading people Examples American Indians Australian Aborigines and Scandinavian Sami Owe their survival to an adaptive strategy that allows occupancy of a difficult physical environment where invaders proved maladapted Ecology of ethnic survival 0 Distribution of Indian groups in Latin America Indian population clustered in mountainous areas many above 10000 foot elevation European invaders never adjusted well to high altitudes 0 Many other factors are involved in the differential survival of American Indians 0 Terrain climate and indigenous adaptive strategy play a role in survival fr Percentage 0i pupulatian 34 that is Indianr by country Areas of greatest Indian survival Culture regions 0 Ethnic regions 0 Cultural diffusion and ethnicity 0 Ethnic ecology 0 Ethnic cultural inteoration 0 Ethnic landscapes Introduction 0 Ethnicity is firmly integrated into the fabric of culture 0 One aspect of culture acts on and is acted on by all other aspects 0 Integration never happens exactly the same way in any two groups that results in an unique ethnic distinctiveness Introduction 0 Ethnicity plays a role in determining role in many facets of cultural integration What the people eat religious faith practiced how they vote Also influenced is whom they marry how they earn a living and ways they spend leisure time Ethnoburbs influence spatial distribution of diverse cultural phenomena Mil 51 a J mum 1 Mn HH39I39 N 139 T I H 11quot i quottic n i 92 n5 in cununtjlr popula vK quoti I k iquot l 39 ij L I 39 I r significantly higher I L Incidence of malt stomach cancc than national average by ctzuntr Introduction o Geographer Hansgeorg Schlichtmann s views Speaks of economic performance meaning level of success in making a living and accumulating wealth Ethnic groups exhibit contrasts in economic orientation Ethnicity and business activity 0 Differential ethnic preferences give rise to distinct patterns of purchasing goods and services 0 These differences are reflected in the business types and services offered in different ethnic neighborhoods of a city 0 Keith Harries made a detailed study of businesses in the Los Angeles urban area comparing three different ethnic neighborhoods quotAn I N V quotSouthquot area quotEastquot area 90 area AfricanAnmrican Mexican Anwican meessiuna Erma unal sewiuts Emmam3 sm ces rquot J quot Permrrafl mam 39 39 39quot owe newquot anml SENJCH Penuml 39 services 6 39 39 Othew retail quot Eli Drink Either retail 39 396 gt Eat Drink a 39 M 5E EatiD39mimk 39 F 39 5 5 z Vaan 39 39 Anna 15quot mm mm 39 quot Wm 51 a li J ggar nar al ew Vamrmt Each bracket on the scale 10 0f all businesses In Vacant Fnad stares IFum it appli A WWquot 39 lulppam1 quot3939 Fund quot Fond stores r stones Repair sew Repair sew it quot 39 m Omar 0mg Sample Sample Sample size size 5ize 1 53 1035 1 314 Ethnicity and business activity 0 East Los Angeles Chicano neighborhoods Reflects dominance of small corner grocery stores and fragmentation of food sales among several kinds of stores Large number of eating and drinking places is related to Mexican custom of gathering in cantinas where much social life is centered Abundant small barbershops provide one reason why personal service establishments rank so high Ethnic Business East Los Angeles o This LatinoChicano neighborhood has a prevalence of restaurants food ARR stores auto repair I T ops immigration and other services 0 This restaurant specializes in carnitas pork Ethnic Business East Los Angeles 0 Pictured on one door is the Virgen de Guadaluge paramount saint in A Mexico Los Angeles is the ARR 39 V 7 l TA 1 0 capital of Joel Mexican Americans Ethnicity and business activity 0 Black south Los Angeles Secondhand shops are very common No antique or jewelry stores Only one bookstationery shop The distinctive AfricanAmerican shoeshine parlor is found only in south Los Angeles Ethnicity and business activity o Anglo neighborhoods Rank high in professional and financial service establishments such as doctors lawyers and banks Professional and financial establishments are much less common in non Anglo neighborhoods Furniture jewelry antique and apparel stores are also more numerous Fullscale restaurants are also more common Ethnicity and business activity o Contrasts can also be found in rural and smalltown areas 0 Example of an ethnic island in southwestern Michigan Settled by Dutch Calvinists in the mid nineteenth century Their descendants adhered to a strict moral code Tended to regard nonDutch Calvinists world as sinful and inferior Adherence to precepts of their church was main manifestation of their ethnicity Lake Michigan 42 D Exclusively DutchReformed churches within this area rural No Sunday business within this area NE tavems within this area DutthReformed church Dutch Reformed schnnl Other ch uirch ln cunporated places Area in which DutchRefurmed people DWH halit or mare If the land Ethnicity and business activity 0 Example of an ethnic island in southwestern Michigan Dutch language had died out in the area Impact of Calvinist code of behavior on business activity 0 As recently as 1960 no taverns dance halls or movie theaters existed o No business activity was permitted on Sunday 0 Because they believe leisure and idleness are evil most present day farmers work at second jobs during slack farming seasons Ethnicity and type of employment o In many urban ethnic neighborhoods some groups gravitated early to particular kinds ofjobs 0 Because of advancing acculturation job identification lessened as time passed Ethnicity and type of employment 0 Ethnic group and job type is sufficiently strong to produce stereotyped images in the American popular mind Irish police Chinese launderers Korean grocers Italian restaurant owners Jewish retailers Ethnicity and type of employment 0 Certain groups proved highly successful in marketing versions of their traditional cuisines to the population at large Chinese Mexican and Italian Each dominates a restaurant region far larger than their ethnic homelands islands or neighborhoods g Telgphnne directory cansulnednquotquot Ethnicity and type of employment o Italians in northeastern United States still control the terrazzo and ceramic tile unions 0 Czechs dominate the pearl button industry 0 In many cases job identities were related to occupational skills developed in the European homeland o More recently Basques from Spain serve as professionaljai aai players in southern Florida 0 Earlier Basques concentrated in sheep ranching areas of the American West Mhorn ihnu norn herflare Ethnicity and farming practices 0 Study of Alabama s German farmers in the 19305 done by Professor Walter Kollmorgen GermanAmericans practiced a more diversified agriculture Had a higher income More often owned land than Anglos Ethnicity and farming practices 0 One example of a recently arrived Asian immigrant group the Hmong and the introduction of intensive gardening to America From Laos 50000 of whom now live in California Cultivate their distinctive gardens in and around cities such as Chico and Redding Utilize interstate highway easements and other odd parcels of land Americans would never think of using Typical Hmong gardens includes mustard greens bitter melon chili peppers and other crops needed for their traditional cuisine Culture regions 0 Ethnic regions 0 Cultural diffusion and ethnicity 0 Ethnic ecology 0 Ethnic cultural integration 0 Ethnic landscapes Introduction 0 Many rural areas bear an ethnic imprint on the cultural landscape 0 Often the imprint is subtle discernible only to those who pause and look closely 0 Sometimes the imprint is quite striking flaunted as an ethnic flagquot Finnish landscapes in America o The Sauna from Finland Small steam bathhouses used by the Finns in cold weather After a steam bath they would often take a naked romp in the snow An important element in the cultural landscape of Finland Finnish landscapes in America o Matti Kaups and Cotton Mather made a study of this Finnish landscape feature in Minnesota and Michigan Excellent visual indicator of FinnishAmerican ethnic islands In the Upper Peninsula of Michigan 88 percent of all FinnishAmerican residences had a sauna behind the house In northern Minnesota 77 percent of Finnish houses had saunas adjacent Only 6 percent of nonFinnish residences in the same district had saunas Flandwoad Mmlngm 32mm Elana mum WNW m Mamm mm mmquot m mm mesh msidevvte mm 5am r Nam nmsh rendeme mm sauna Norar m1 n ammuqu rawquot w u Dads z quot 39 W Kemekw Finnish landscapes in America 0 Cultural landscapes can lie or at least distort reality Professor Kaups discovered a sizable element the socalled Red fins 0 Those with leftist political affiliations o Essentially invisible 0 Very numerous in mining and logging towns of Upper Michigan Wisconsin and Minnesota 0 Left almost no landscape trace 0 Kaups found the Communist hammer and sickle carved on gravestones One must always look for the subtle as well as overt in cultural landscapes Ethnic settlement patterns o The imposed government survey system did not deter ethnic groups from having their own distinctive cultural settlement pattern Example of Germans and nonGermans in the Missouri Ozarks GermanAmerican farmsteads much less frequently lie on public roads then nonGerman farms In many cases their farmhouses are a halfmile from the nearest public road Public wads Section ling at rectangular swan12y Farmiteads h 3 Eeramn 4 Gascunade aunt Nun German Ethnic settlement patterns o The imposed government survey system did not deter ethnic groups from having their own distinctive cultural settlement pattern Example of RussianGerman Mennonites in the prairie provinces of Canada 0 Created clustered street villages in a rectangular survey area 0 Duplicated their villages in Russia 0 Wanted to be close to others like themselves 0 Other farmers in the area lived on dispersed farmsteads Village street larmsle39ra Schtml 0 mm quot339 he numbers indicate the prawn1y Failure holdingi 1f each 0f the ID families I Huldings of one sample farmer i tliun lines at Canadian rectangular airway E I39l 1a 19 I9 W In H 13 anumte JF pE39th HE39S 1G 1I5 W W77 1 N Is 14 International border i 7 H I 7 n 39I39I 2 39 H 12 7 i Hay mi 5 7 w W Arable 7W 1 s r r E 1 5 r 1 E m I g 7 7 iiiquot 6 7 if W W 7quot U Hun 5 5 5 7 4 7 l l I 7 339 1 7 J 2 7 CI 112 1 mi um 355 1 7 Impanslm area farwlllage 1 CANADA 7 NCIRTH DAKOTA UNITED STATES Ethnic settlement patterns 0 Example of the Mescalero Apache Indians of New Mexico Federal government tried to make them live in dispersed settlements After 100 years they still cluster into villages matrilocally Continue to display vestiges of the precontact heritage Ethnic Landscape Rotorua New Zealand 0 O O This dwelling symbolizes oth Maoritan a the Maori way of li e and cultural integration It is a nonMaori house type with Maori d cor and it is this d cor that is an ethnic flag Maoris comprise eight percent of the New Zealand population and are twothirds urban Ethnic Landscape Rotorua New Zealand 0 O O 0 Like this house most are of mixed origins Carving is the supreme indigenous art Carvings record history mysteries legends and ancestral achievements The degree of adornment on a house reflects the status of the occupants The tekoteto at the front is a symbol of defiance traditionally employed around village palisades Urban ethnic landscapes 0 Ethnic cultural landscapes appear in both neighborhoods and ghettos 0 Example of wall murals found in Mexican American neighborhoods in the southwestern United States Began to appear in Los Angeles in the 1960s Exhibit influences rooted in both Spain and the Indian cultures of Mexico Found on a variety of wall surfaces from apartment houses and store exteriors to bridge abutments Urban ethnic landscapes Subjects range from religious motifs to political ideology and from statements of historic wrongs to urban zoning disputes Many are specific to the site heightening sense of place and ethnic turf Many contain no written message relying on sharpness of image and vividness of color to make a statement Urban ethnic landscapes 0 Some ethnic groups have color preferences that can be revealed in their landscape Red is a venerated and auspicious color to the Chinese Light blue is a Greek ethnic color derived from their flag Greeks avoid red perceived as the color of their ancient enemy the Turks Green an Irish Catholic color also finds favor in Muslim neighborhoods Political landscapes Quebec Canada of cial languages French and English All pmvincial signs are capital Is in French only Quebec mada Cantata to na mal pdicv Quebec has Henna av laws and 311 signage by pmincial law must ha in French Although the separatia was voted into poem in 1994 the majority did notvote tn separata Quebec Canada This implies that at least for am most Fra ncophmes want to actively preserve and prom their unique cultural heritage wi xin the Canadian federal system


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