Week 8 of the class notes
Week 8 of the class notes ART 1906
Popular in Art History Survey 1
Popular in Art History
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Warren on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 1906 at East Carolina University taught by Michael Duffy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Art History Survey 1 in Art History at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Week 8 of Art History 2/29/16 ***Next test is on Greek and Roman Art ***Duffy has added the test study materials to Blackboard ***Also added information from last test to find out what we got wrong, if anything. ****Class was canceled last Wednesday so we need to read in book and catchup on the gap between these notes and the last ones. THE ANCIENT ROMAN WORLD (MAP 6-1) Villanovans (who were a central European people) moved during the Bronze Age and by 8-500 they were in Italy and established the Tuscan Empire. The Romans inherited some of the Greek qualities. They became a republic in 507 BCE when they overthrew the Tuscan King. o Worshiped some of the gods of the people they conquered along the way. HEAD OF A MAN (TRADITIONALLY KNOWN AS “BRUTAS”): 300 BCE Pg. 166 (Figure6-12) Eyes are made of painted ivory. The figure of a man is at a mature age. Part of the bronze sculpture had added hair and a mustache and eyebrows to this figure. This head was part of a full body and the only thig that really remains now is the head. Tuscans got bronze casting from the Greeks and it was very realistic, because they liked it to be very accurate. They liked to show age to give the character a more accurate image. In this figure the eyes are deep set and the irises are made of glass paste. They are surrounded by a small ring of bronze to fill out the eyelids and such. The eyelashes were added on to the figure too. The figure’s nostrils are inflated and the cheek muscle is flexed. This makes the character look firm and as a memory of them. ST PORTRAIT HEAD OF AN ELDER FROM SCORPPITO: 1 century BCE. Pg. 167 (Figure 06-13) Could be an ancestor portrait. They could have taken a wax mask from the dead body and made a mold which would be used to make a marble or bronze figure. This head is almost a foot tall also. The character shows an older person and is thought to be very well remembered in this way as a sculpture. The death mask preserves the likeness of the person. This head was not generalized. It has a specific look and he has a very specific expression character coming from his face and this shows his personality and thoughts. PATRICIAN CARRYING PORTRAIT BUSTS OF TWO ANCESTORS (KNOWN AS THE BARBERINI TOGATUS): End of the 1 century BCE. Pg. 168 (Figure 6-14) This is most likely a partician that was an important man. This figure was average height and had a real likeness of an actual person instead of a general face and body. There is a quote and description in the book showing that there was some importance of the masks at this time and the masks were kept in a shrine and a specific place. The quote tells some information of what would be done at this time. Such as people at this time would carry the busts of their deceased family members to funerals that they went to so that the family could be carried with them. The sculptor probably carries 3 different generations or so and you can see the likeness in all of the faces. The man’s toga is not Greek and it signifies respectability and certain people could wear this type of toga. AULUS METELLUS (The ORATOR): 80 BCE Pg. 169 (Figure 6-15) This sculptor is called an orator showing he is reaching out to his audience. This was probably put on display to show he is reaching out to the people. The man’s name is on the hem of his robe. He has sturdy laced boots on also and his drapery is folded neatly and pinned up so this also makes it look like it was a public statue. DENARIUS WITH PORTRAIT OF JELIUS CAESAR: 44BCE Pg. 169 (Figure 6-16) This piece of work is a roman coin and this was a standard form of currency at the time and called a denarius coin. The coin has Julius Caesar on it which was a famous ruler who was betrayed by Brutus. Julius was the first leader to put a portrait on his coins. At the time people thought he was very strange to put his face on things. At the top it says “Caesar dictator forever.” His face is dignified and has large eyes with a robe that was not high above his neck. ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE: The Roman Arch Pg. 170 (Figure 6-17) Romans developed the arch. Before this time it was the post and lintel structure that was used. Two intersecting arches are called a groin. There are three elements of an arch: o Voussoirs are wedge shaped stones and it is important so that they are wedged into place and this also makes it able to take weight better and be able to distribute the weight evenly across the whole arch. o Keystone: this is carefully placed and helps keep slippage to happen. It is the stone at the top of the arch. o Impost blocks are important and need to be sturdy. This helps weight to distribute down and outwards. st PONT DU GARD: Late 1 century BCE Pg. 170 (Figure 6-17) This is an aqueduct found in Nimes. It is 160 feet above the water bed below. There are three troughs in this structure that can carry water. The arch conforms to the landscape setting and this causes a sense of balance and rhythm. The structure harmonizes with the natural setting. The stone that is used helps with this harmony. This provided 100 gallons of water a day for the people who lived here in Nimes. Gravity helped carry water through this structure. The heavy walls would quickly shift the weight outwards and down to help direct the weight and water. This was dry intersecting masonry blocks and are set without any fixative thing to keep it there (no grout). Header and stretcher blocks were used in this construction. EXTERIOR VIEW (A) AND PLAN (B) of a TEMPLE, PERHAPS DEDICATED TO PORTUNUS: Late 2 nd century BCE Pg. 171 (Figure 6-18a) Roman temples are similar to Greeks in the way that they were built Different in the way that the Greeks built outside of towns and Tuscans built close to the town center. Free standing and not all structural but more decorative. The Tuscans didn’t encourage walking around the building like the Greeks did. The early Roman temple was set to stand on a raised platform. The fluted column sits on very plain blocks and bases. This is off of the Tiber River. For the god of the river. EXTERIOR VIEW (A) AND PLAN (B) of a TEMPLE, PERHAPS DEDICATED TO PORTUNUS Pg. 171 Figure 6-18b) Large front porch and is a pantheon. ANGUSTUS OF PRIMAPORTA: 20 BCE Pg. 173 (Figure 6-19) Found in town of Primaporta: example of the emperor Empirical statues in temples, theaters, libraries and other places that were including special property places. Other places are on shields and standard pieces of work. This statue it was found in the earth in a villa of Livia which was a partition. The head is set on a body and was actually a body that was like Achilles or a model of an ancient hero, soldier or athlete. The figure is wearing armor and the cloak of a general since he is commander and chief. Dew and morning goddess is on the chest plate and Arora is her name. This is a very unrealistic art on the chest plate also including a few more gods and goddesses. The figure is perfectly symmetrical and the features are classically Greek on the face. The realism is roman like. 3/2/16 Roman Empire beginning. (Map 6-1) THE ANCIENT ROMAN WORLD ARA PACIS AUGUSTAE (ALTAR OF AUGUSTAN PEACE): 13-9 BCE. Pg. 174 (Figure 6-20 A Broader Look) This structure follows Greek tradition with the angular walls. There are panels on it of Friezes. The structure is made of marble and there is garlands on it. These folic garlands made of ox sculls in the corners and representing sacrificial altar ceremonies. The garland has frites and flowers of every season of the year. Back panel: Mythological origins of Rome. This is classical Greek art from earlier period times with exposure of futures art and draperies There are scrolling acanthus leaves and animals below them and these are natural theme of prosperity with the animals and bushes. IMPERIAL PROCESSION: Pg. 175 (Figure 6-22) Emperor and some other people on other side. Emperor on far left and about to step out of the scene. There is a well behaved youngster in this and he is pulling at Agrippa’s robe. He is being restrained softly by the hand of a man behind him. This kid is likely Gaius Caesar. He mom is likely to the right of Agrippa and then there is another son who is next to the emperor. The woman looking back could be a niece. Augustus is promoting his family and potential heirs in this work of art. st GEMMA AUGUSTEA: 1 century BCE Pg. 176 (Figure 6-23) Made of onyx cameo, type of jewelry, known as Augustea gem. Top part o Victor being crowned in top part and then his wife is next to him. o Takes on identity of Jupiter: head of Greek gods: Zeus o Zeus has an eagle. Which is accompanied with Jupiter. o Roma is shown to the left of him: a mature woman and has the facial features of Livia who is Augusteas’ wife. o The little circle is the zodiac signal for the emperor. Bottom register o Legs and arms are trophies from the defeated. o This is a very roman portrait at this time AERIAL VIEW OF THE RUINS OF POMPEII: Destroyed 79 CE (Figure 6-24) Dormant volcano erupted and ruined the city of Pompeii and completely buried under ash. Perishables were burned off but other stuff was preserved like a museum condition. RECONSTRICTION DRAWING OF CENTRAL POMPEII IN ITS CURRENT STATE Pg. 177 (Figure 6-25) This was a prosperous roman city of about 22,000 people. There was an urban plan and it was like a grid. This structure was thought to be started in Greece and romans used it also. This was based off of the roman army camps that looked like a town for the soldiers. This town was like the Etruscans towns where there was a grid like structure of the streets with two main streets. The two main streets crossed at right angles and these were emphasized in roman culture. Quarter: neighborhood, four quarters to every city. Every city has four neighborhoods and they are broken by main roads. Forum is the heart and soul of city and also the center. Most people lived in insulae houses that were set up beside each other and were very close together People spent most of their time outside. There were theaters, public baths and they went dancing, singing or watched plays and only came back to sleep and possibly eat. Their last meal was usually late at night. The city of Pompeii was covered up to 21 feet over the houses with ash from the volcano. Houses and government buildings were also outside of the very center of the village. Shops were lining the paved areas and in the smaller square is where they found the gated forum where there was open walkways. Markets, business, government, porticos (columned covered walkways), speeches in the square, temples for ceremonies and religion. Wealthy people lived in villas and in private houses with enclosed gardens and these were located behind the shops and enclosed from the streets. o Example in (Figure 6-26). PLAN AND RECONSTRUCTION DRAWING OF THE HOUSE OF THE SILVER WEDDING: 1 STCentury CE Pg. 178 (Figure 6-26) The front door opening usually had a garden in it with bushes and trees sometimes. The courtyard had columns in it and people entered the courtyard through the atrium. People could fix up their house and a garden would make it look nicer. There was a planted courtyard inside the house often enclosed by columns and this was always open like a reception room. Tablinum is where the head of the household would meet with clients (cubicula). The busts such as from image (6-14) would be in a shrine in this room. Private areas such as dining, sitting and bedrooms, and servant rooms would be arranged around the courtyard in the middle of the house. Pompeii was a very warm town all year long so the people spend most of their time outside in a breeze. The atrium was often turned into an outdoor living room since it was so warm here. Visitors were greeted at the front door and could see the whole outside and probably through the inside of the house from there. The gardens often had herbs and beautiful plants in them PERISTYLE GARDEN, HOUSE OF THE VETTII (Rebuilt 62-79 CE.) Pg. 178 (Figure 6-27) Discussed above PLAN OF THE HOUSE OF THE VETTII: Rebuilt 62-79 CE. Pg. 179 (Figure 6-28) Discussed above WALL PAINTING IN THE “IXION ROOM,” HOUSE OF THE VETTII: (Rebuilt 62-79 CE.) Pg. 180 (Figure 6-29) This was made on the deal painting surface! The people would put wax over the wall sometimes to finish it and would also polish it with a special stone to help it seal and make it easier to clean. It was buffed after polished also. For the marble surface this is considered a false surface and an imitated stone veneer. Story of Ixion bound by Zeus for trying to induce Hera. Made to look like real space and have 3D definition. INITIATION RITES OF THE CULT OF BACCHUS (?), VILLA OF THE MYSTERIES: 60-50 BCE Pg. 180 (Figure 6-30) Pompeiian red was a popular color at this time and this was showing an acceptance to the culture of Rome Romans adopted Greek gods and changed their names and slightly changed the stories of them also. This is a museum in Napole. Every figure has their own action and this is a preparation for an initiation here in this image. This is showing anyone who looks at it a relived moment of the initiation. Occurring: o There is a woman wearing a fine dress and a veil is over her head, she has a stiff pull on her clothes. On the right of her the second figure is a female figure who has her right hand rested on the boy beside her and she is holding a writing stylist that is pointed to where the child is reading. o The third woman is carrying a try of food, she is involving the viewer into the action by looking out to whoever is viewing it. o The 4 is priestess and her back is to the viewer. To the left of her someone is reaching out offering her something. To the right purified water is being poured to a branch where the priestess will use it to bless the ceremony. In the center wall this is occurring: Terror with the mythical creatures. o A woman is running from the scene and trying to protect herself. o The reclining figure is Dionysus and he is on his bride. They were about to do it and have their union sanctified. This was the cult of Dionysus. CITY SCAPE, HOUSE OF PUBLIUS FANNIUS SYNISTOR: 50-30 BCE Pg. 181 (Figure 6-31) City scape with real space trying to be portrayed GARDEN VISTA, VILLA OF LIVIA AT PRIMAPORTA: 1 STCentury BCE Pg. 182 (Figure 6-32) This shows that there was mythological scenes and this is a beautiful view of a garden. Birds are flying around and there is a wall in the background holding a thicket back. When someone was dining in this room it was made like they would feel as if they were outside. A PAINTER AT WORK From the House of Surgeon, Pompeii: 1 Century BCE- 1 Century CE Pg. 183 (Figure 6-33) Woman was painting and holding a palette. Women were usually much more delicate, freer and worldlier at this time period than their male counterparts. The woman is dipping her brush in the paint box below her, a child is doing something to the panel that she is painting on. Two women are watching her and they are her patrons. There is a fertility god in the background named Priapus. This whole image was part of a wall that made the space look more open and this was meant to be like a picture on the yellow wall behind them. These figures were meant to look like they were real. The fluid drapery was made to look realistic and fluid, translucent, and alive. STILL LIFE, HOUSE OF THE STAGS (CERVI): Before 79 CE. Pg. 184 (Figure 6-34) This is the first time people started painting still life paintings. In the image the objects are fruit that was still green, someone has actually bitten into the fruit. There is decorative aspect of the vine being a composition and producing balance in the image. This also is supposed to make the fruit more easily identifiable. Light is used to make the space look more real and the reflections in the glass too. PORTRAIT OF A MARRIED COUPLE: Mid-1 Century CE Pg. 184 (Figure 6-35) This is real people portrayed. They are standing next to each other and angled different directions. The woman is holding a stylist to write with and she is writing on a tablet that would have wax on it and this shows that she was well educated. The man has a scroll showing that he was well educated also, or even a teacher. You can see their eyes are open wide and that the portrait looks really lively and both are looking outside of the painting. The man even looks surprised, and the woman is looking off to the right a little too. Usually if figures are in paintings the male will look at viewers directly and the female will be looking off. THE ARCH OF TITUS: 81 CE Pg. 185 (Figure 6-36) This was made around the death of Nero emperor. This was the mark of a new type of reign of emperor of the time. This is called the Flavin time. Titus was the first Flavian Emperor. Roman Palestine and Jerusalem was captured at this time. This structure was made of concrete and faced with marble panels.
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