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by: Mr. Jasmin Ratke


Mr. Jasmin Ratke
GPA 3.76

Jaime Barnes

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About this Document

Jaime Barnes
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Jasmin Ratke on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 401 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Jaime Barnes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see /class/181654/geo-401-university-of-texas-at-austin in Geology at University of Texas at Austin.




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Date Created: 09/06/15
Sedi mentat Ion The Rock Cycle 39on GNS aW I a Igneous rocks 3 3 Fragments Dissolved 39 quot 49 r elements 605 Sam Transponation Melting and Deposition A Preciput libn i 3 1 7 vquot u A Metamorphic Precipita on 3 Sedlmem 3 9 Sedimentary rocks Y 39h39 a Copyright 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Significance of Sed Rocks Agni I I V r w I i a il 39 ll W a 393 r i 7 a i imgf 5 Provide a record of ancient tectonic events L52 eg mountain building and erosion Fossil record evolution of life Major reservoirs of groundwater oil coal History of past climate changes y l39 V39 Sedimentary Processes Weathering process by which rocks are broken down 1 Physical mechanical fragmentation chemical composition does not change 2 Chemical minerals in rock are chemically altered or dissolved Erosion and Transportation plate tectonics 9 gravity 9 water Sedimentary Processes reaks down rocks p ySIca y and chemically 2 M arries away particles produced by weat 39 3 via water glaciers and wind moves particles downhill l w W N f l l J s Deposmo or sedimentation occurs t w u 39 Delta n 7 r lt 39 Desert u les settle out ordlssolved 1V7 a 1 I Playa lake mlnerals precnpltate d m curs as layers of t accumulate and compact previous layers Metamorphic rocks an0 ves pressure heat and chemical reactions lithifies the sediment to make sedimentary rocks Figure 51 Understanding Earth Fifth Edition Sediment Types 1 Clastic Sediments physically transported rock fragments produced from weathering of preexisting rocks typically silicate minerals or rock fragments Examples sandstone shale 2 Chemical and Biochemical Sediments direct chemical deposition either by chemical reaction or biotic production typically in marine settings Examples limestone evaporite The speed of a current determines what size particles and their density it can carry 1 Fast currents large and small particles 2 Slow currents small particles The speed of river and stream currents decreases with distance from the sediment source Eleua tian Prafile of the Stanislaus Steep and fast gentle and slow mm quot39 l i mriaH xkai i e i Isli lrgu i E l 3 4 d VZI 397 l L Camitil 1E Cramer S Sedimentary Transport Sediments are modified in several ways as they are transported downhill from their source 1 Mafic minerals weather more quickly than felsic minerals 9 mafic minerals tend to disappear first 2 Sedimentary particles are abraded along the transport path 9 smaller and more rounded with increasing distance from their source 3 Large boulders can only be moved by glaciers and fast moving currents in mountain streams Only smaller particles are carried to the ocean Sediments can be sorted by grain size as current strength changes Sedimentary Transport Sediment MATURITY increases downstream 1 Irregular shaped clasts 9 rounded clasts 2 Mixture of particle sizes 9 all clasts about the same size well sorted and small 3 Mixture of clast composition only stable clasts eg quartz Rounding Distance of transport Short Moderate Long gt gt 1 11 I P I W Iquot I 39 I gr 4f gt gt r l Larger Smaller more angular more rounded Figures3 Understanding Earth Fifth Edition m mA IuI u Sorting selection of clasts according to particle size by wind amp water NOT ice v j in iquot i 31 I W 3 7 5 Iquot Q gags Wellsorted sand Poorly sorted sand Figure 52 Understanding Earth Fifth Edition isquot 2007 W HiFreeman and Company Weathering Some minerals are more susceptible to weathering than others INTENSITY or WEATHERING low Medium High Quartz Quartz Quartz Feldspar Feldspar Clay minerals Mica Mica Pyroxene Clay minerals Amphibole KR 4r J b a quotO 5 ltlleatllermg gt most stable at Ea rth s surface Orthoclase feldspar Temperature 600quotC Late low temperature crystallization fl 4 1 l l U s Bugseanw Ea rly high temperature crystallization 1200quotC Simultaneous crystallization least stable at K Earth s surface Weathering Which of the following rock types will show most weathering when exposed to the Earth s surface for 1 million years all rocks undergo same conditions A Peridotite B Basalt C Granite D Andesite Weathering Which of the following rock types will show most weathering when exposed to the Earth s surface for 10 million years all rocks undergo same conditions A Peridotite Sedimentary Structures The transport of sediments results in recognizable structures that are useful to geologists For instance WHICH WAY IS UP


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