New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

The Archaeology of Eastern North America

by: Carina Sauter

The Archaeology of Eastern North America ANTH 1102

Marketplace > University of Georgia > anthropology, evolution, sphr > ANTH 1102 > The Archaeology of Eastern North America
Carina Sauter
GPA 3.79

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes discuss the history of Eastern North America in the decades before written history begins.
Introduction to Anthropology
Dr. Birch
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Anthropology

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1102 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Birch in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.

Similar to ANTH 1102 at UGA

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr


Reviews for The Archaeology of Eastern North America


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/28/16
The Archaeology of Eastern North America • The Americas Before Humans o 20,000 years ago o Megafauna – large mammals of the period o Ice sheets were covering the continent, more than 1 mile thick § Cooled world’s temperature § Water was trapped in ice sheets – water level was lower § People could cross land mass • First colonists came to America from Siberia • Beringia o Two major migratory events § Coastal routes – 16,000-15,000 BP • Maritime adapted § “Ice Free Corridor” – 14,000-13,500 BP • Exploitation of inland resources § likely a single founding population (based on molecular biology) • Monte Verde, Chile o Radiocarbon dates suggest the site was occupied at 14,800 BC (16,000 BP) § Others argued 33,000 BC, some even § Others argue >50,000 BC but based on organic materials that may not be associated with humans o Tents covered in hides; exploited a wide range of plant and animal resources • Paleoindian Period o Widespread human settlement in most of what is now the US by 13,000 BP o Small mobile family groups § Called bands § large-game hunting very important o Evidence of killing megafauna in Southwest § Were megafauna dying out because of people or because their niche was changing? § New research suggests no mastodon kill sites east of Mississippi River, but bison, deer, etc. § Animal protein left on tools § Best know for clovis tool type • Large, flaked points • Spears • Darts • Glaciers retreat and Climate Warms • Archaic Period o 10,000-3,000 BP o Dense human settlement throughout the Eastern US o Highly effective, broad-spectrum hunting and gathering o Base camps – regular and seasonal basis o Exploited a range of materials everywhere o Find it anywhere in Georgia o Archaic Shell Rings § Dr. Victor Thomson (UGA) studies shell rings in FL and GA § Evidence of permanent base camps § Plentiful marine resources year round • Fish • Shell fish § Left behing rings of shells • Florida, South Carolina, Georgia § Surrounded villages § Garbage heaps – from food and serve as monuments § Tied communities to markers o Poverty Point § Massive complex of earthworks and mounds § Built the ties on earthworks § Had a permanent population § Trading centers and hubs § Trade and exchange § Ceremonial events, rituals and rights of passage § Northern Louisiana o Stallings Island, GA § Savannah River, 8 miles from Augusta § Earliest potter in North America § Late Archaic, approximately 4,500-3,500 BP o Eastern Agricultural Complex § 1 of 8 places as an independent center of domestication § river valley and tributaries of Mississippi river – secondary streams, not main trunk § starchy and oily seeds § 5,000-4,000 (late archaic) § chenopod, squash, sunflowers – continued to be used by later Neolithic people • Woodland Period o 3,000-1,000 BP / 1000 BC – 1000 AD o Key Woodland period innovations § Widespread use of pottery § Elaborate burial practices § Long-distance trade § Bow and arrow o Woodland Period Burial Mounds § Those buried in mounds may have been leaders § Florida to Ohio river valley § Most likely elsewhere § Separation of ritual/monumental sites and habitation sites § Buried with gifts as ritual offerings to the deceased § Labor intensive § Specialized production § Mica, soapstone pipes, cooper – art • Bird symbolism o Middle Woodland Trade and Exchange § Reciprocal obligations and formal gift-giving between groups that controlled certain geographical territories § Burial ceremonies § “Hopewell Culture” • Ohio River Valley o Obsidian o Maine shell o Cooper from great lakes § Swift Creek Culture • Middle woodland in Georgia (100-800 AD) • Decoration of ceramic vessels • Paddles used to emboss wet clay o Paddles sometimes traded through communities • Late Woodland Period o Maize agriculture – corn § South west US o Bow and Arrow § Projective points become smaller § Small arrow heads o Regionalism – breakdown of long-distance exchange networks § Materials found locally § Local tool stone • Mississippian Period o 1000-1,600 AD o most associated with Southeast US o Maize agriculture – 50% of diet o Organized into chiefdoms § Relative power/elites o Large central places – permanent village settlements § No longer on the coasts § Characterized by mound and plaza o Systematic warfare § Warriors o Shared iconographic and religious tradition § “the southeastern ceremonial complex” • set of symbols/motifs widely shared • non-local exotic goods o representative of rulers and ancestors o Mississippian Chiefdoms § Elites seize control of mound building § Individuals buried in mounds have higher social status § Houses on mounds § Temples on mounds holding exotic goods § Buried elite ancestors § Cahokia • Massive proto-urban center • Near St. Louis • Closest thing to pre-historic city • 30,000 people • City and suburbs • Huge • Monk’s Mound o Largest manmade construction in North America • Mound 72 o Oldest mound o Early chief buried o Bed of shell beads and arrows o Falcon shaped o Buried with be-headed conquered enemies § Etowah • Cartersville, GA • One of the most impressive • Mount A – major • Mound B • Mound C – funeral mound • Mote and complex protecting site • Once burned to the ground during war with shacking of funeral mounds of elites § Ocmulgee • Macon, GA • National Park • Large “Great Temple Mound” • Funeral mound • Earth Lodge o Clay floor shaped as a bird o Setting for meetings • 1513-1564 o European starts making mark § Destruction and disease § Looking for gold o Spanish contact and colonialism contact period are devastating § 90% of population dies from disease, slave trade, conflict and war


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.