The Archaeology of Eastern North America
The Archaeology of Eastern North America ANTH 1102
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verified elite notetaker
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1102 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Birch in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
The Archaeology of Eastern North America • The Americas Before Humans o 20,000 years ago o Megafauna – large mammals of the period o Ice sheets were covering the continent, more than 1 mile thick § Cooled world’s temperature § Water was trapped in ice sheets – water level was lower § People could cross land mass • First colonists came to America from Siberia • Beringia o Two major migratory events § Coastal routes – 16,000-15,000 BP • Maritime adapted § “Ice Free Corridor” – 14,000-13,500 BP • Exploitation of inland resources § likely a single founding population (based on molecular biology) • Monte Verde, Chile o Radiocarbon dates suggest the site was occupied at 14,800 BC (16,000 BP) § Others argued 33,000 BC, some even § Others argue >50,000 BC but based on organic materials that may not be associated with humans o Tents covered in hides; exploited a wide range of plant and animal resources • Paleoindian Period o Widespread human settlement in most of what is now the US by 13,000 BP o Small mobile family groups § Called bands § large-game hunting very important o Evidence of killing megafauna in Southwest § Were megafauna dying out because of people or because their niche was changing? § New research suggests no mastodon kill sites east of Mississippi River, but bison, deer, etc. § Animal protein left on tools § Best know for clovis tool type • Large, flaked points • Spears • Darts • Glaciers retreat and Climate Warms • Archaic Period o 10,000-3,000 BP o Dense human settlement throughout the Eastern US o Highly effective, broad-spectrum hunting and gathering o Base camps – regular and seasonal basis o Exploited a range of materials everywhere o Find it anywhere in Georgia o Archaic Shell Rings § Dr. Victor Thomson (UGA) studies shell rings in FL and GA § Evidence of permanent base camps § Plentiful marine resources year round • Fish • Shell fish § Left behing rings of shells • Florida, South Carolina, Georgia § Surrounded villages § Garbage heaps – from food and serve as monuments § Tied communities to markers o Poverty Point § Massive complex of earthworks and mounds § Built the ties on earthworks § Had a permanent population § Trading centers and hubs § Trade and exchange § Ceremonial events, rituals and rights of passage § Northern Louisiana o Stallings Island, GA § Savannah River, 8 miles from Augusta § Earliest potter in North America § Late Archaic, approximately 4,500-3,500 BP o Eastern Agricultural Complex § 1 of 8 places as an independent center of domestication § river valley and tributaries of Mississippi river – secondary streams, not main trunk § starchy and oily seeds § 5,000-4,000 (late archaic) § chenopod, squash, sunflowers – continued to be used by later Neolithic people • Woodland Period o 3,000-1,000 BP / 1000 BC – 1000 AD o Key Woodland period innovations § Widespread use of pottery § Elaborate burial practices § Long-distance trade § Bow and arrow o Woodland Period Burial Mounds § Those buried in mounds may have been leaders § Florida to Ohio river valley § Most likely elsewhere § Separation of ritual/monumental sites and habitation sites § Buried with gifts as ritual offerings to the deceased § Labor intensive § Specialized production § Mica, soapstone pipes, cooper – art • Bird symbolism o Middle Woodland Trade and Exchange § Reciprocal obligations and formal gift-giving between groups that controlled certain geographical territories § Burial ceremonies § “Hopewell Culture” • Ohio River Valley o Obsidian o Maine shell o Cooper from great lakes § Swift Creek Culture • Middle woodland in Georgia (100-800 AD) • Decoration of ceramic vessels • Paddles used to emboss wet clay o Paddles sometimes traded through communities • Late Woodland Period o Maize agriculture – corn § South west US o Bow and Arrow § Projective points become smaller § Small arrow heads o Regionalism – breakdown of long-distance exchange networks § Materials found locally § Local tool stone • Mississippian Period o 1000-1,600 AD o most associated with Southeast US o Maize agriculture – 50% of diet o Organized into chiefdoms § Relative power/elites o Large central places – permanent village settlements § No longer on the coasts § Characterized by mound and plaza o Systematic warfare § Warriors o Shared iconographic and religious tradition § “the southeastern ceremonial complex” • set of symbols/motifs widely shared • non-local exotic goods o representative of rulers and ancestors o Mississippian Chiefdoms § Elites seize control of mound building § Individuals buried in mounds have higher social status § Houses on mounds § Temples on mounds holding exotic goods § Buried elite ancestors § Cahokia • Massive proto-urban center • Near St. Louis • Closest thing to pre-historic city • 30,000 people • City and suburbs • Huge • Monk’s Mound o Largest manmade construction in North America • Mound 72 o Oldest mound o Early chief buried o Bed of shell beads and arrows o Falcon shaped o Buried with be-headed conquered enemies § Etowah • Cartersville, GA • One of the most impressive • Mount A – major • Mound B • Mound C – funeral mound • Mote and complex protecting site • Once burned to the ground during war with shacking of funeral mounds of elites § Ocmulgee • Macon, GA • National Park • Large “Great Temple Mound” • Funeral mound • Earth Lodge o Clay floor shaped as a bird o Setting for meetings • 1513-1564 o European starts making mark § Destruction and disease § Looking for gold o Spanish contact and colonialism contact period are devastating § 90% of population dies from disease, slave trade, conflict and war
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