INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY MNS 307
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Date Created: 09/06/15
LAB EXAM REVIEW Lab 1 Navigation Concepts P 5 quot knew Be able to calculate distance based on given latitudes or coordinates Be able to convert coordinates to decimal degrees and minutes Be able to determine bearing from one point to the other on the nautical chart Bearing direction your destination lies in relation to your starting point represented by a number from 0360 Coordinates the NS direction past the equator and EW direction past the prime meridian Austin 30 N 97 W Equatorthe imaginary line that divides the earth into the northern and southern hemispheres reference line for latitude lines Headingthe direction you re ACTUALLY going from a particular reference point no matter the original starting point and course due north heading is 0 Latitudethe parallels that run east to west along the earth s surface Longitudeimaginary line which run north to south along the earth s surface that converge at the poles Minutesdivision of degrees a l 60 mins b 1 minute1 nm International Datelinethe opposite side of the prime meridian 180 Prime Meridianthe reference line for lines of longitude Degrees measurements of latitude and longitude of arc along a circle from a reference line 1 LAT60nm ONLY AT THE EQUATOR is 1 LONG60nm a LONG measured from 0 180 b LAT measured from 0 90 Lab 2 Bathymetry Concepts Terms Be able to calculate depthreflection time given velocity of sound Be able to read interpret and compare contour maps from different locations Be able to identify bathymetric features such as continental slopes shelves abysses and islands Calculate widths of the continental slopeshelf on a map Be able to calculate the slope of an area on a contour map Understand the relationship between a contour map and a vertical profile P P PS 9 and of the of the sea Bathymetryrefers to both the floor Contourslines connecting points of equal elevation or depth close contour line indicate a steep slope far apart indicate a gradual slope or change in depth Continental Shelf Continental Slope Isobathslines of constant depth Slope the change in the depth over a calculated horizontal distance a Slope Depth at point ADepth at point B i Distance between points A and B Soundingsdepth measurements are taking to determine bathymetry Vertical Depth Profileillustrate bathymetry in a cross section along a horizontal lone across the ocean floor I r ror Lab 3 Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics Concepts Terms 3 9 9 53 N Know and be able to draw identify the Earth s structure and composition Be able to define the three different types of boundaries and what types of geographical features are associated with each Know the theory of plate tectonics and associate it with the Earth s structure and composition to help your understanding know the evidences used to support this theory Know the basic concept about hotspots and why they are important Asthenosphereweaker more liquid layer MIDDLE LAYER Continental Driftcontinents were actually floating on the Earth s surface and were capable of moving Convergent Boundariestwo plates move toward each other heavier of the twp plates gets subducted into the mantle often called destructive boundaries mountain ranges form and volcanic island arc Crustoutermost layer rigid and is composed of various materials a Oceanic crust chemically distinct from and more dense then continental crust Divergent Boundarieswhen two plates move away from each other constructive boundaries new material wells up from the mantle and creates new crust in between the two plates characterized by volcanic activity and form midocean ridges Hot Spotplumes of magma that originate deep in the mantle well below the depths affected by the movements of the plates Inner Coresolid and is composed primarily of the metals nickel and iron Island Arcformed by an oceanic plate is overriding another oceanic plate form above ocean ocean convergence zone Island Chain Seamount Chain a plate moves over a hot spot islands mark the path that the plate has taken over time normally fairly linear Lithosphereoverlying upper mantle and the crust TOP LAYER Mantlerelatively solid and composed of silicate minerals mostly iron and magnesium silicates can move very slowly over geological time Mesospherelower mantle strongest of all three layers BOTI39OM LAYER MidOcean Ridgeform from divergent boundaries underwater mountain range l l gnuI N 9 Outer Coresame composition as the inner core but slightly more molten surrounding the inner core Pangeaall the continents joined together in a single landmass Alfred Wegenermeteorologist and amateur geologist proposed that the continents had once been joined together in a single land mass Theory of Plate Tectonicsstudies of the midocean ridges led to the development of the concept of seafloor spreading Transform Boundariestwo plates slide past each other called conservative boundaries San Andreas Fault transform faults fracture zones Lab 4 Beach Profiles and Sediment Characteristics Concepts P 6 7 8 Understand how to sort a sediment sample calculate the percent sediment size contribution and determine whether it is well sorted or poorly sorted Be able to explain how a beach profile changes with the seasons and why Know the difference between a high energy beach and a low energy beach and how this affects sediment sizes found there Recognize different manmade objects and their effect on beach dynamics Backshoreregion in which sand accumulates into dunes flat part of the beach above the swash zone Erosion the group of natural processes including weathering dissolution abrasion corrosion and transportation by which material is worn away from the earth39s surface Dunea mound or ridge ofdrifted sand Deposition the accumulation or laying down of matter by a natural process as the laying down of sediments in a rive Dry Sieving Particlesize distribution analysis of powdered solids the sample is placed on the top sieve screen of a stack with mesh openings decreasing in size from the top to the bottom of the nest Sand Barridge of sand created and disrupted by breakers Sortingmeans of separating out particles by size in a sample Swash Zoneregion of the beachface that is wetted by wave runup Lab 5 Physical and Chemical Properties of Sea Water Concepts Terms 1 2 Understand thermoclines the relationship between temperature and water depth and how they change with seasons and conditions Understand how seasons affect the thermocline and surface mixed layer Be able to read aI 39 and and 39 39 how to interpret the results Be able to interpret graphs of thermocline halocline and pycnocline using terms like surface mixed layer Be able to interpret a graph of an oxygen profile Densitymeasurement of mass of a substance per unit volume Haloclinezone where salinity changes rapidly with depth P N 8 Hydrometerglass bulb with a graduated stem used to measure water density Mixed Layersame temperature from surface to a certain depth action of strong winds and large waves mix the water column Pycnoclinezone where density rapidly changes with depth Refractometer An instrument which measures the bending refraction of light through a liquid Salinityis related to the amount of dissolved materials in seawater and is roughly defined as the total amount of solid material in grams g dissolved in one kilogram kg of seawater parts per thousands Thermoclinezone where temperature rapidly changes with depth Lab 6 Ocean Circulation Concepts PS NS l 00 O How Ekman transport and Coriolis effect act together to create ocean gyres How upwelling impacts primary productivity Understand the pattern of ocean structure and the causes of stratification Knowunderstand the concept of ocean circulation and its driving forces Understand the role that Coriolis effect plays to create ocean gyres Know the difference in the directions of the Coriolis force in Northern and Southern hemispheres Know the cause and effect of upwelling Conveyor Beltthe cold sinking water is slowly replaced by relatively warmer and less dense waters Coriolis Force is an apparent deflection of the path of an object that moves within a rotating coordinate system Currentslarge moving water masses Ekman Transportthe vertical motion of water starts with wind blowing across the surface of the ocean and pushing water in the wind direction however with time as more water is carried out by friction the currents gets deeper and the flow starts to shift direction Each deeper layer moves at a lower velocity and at a slightly different direction Gyreswater that flows in a circular motion pattern Haloclinea zone where salinity changes rapidly with depth Solar Energyultimate driver of temperature salinity and thus density differences that make up the ocean structure Stratificationwaters of different densities do not mix easily horizontal structure of water layers of different densities in the ocean Thermoclinea zone where temperature changes rapidly with depth Thermohaline Circulationdensitydriven circulation controlled by changes in temperature and salinity Upwelling rising water that brings nutrients to the surface areas of divergence Wind Driven Circulationhorizontal currents of surface waters as well as upwellingdownwelling water movements Lab 7 Waves and Tides Concepts Know how to calculate celerity of a wave Know when a wave will break Be able to identify deepwater wave shallowwater wave and the particle orbits in these waves Know the concepts of diurnal tide semidiurnal tide semidiurnalmixed tide spring tide neap tide Terms Amplitudeis onehalf the wave height Celerityis the velocity at which the wave form travels a CWavelengthPeriod time it takes 2 successive crests or troughs to pass a stationary point Cresthighest point of the wave above the still water line Still Water Linethe level of sea if perfectly calm and flat Troughlowest point of the wave below the still water line Wavelengththe distance between two successive crests or troughs Wave Depthis the distance from the sea floor to the still water line Wave Heightis the vertical distance from the top of the crest to the bottom of the trough Iquot 9 Equot gtS Lab 8 Marine Biological Processes and Trophic Relationships Concepts 0 Know the equations for photosynthesis and respiration Know the difference between a heterotroph and an autotroph Understand the general concept of a Winkler titration and be able to calculate amount titrated to D0 in ppm Understand the light and dark bottle experiment Be able to calculate net productivity in mg CLd if given light and dark bottle experiment data Understand the effects pollution has on the photosynthetic process Understand trophic levels and the percentage of energy transfer between them Be able to calculate energy transfer between trophic levels Terms 1 Autotropsorganisms that convert inorganic molecules into molecules which can be used to produce energy 2 Biomassthe amount of organic material produced by plants 3 Chlorophyllsspecial pigments in plants which capture energy from sunlight and turn it into sugar and oxygen 4 Dissolved Oxygenoxygen change over time in light and dark bottles 5 Food Webdemonstrates a more realistic relationship 6 Heterotrophsorganism that eats another in order to acquire energy 7 f 39 39 facilitutw the 39 of inorganic molecules to organic molecules a 6COZ6HZOSunight9C5H1205602 8 Primary Production 9 Productivity Respirationthe organic matter produced by autotrophs is broken down with the addition of oxygen to yield energy carbon dioxide and water Secondary Consumersanimals that eat herbivores Titration the process operation or method of determining the concentration of a substance in solution by adding to it a standard reagent of known concentration in carefully measured 53 l l NH amounts until a reaction of definite and known proportion is completed as shown by a color change or by electrical measurement and then calculating the unknown concentration 13 Trophic Levelthe position of an organism in a food chain or web Lab 9 Plankton and Introduction to Taxonomy Concepts Terms PNE 5 P N9P1P Understand the Linnaean Classification System Kingdom Phylum Class Know the difference between plankton nekton and benthos Know the difference between phytoplankton and zooplankton as well as the difference between holoplankton and meroplankton Be able to use a microscope and plankton key to identify organisms Benthosattached to crawling on or burrowing in the sea floor Holoplanktonorganisms that spend ALL of their life as plankton Linnaean Systemsystem that emphasizes evolutionary relationship classification based on structural similarities Meroplanktonorganisms that spend part of their life as plankton crabs Nektonfree swimmers in the water Planktonfloaters and drifters in the water Phytoplanktonsingle cell photosynthetic organisms are the main ocean plants Taxonomya scheme to order organisms by name 39 plaultuuthat eat 39 Lab 10 Fishes and Adaptations to the Marine Environment Concepts Terms PNE 5quot Be able to identify a fish s mouth type what type of feeding it exhibits body shape and the environment it inhabits Know specific adaptations in the key terms and how they help a fish adapt its particular environment Be able to classify various types of fishes Agnathamost primitive group jawless fish that lacked paired fins and some cases vertebrae Ampullae of Lorenziniunique network of sensors to detect faint electrical signals Barbelsspecial sensory apparatus for finding food in the sediment by benthic feeders flexible appendages near the mouth Benthic Feedershave mouths that open towards the bottom or inferior orientation Bioluminescencelight produced from photophores used to attract prey signal mates or to deceive predators Chemoreceptorsused for smell located in the nose and those for taste in the mouth many on external surfaced Chimerasghost sharks ratfishes or rabbitfishes live in deep water but have well developed senses Chondrichthyesname of the class for cartilaginous fishes H O H S l l 9Uquot l H 00 N N l WNH 50 N 4 N 0 27 Lab 11 Iquot Equot Compressiform looks thin when viewed from the front This body shape is well designed for making quick turns and quick bursts of speed over short distances Compressiform fish commonly live where there are many places to take refuge such as ponds lakes or coral reefs or they school together in shallow open waters Counter Shadingrelies on light attenuation used for defense mechanism making it hard to distinguish from the background Depressiform flat fish flap their fins up and down to swim through the water in the same way a bird flaps its wings Elasmobranchssharks rays skates gill slits trough which water exits after having past over the gills rows upon rows of teeth covered in scales called denticles found in most marine environments gather information using well developed senses can detect pressure waves using lateral line system and faint electrical signals internal fertilization Filliformfish that are long and skinny like an eel Filter Feeders feeding from the water by filtering water particles Fusiform means having a spindlelike shape that is wide in the middle and tapers at both ends Hagfish have tentacles surround their mout with which they detect burrowing invertebrates Jawed FishChondrichthyes cartilaginous fishes Holocephalans ratfish chimeras Elasmobranchii sharks skates and rays Osteichthyes modern bony fishes Dipnomorpha lungfish Actinistia coelacanths Polypteriformes bichirs Acipenseriformes sturgeons Lepisosteiformes gars Amiiformes bowfin teleostie modern bony fishes Jawless Fish Agnatha quotquot hagfish quot quot quot Lampreysparasitic and have suctorial mouths lined wit Agnatha Lateral Line Systempressure detecting system fish are able to sense water movements Operculumprotects gills in Osteichthyes Oscellusmimic eyes to help the fish escape a predator Osteichthyesname of the class for modern boney fishes Otolithcalcium carbonate stone used for fish hearing Photophoresstructure that produces bioluminescence line the ventral part of the animal to eliminate silhouettes light organs Suction Feeder method of ingesting a prey item in fluids by sucking the prey into the predator39s mouth Teleosts modern bony fish h teeth part of the jawless fishes Benthos bottom Dwelling Invertebrates Concepts Terms PNE Be able to identify a fish s mouth type what type of feeding it exhibits body shape and the environment it inhabits Know specific adaptations in the key terms and how they help a fish adapt its particular environment Be able to classify various types of fishes Bilateral Symmetryhaving right and left sides that are approximately alike Dioeciousan individual that is either male or female Feeding Guild Vocabulary Chapter 10 1 Equot disturbing force that creates a wave such as wind or a landslide entering water force that returns a disturbed water surface to the equilibrium level such as surface tension and gravity water wave form in which gravity acts as the restoring force a wave with a wavelength greater than 2 cm small waves generated by wind and the surface tension wave with wavelength less than 15cm in which the primary restoring force is surface tension patch of ripples on the water s surface related to a discrete gust of wind highest part of a wave lowest part of a wave horizontal distance between two successive wave troughs vertical distance between two successive wave crests and the adjacent trough or a wave the vertical distance from sea level to crest or from undisturbed sea level trough or onehalf the wave height undisturbed water level time required for two successive wave crests or troughs to pass a fixed point in water waves the path followed by the water particles affected by the wave motion also the path of a body subjected to the gravitational force of another body such as Earth s orbit around the Sun wave in water the depth of which is greater than onehalf the wavelength wave that moves or progresses in a nearly certain direction area of origin for surface waves generated by the wind an intense atmospheric lowpressure system wave generated by continuously acting force and caused to move at a speed faster than it freely travels sorting of waves as they move out from a storm center occurs because longperiod waves travel faster in deep water than shortperiod waves series of similar waves from the same direction long and relatively uniform windgenerated ocean waves that have traveled out of their generating area speed at which a group of waves travels in deep water group speed equals one half the speed of an individual wave the speed at which the wave energy is propagated continuous area of water over which the wind blows in essentially a constant direction abnormally high wave unrelated to local storm conditions energy that an object has because of its position or condition energy that is produced by the motion of an object 27 ratio of wave height to wavelength 28 wave in water whose depth is less than onetwentieth the average wavelength 29 line indicating the direction waves travel drawn at right angles to the wave crests 30 process that transmits energy laterally along a wave crest 31 sea surface water wave that has become too steep to be stable and collapses 32 form on narrow steep beach slopes the curling crest outruns the rest of the wave curves over the air below it and breaks with a sudden loss of energy and a splash 33 found over wider flatter beaches where the energy is extracted more gradually as the wave moves over the shallow bottom 34 strong surface current flowing seaward from the shore the return movement of water piled on the shore by incoming waves and wind 35 longperiod sea wave produced by a submarine earthquake volcanic eruption sediment slide or seafloor faulting It may travel across the oceans for thousands of miles unnoticed from its point of origin and build up to great heights over shallow water at the shore 36 wave created below sea surface at the boundary between two density layers 37 point of least or zero vertical motion in a standing wave 38 Position of a standing wave with maximum vertical motion 39 standing wave oscillation of an enclosed or semienclosed body of water that continues pendulum fashion after the generating force ceases Chapter 11 1 point from which cotidal lines radiate on a chart the nodal or low amplitude point for a rotary tide 2 tide measurements taken over years 3 outwarddirected force acting on a body moving along a curved path or rotating about on an axis an inertial force 4 inwarddirected force necessary to keep an object moving in a curved path or rotating about an axis 5 in a rotary tide lines of equal tidal range about the amphidromic point 6 lines on a chart marking the location of the tide crest at stated time intervals 7 tide with one high water and one low water each tidal day 8 studies the oceans tides as they occur naturally modified by the landmasses the geometry of the ocean basins and Earth s rotation 9 falling tide the period of the tide between high water and the next low water 10 the tides are studied as mathematically ideal wave forms behaving uniformly in response to the laws of physics Based on an Earth covered with a uniform layer of water in order to simplify the relationships between the oceans and the tiderising bodies the Moon and the Sun 11 rising tide the period of the tide between low water and the next high water wave generated by a continuously acting force and caused to move at a speed faster than it freely travels wave that continues to move at its natural speed after its generation by a force process or separating astronomical tidecausing effects from the tide record in order to predict the tides at any location higher of the two high waters of any tidal day in a region of mixed tides higher of the two low water of any tidal day in a region of mixed tides maximum height reached by a rising tide isolation of the local geography effect on tides higher of the two low waters of any tidal day in a region of mixed tides lower of the two low waters of any tidal day in a region of mixed tides lowest elevation reaches by a falling tide lowtide level below the mean value of the low tides or the zero tidal depth reference tides occurring near the times of the first and last quarters of the Moon when the range of the tide is least tide wave that moves or progresses in a nearly constant direction difference in height between consecutive high and low waters tide that is the result of a standing wave moving around the central node of a basin the node becomes reduced to a central point while the tide crest progresses around the edges of a basin a tide in which the high tides regularly reach different heights and the low tides drop regularly to different levels tide with twp high waters and two low waters each tidal day state of a tidal current when its velocity is near zero occurs when the tidal current changes direction tides occurring near the times of the new and full Moon when the range of the tide is greatest type of wave in which the surface of the water oscillates vertically between fixed points called nodes without progression the points of maximum vertical rise and fall are called antinodes The tide wave reflected off the edge of the continents hightide crest that advances rapidly up an estuary or river as a breaking wave alternating horizontal movement of water associated with the rise and fall of the tide reference level from which ocean depths and tide heights are measures the zero tide level time interval between two successive passes of the Moon over a meridian approximately twentyfour hours and fifty minutes long period gravity wave that has its origin in the tideproducing force and is observed as the rise and fall of the tide Chapter 12 1 natural or artificial deposition of sediment along a beach resulting in the buildup of new land horizontal or vertical transport of seawater as by a current flat deposit of terrestrial sediment eroded by water from higher elevations a beach that is protected from wave and water erosion by coarsesize large deposits beach zone lying between the foreshore and the coast acted on by waves only during severe storms and exceptionally high water loffshore ridge or mound of sand gravel or other loose material that is submerged at least at high tide located especially at the mouth of a river or estuary or lying a short distance from and parallel to the beach deposit of sand parallel to shore and raised above sea level may support vegetation and animal life zone of unconsolidated material between the mean lowwater line and the line of permanent vegetation which is also the effective limit of storm waves sometimes includes the material moving in offshore onshore and longshore transport section of the foreshore normally exposed to the action of waves nearly horizontal portion ofa beach backshore with an abrupt face formed from the deposition of material by wave action at high tide ridge marking the seaward limit ofa berm structure protecting a shore area harbor anchorage or basin from waves a type of jetty strip of land of indefinite width that extends from the shore inland to the first major change in terrain that is unaffected by marine processes longshore transport cell pattern of sediment moving from a source to a place of deposition a primary coast formed when the seaward side of a volcanic crater is eroded away or is blown away by a volcanic eruption opening the interior of the crater to the sea and creating a concave bay one of a series of evenly spaced crescentshaped depressions along sand and gravel beaches are of unconsolidated sediment deposits usually triangular in outline formed at the mouth ofa river a primary coast formed when rising sea level caused by the melting of glaciers and ice sheets following the last ice age flooded coastal river valleys windformed hill or ridge of sand state in which the sums ofall changes are balanced and there is no net change mixing of salt water into fresh water overlying salt water as in an estuary semiisolated portion of the ocean that is diluted by freshwater drainage from land global change in sea level that affect all of the world s coastlines a bay formed by faulting along a primary coast a primary coast formed by tectonic activity and faulting narrow deep steepwalled inlet formed by the submergence of a mountainous coast or by the entrance of the ocean into a deeply excavated glacial trough after the melting of the glacier a deep smallsurfacearea estuary with moderately high river input and little tidal mixing length of time required for an estuary to exchange its water with the open ocean portion of the shore that includes the lowtide terrace and the beach face study of Earth s land forms and processes that have formed them protective structure for the shore usually built perpendicular to the shoreline used to trap littoral drift or to retard erosion of the shore a type ofjetty spit turned landward at its outer end in an embayment the volume of water gained or lost owing o the rise and fall of the tide an embayment often located in arid climates with high evaporation and little freshwater input Circulation is seaward at a depth and inward at the surface opposite that of a typical estuary Salinity is generally higher than average seawater salinities structure located to influence currents or to protect the entrance to a harbor or river from waves US terminology large particles left on a beach after the smaller particles are washed away a primary coast formed by active volcanism producing lava flows that extend to the sea current produced in the surf zone by the waves breaking at an angle with the shore the current runs roughly parallel to the shoreline movement of sediment by the longshore current flat section of the foreshore seaward of the sloping beach face glacial deposit of rock gravel and other sediment left at the margin ofan ice sheet the longterm transport of water out of an estuary at the surface and into the estuary at depth averaged over many tidal cycles direction seaward of the shore any current flowing toward the shore movement of sediment or water toward the shore is one with a strong net seaward flow of fresh water at the surface and a strong inward flow of seawater at depth coastline shaped by primarily by terrestrial processes rather than marine processes a secondary coast formed by reefbuilding corals in tropical waters balance between the rates of salt addition to and removal from a body of water 50 quota relatively shallow coastal environment populated with salttolerant grasses These are often found in temperate climates They are extremely productive biological and extend the shoreline seaward by trapping fine sediment 51 intrusion of salt water along the bottom in an estuary the wedge moves upstream on high tide and seaward on low tide 52 low tongue of land or a relatively long narrow shoal extending from the shore 53 elongated and comparatively steep slope separating flat or gently sloping areas on the sea floor or on a beach 54 isolated mass of rock rising from the sea near a headland from which it has been separated by erosion 55 coastline shaped by primarily by marine forced or marine organisms 56 strip of ground bordering any body of water and alternately exposed and covered by tides and waves 57 l shallow area that separates two basins from one another or coastal bay from the adjacent ocean 58 a relatively permanent berm that is formed by highenergy waves in the winter 59 a seasonal berm that is built by lowenergy waves during the summer and removed by highenergy waves in the winter 60 the uprush of water onto the beach from a breaking wave 61 deposit of unconsolidated material that connects an island to another island or to the mainland 62 long depression of the sea floor having relatively gentile sides normally wider and shallower than trench 63 balance between the rates of water added and lost in an area 64 is one in which there is strong winddriven and tidal mixing The salinity of the water in the estuary is relatively constant with depth and decreases from the ocean to the river Chapter 13 1 having low oxygen level in the water organisms may find survival in a hypoxic environment difficult or impossible 2 the portion of any catch or harvest taken in addition to the targeted species 3 border estuaries and provide nutrients food shelter and spawning areas for marine species including commercially important organisms as crabs shrimp oysters clams and many species of fish Chapter 14 1 pertaining to the great depths of the ocean below approximately 4000m area of complete darkness without seasonal changes NP F PSquot gt90 migratory pattern in which juvenile fish migrate down rivers to mature as adults in the open oceans don t rely on oxygen to oxidize organic matter for energy deficient in oxygen that part of the ocean in which light is insufficient to carry on photosynthesis organisms able to manufacture their own food from inorganic substances refers to the bacterial component of the plankton that drifts in the water column area of complete darkness without seasonal changes on the sea floor or pertaining to organisms living on the sea floor organisms living on or in the ocean bottom photosynthetic transfer of carbon as C02 from the atmosphere to the ocean in the form of organic molecules carbon is transferred to intermediate and deepocean water when organic material sinks and decays production of light by living organisms as a result of a chemical reaction either within certain cells or organs or outside the cells in some form of excretion the field of research that looks for answers to how chemistry and physics affect basic biological characteristics such as size and shape v migratory pattern in which juvenile fish spawn in open ocean but mature in fresh water organisms that use chemical energy to drive production of organics formation of organic compounds with energy derived from inorganic substances such as ammonia methane sulfur and hydrogen used to harvest sunlight by photosynthesis in cells an intimate association between different organisms in which one is benefited and the other is neither harmed nor benefited transport acts upon heat transfer of heat energy through matter by internal molecular motion materials that lower the freezing point of organisms internal fluids molecular transport that acts upon mass maintain a higher temperature than the surrounding seawater but do not have the same level of temperature control as homeotherms animals living attached to the sea bottom or moving freely over it grouping of organisms based on cell morphology Eukaryotes are either unicellular or multicellular All eukaryotic cells contain internal membranebound cell structures including the nucleus that contain cellular DNA depth of the water column where there is sufficient sunlight for growth of photosynthetic organisms pertaining to the greatest depths of the ocean organisms requiring organic compounds for food unable to manufacture food from inorganic compounds organism with a body temperature that varies only within narrow limits microorganisms that can grow at temperatures greater than 90 C many microorganisms that live at the hydrothermal vents are hyperthermophiles having low oxygen levels in water organisms may find survival in a hypoxic environment difficult or impossible animals that live buried in the sediment area of the shore between mean high water and mean low water the intertidal zone used to derive energy from food in cells phytoplankton that can both photosynthesize and consume organic matter depending on environmental conditions an intimate relationship between different organisms in which both organisms benefit pelagic animals that are active swimmers for example adult squid fish and marine mammals shallowwater marine environment extending from low water to the edge of the continental shelf part of a cell that houses the majority of the cell s DNA open ocean away from the direct influence of land tendency of water to diffuse through a semipermeable membrane to make the concentration of water on one side of the membrane equal to that on the other side an intimate association between different organisms in which one is benefited and the other is harmed primary division of the sea which includes the whole mass of water subdivided into neritic and oceanic zones also pertaining to the open sea organisms that harness light energy to generate organic matter manufacture by plants of organic substances and release of oxygen from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and the green pigment chlorophyll evolutionary connections between ancestor organisms and their descendents microscopic algal and photosynthetic forms of plankton microorganisms that grow at high pressures such as those that live in the deep sea passively drifting or weakly swimming organisms organism with a body temperature that varies according to the temperature of its surroundings grouping of organisms based on morphology All prokaryotes are unicellular with no internal membrane bound structures Prokaryotes are composed of members of the domains Archaea and Bacteria microorganisms that grow in cold temperatures such as those that live in the sea ice metabolic process by which food or foodstorage molecules yield the energy on which all living cells depend benthic zone from the lowtide line to the seaward edge of the continental shelf the subtidal zone 54 material making up the base on which an organism lives or to which it is attached 55 benthic zone above the hightide level that is moistened by waves sprays and extremely high tides also called splash zone 56 living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms 57 scientific classification of organisms 58 region of the water column where there is some light but not enough for photosynthesis 59 transport that acts upon momentum 60 animal forms of plankton Chapter 15 1 high concentration of phytoplankton in an area caused by an increased reproduction often produces discoloration in the water process of generating organic carbon from carbon dioxide 3 group of green pigments that are active in photosynthesis 4 chlorophyll absorbs a specific wavelength of light and subsequently emits light at another wavelength 5 complex of interacting food chains all the feeding relations of a community taken together includes production consumption decomposition and the flow of energy 6 the total amount of organic material produced through photosynthesis 7 regions of the surface ocean where there are high nitrate concentrations but iron limits phytoplankton productivity 8 component of marine food webs in which dissolved organic material cycles through bacteria and nanoplankton then back to small members of the zooplankton 9 is the gain in organic matter from photosynthesis by phytoplankton minus the reduction in organic matter due to respiration by phytoplankton 10 process of using nitrogen gas as a source of inorganic nitrogen 11 the process of breaking down organic matter into inorganic constituents 12 wavelengths of light that leave the surface water 13 is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelengthselective absorption 14 amount of living matter or biomass that is produced by photosynthetic or chemosynthetic organisms usually expressed in grams of carbon per volume of seawater 15 inorganic nutrients removed from and released to seawater maintain a ratio of 106C16N1P 16 biomass present at any given time 17 the position of an organism in a food chain or food pyramid Chapter 16 1 5quot 9 naked cell ofa diatom which grows to a full size and forms a new siliceous covering refers to the bacterial component of the plankton that drifts in the water column whalebone horny material growing down from the upper jaw of planktonfeeding whales forms a strainer or filtering organ consisting of numerous plates with fringed edges having right and left halves that are approximate mirror images of each other radially symmetric diatoms freeswimming carnivorous pelagic wormlike planktonic animals arrowworms toxin found in fish of tropical regions produced by dinoflagellates microscopic hairlike projection of living cells that beat in coordinated fashion and produce movement microscopic planktonic alga surrounded by a cell wall with embedded calcareous plates radially symmetrical animals having saclike bodies with only one opening and tentacles with stinging structures they occur in polyp and medusa forms true jellies sea jellies organism consisting of semiindependent parts that do not exist as separate units groups of organisms with specialized functions that form a coordinated unit small shrimplike member of the zooplankton in the class Crustacea member of a class of primarily aquatic organisms with paired jointed appendages and a hard outer skeleton includes lobsters crabs shrimps and copepods transparent planktonic animal spherical or cylindrical with rows of cilia comb jelly member of the phytoplankton that can dominate in openocean environments microscopic unicellular alga with an external skeleton of silica member of the plankton some species are photosynthetic and others are not planktonic shrimplike crustacean microorganism that thrives under extreme conditions of temperature lack of oxygen or high acid or salt levels these conditions kill most other organisms minute onecelled amoebalike protozoans animals that usually secrete calcareous shells siliceous external shell of a diatom member of the picoplankton can dominate the openocean phytoplankton term used to describe both toxic and nuisance phytoplankton blooms organisms that live their entire life cycle in the floating state 25 small shrimplike crustaceans found in huge masses in polar water and eaten by baleen whales 26 immature juvenile form of certain animals 27 are 200microns to 2mm in size and can also be captured using a plankton net 28 floating developmental stages of organisms that as adults belong to the nekton and benthos 29 composed of individuals from 071mm in size but large enough to be retained by a small mesh net 30 plankton that passes through an ordinary plankton net buy can be removed from the water by centrifuging water samples 31 bilaterally symmetrical diatoms 32 microscopic algal and photosynthetic forms of plankton 33 less than 23 micron in size 34 pelagic snail whose foot is modified for swimming 35 having similar parts regularly arranged around a central axis 36 singlecelled protozoans with siliceous tests 37 red coloration usually of coastal waters caused by large quantities of microscopic organisms generally dinoflagellates some red tides result in mass fish kills others contaminate shellfish and still others produce no toxic effects 38 pelagic tunics that are cylindrical and transparent commonly found in dense patches scattered over many square kilometers of sea surface 39 minute unicellular asexual reproductive structure ofan alga 40 tiny protozoans with moving hairlike structures bell animals and are found in coastal waters and the open ocean 41 a noncellular infectious agent that reproduced only in living cells 42 animal forms of plankton Chapter 17 1 cultivation of aquatic organisms under controlled conditions 2 whalebone horny material growing down from the upperjaw of planktonfeeding whales forms a strainer or filtering organ consisting of numerous plates with fringed edges 3 includes the marine mammals commonly known as whales dolphins and porpoises 4 fish living near and on the bottom 5 use of sound waves by some marine animals to locate and identify underwater objects 6 homeotherms able to maintain a nearconstant body temperature breathe air young are born live 7 cultivation of only one species of organism in an aquaculture system 8 member of the marine mammal group that is characterized by four swimming flippers for example seals and sea lions 9 cultivation of more than one species of organisms in an aquaculture system 10 large herbivorous marine mammal of tropical and tropical waters includes the manatee and dugong 11 an order of fully aquatic herbivorous mammals that inhabit swamps rivers estuaries marine wetlands and coastal marine waters 12 refined fish protein that is used to form artificial crab shrimp and scallop meat Chapter 18 1 substance produced by red algae the gelatinlike product of these algae 2 marine and freshwater organisms including most seaweeds that are singlecelled colonial or multicelled with chlorophyll but no true roots stems or leaves and with no flowers or seeds 3 complex organic substance found in or obtained from brown algae 4 a low tide level directly to a point above high tide 5 members of the deepsea nfauna they measure 2mm or less 6 reworking of sediments by organisms that burrow into them and ingest them 7 flat photosynthetic quotleafyquot portion of an alga or a seaweed 8 lampshells they resemble clams but are completely unrelated to them Their shells enclose a coiled ridge of tentacles used in feeding 9 substance produced by a certain algae that acts as a thickening agent 10 one of the bodies in a cell that carries the genes in a linear order 11 any loose material especially decomposed broke and dead organic materials 12 animals living attached to the sea bottom or moving freely over it 13 organ of a benthic alga that attaches the alga to the sea floor 14 animals that live buried in the sediment 15 area of the shore between mean high tide and mean low water the intertidal zone 16 any of several large brown algae including the largest known algae 17 Japanese seaweed used in soups salads and other flavorings 18 marine animals usually with shells includes mussels oysters clams snails and slugs 19 ribbon worms armed with poisoninjecting mouthparts are found keeping moist under the mats of algae 20 red alga Porphyra 21 sea slug that has few enemies due to the poisonous acidic secretions 22 beard worms 23 sessile stage in the life of certain members of the phylum Coelenterata Cnidaria 24 highest portion of a coral reef on the exposed seaward edge of the reef 25 portion of a coral reef landward of the reef crest and seaward of the lagoon 26 permanently fixed or sedentary not free moving 27 portion of an alga between the holdfast and the blade 28 describing an organism that contains hereditary material from another organism incorporated into its genetic material 29 condition in which cells have three sets of chromosomes 30 symbiotic microscopic organisms dinoflagellates found in corals and other marine organisms
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