Week One - Criminology
Week One - Criminology Soc 307
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Kowalski on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 307 at University at Buffalo taught by Watoii Rabii in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Wednesday September 2 2015 Criminology What Is Crime Key Terms Crime Criminality o Criminal Criminology Deviance WHAT IS CRIME A social problem that goes against norms and impacts people negatively Legal v Social Harm the difference between the two Legal crime varies from social crime No universal definition Crime is socially constructed Moving Target meaning hard to define Varies across time and culture ex historically and geographically Specific examples include slavery prohibition Majed AITimimy and Latif AlHusani Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914 An intentional act in violation of the criminal law committed with out defense or excuse and penalized by the state Tappan 1947 Two primary ways to categorize crime 1 Mala inse an evil crime ie murder rape v Mala Prohibita illegal crime because it is prohibited ie drugs Ex Armin Meiwes and Bernd Brandes 2 Felonies harsher and misdemeanors fines Wednesday September 2 2015 An individual who intentionally violates criminal laws and has been labeled by the state as a criminal CRIMINALITY Refers to a trait within individuals that allows them to commit crime biological social Five Principles must be satisfied before someone is declared a criminal Corpus Delicti body of crime 1 Actus Reus Criminal Act 2 Mens Rea Criminal Intent 3 Concurrence Criminal intent gt Criminal act 4 Causation Criminal act harm Has to be proximate time frame 5 Harm social injuryharm to society as result of criminal act CRIMINOLOGY The scientific study of crime Focuses on why people commit crime and how we define it and respond to it Interdisciplinary science that gathers and analyzes data on various aspects of criminal delinquent and general antisocial behavior Walsh 2015 The body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon It includes within its scope the process of making laws of breaking laws and of reacting toward the breaking of laws Sutherland 1938 HISTORY OF CRIMINOLOGY 1 Supernatural Era Crime related back to religion demonic resulted in punishment of torture 2 Renaissance Art Literature Science Wednesday September 2 2015 3 The Enlightenment Science math civil rights Cesare Beccaria Jeremy Bentham 4 The Industrial Revolution and The Age of Science Biology Cesare Lombroso Psychology Sigmund Freud 5 The Progressive Era Sociology Merton Shaw and Mckay Sutherland Becker 6 The Critical Period Focussing on class race gender 7 The Modern Period BioSocial approaches WHAT IS DEVIANCE Deviance is the violation of social norms Norms values and sanctions Norms unwritten informal rules Values things that are important to an individual what is right and wrong Sanctions either positive or negative impacts of whether you break social norms ex dirty looks Breaking norms does not necessarily mean iega CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVIANCE Socially constructed Relative varies from culture time geographically etc Defined by the majority Constituent part of society Wednesday September 2 2015 Stigmatization branding or labeling DEVIANCE AND CRIME Deviance differs from crime and criminology because Crime always involves breaking a law but deviance may not Crime is a violation of a formal norm while deviance is typically a violation of informal norms There is a far greater number and variety of deviant acts than crime Some crimes are not considered deviant due to their acceptance throughout society Ex speeding Friday September 4 2015 Criminology Crime As A Sociological Problem Expanding Definition of Crime from Law 1 2 3 4 5 Crime as a violation of conduct norms Crime as a social harm and analogous social injury Crime as a violation of rights Crime as a form of deviance Crime as a violation of global conduct norms socially appropriate across nationalities CRIME AS A VIOLATION OF CONDUCT NORMS Thorsten Sellin wrote the book Culture Conflict and Crime Sellin was against using popular and legal definitions of crime Confinement of the study of crime and criminals and the acceptance of the categories of specific forms of crime and criminal as laid down in law renders criminological research theoretically invalid from the poing of view of science Sellin 1938 24 Conduct Norms Rules of behavior that embody the values of some powerful group in society usually primary groups ie family Essential element is the social groups Universal categories CRIME AS SOCIAL HARM Edwin Sutherland White Collar Crime A crime that is committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation Sutherland 1949 9 White collar criminals should be stigmatized as criminals in the same way that blue collar criminals are Friday September 4 2015 CRIME AS ANALOGOUS SOCIAL INJURY Ray Michalowski Analogous Social Injury refers to legally permissible and preventable acts or conditions caused by people or social institutions where consequences are similar to those of illegal acts Criteria 1 Bodily harms injury illness disease 2 Significant deprivations of food clothing shelter etc 3 Intentional or structural limitations on political andor social participation Ex Operational Gatekeeper Why Analogous Social Injury 1 Allows the incorporation of transnational wrongs such as genocide wars of aggression etc into purview of criminology 2 Challenges notion that only crimes defined by criminal law are most harmful 3 Allows investigation into why some acts are designated criminal while others are not 4 Offers criminologists and alternative to crimes defined by criminal law Michalowski 2007 CRIME AS A VIOLATION OF RIGHTS Herman and Julia Schwendinger Define crime as any behavior that violates human rights life liberty happiness Two Sorts of Human Rights 1 Personal Rights 2 Rights essential to a dignified human existence Friday September 4 2015 CR1ME As DEVIANCE Crime is a form of deviance Some aspects of deviance shed light on crime 1 Variation 2 Frequency 3 Subject to Sanction 4 Diverse norms and standards violate CRIME AS A VIOLATION OF GLOBAL CONDUCT NORMS Globalization is the world wide process whereby individuals peoples economies and nationstates are becoming increasingly interconnected and interdependent Globalization creates new opportunities to commit crime Global conduct norms refer to rules of conduct agreed to by the international community