Week 1--Lectures 1-2
Week 1--Lectures 1-2 Art History 201
Popular in History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals
Popular in Art History
This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Acierno on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Art History 201 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Prof Dale in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 212 views. For similar materials see History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals in Art History at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Lecture 1 Introduction September 2 2015 Time line for course 3000 BCE to ca 1400 0 From Ancient Egypt to Medieval France 0 Ancient Egypt I The Royal Funerary Process Pyramids Sphinx etc 2530 BCE 0 Medieval France I Cathedrals ie Amiens Cathedral 122060 CE GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN WORLD I I X 39 Y I HIA ATLANTIC ILTS Mnrsmlio quot SAMA RTHXs Massna O 5 J39L ht 394 Nam Jams lBtRULHIs Pnhecusae unhmu u o I w man of x a 6in NORTH AFRICA l E rmk clllcmcnh l I Phucmuansculcmcms l l 150 00 1111le 00 hlnmclcn We will start with the orange area Anatolia Then we will move to the purple area mostly Greek Next the yellow in upper Italy Etruscans Then to more modern Europe in France and places around there inner Europe There will be a lot of talk about political geography during the second half of the class Why Does Art History Matter 0 Visual is the primary source of culture Pictures may be hard to read but they are tangible Pictures are not merely images 7 A o Saddam Hussein s Statue in Bagdad I Removed by American Soldiers on April 9 2003 I There were statues of him everywhere in Iraq He and the statues had a special sort of meaning for Iraqis The statues embodied the presence of a ruler He occupied space especially being a large statue He was seen all the time I This statue can be compared to the statue of Augustus Primaporta as seen in the picture below I 39 w 7 W 3L I The commanding gesture the raised arm and the distant gaze are seen in both statues which suggest an authority figure with great power 0 Pygmalion Effect I The legend goes that the sculptor Pygmalion carved a statue of Aphrodite His statue was so lifelike and beautiful that he became infatuated and fell in love with his statue The Pygmalion Effect is when a statue is so lifelike and influential that people start to believe that the statue could be real or could be a vessel for the subject of the statue and that they are watching you all the time Iconoclasm o The deliberate destruction of religious icons or monuments usually for religious or political motives Site httpwwwnewworldenovclopediaorqentrylconoclasm 0 Religious opposition led to destruction of many things Sometimes these motives were political o Sargon l I The eyes were bashed out because the statue was quotdeprived of sight for a time when the eyes were closed I Eyes held a lot of importance People believe that the person the statue was made after could look through the statue and see those around them if the eye holes were open I This head is believed to have been attached to a whole body but was beheaded at sometime so the figure could not see through the statue anymore 0 Septimius Severus I This is a picture of Septimius Severus his wife and his two sons You only can see one son clearly because his other son Geta was rubbed out This is an example of selective iconoclasm I The image has a special power because the rubbing out of the son was like removing his presence from existence 0 Battered Reliefs of Christ and John the Baptist from Hagios Polyeucktos Constantinople ca 525 Slide 9 I Christian faces like these were chiseled off This happened in the 8th century responding to the Islam debate over value and danger o Baymiyan Budda 39 Tiff I The Taliban destroyed this Budda in 2001 They considered the Budda to be idolatrous Course Themes 0 Narrative Imagery Propaganda o Palette of Narmer I The image on the front is of a mythical battle We know this is Narmer because of his hieroglyph at the top We can tell that Narmer is the victor because he is the largest figure and his right arm is raised in a victorious stance o Bayeux Tapestry O i J I This tapestry represents the defeat of the Normans In this image you can see the leader being shot in the eye with an arrow and then right after the same person being run over by a horse 0 Portraiture o Preserves memory and is similar to physical remains 0 King Tut I The gold work awed people and it showed his wealth during his lifetime King Tut was very young when he died and he didn t have much impact in his time even though he had a lot of impact in our time This mask has all the regalia and is very extensive with lots of detail and symbolic meaning I This is an example of godlike portraiture o Vespasian I He was a Roman Emperor quotNot the most handsome but he was a great general and emperor He was not young You can see the maturity of his face in this statue The wrinkles by his eyes and mouth and the receding hairline shows the great detail the sculptor took into account His predecessor was Nero I This is an example of a human or more practical portraiture 0 There are many different forms of portraiture These are just two examples 0 Materiality Vision the Senses and Religious Experience 0 Sumerian Votive Statues I The wide eyed look gives the statue the ability to see and communicate with the viewer Statues like these were used as intermediaries which were a form of being able to have contact with the statue s form These played a very important role in ancient societies These also have inscriptions on them that tell us what they are 0 Sainte Foy I Statues like these contained the bones of the person who the statue was representing The eyes were distinguished with glass to have a more heavenly radiance 0 Holy face icon This is an image of Christ believed to have been imprinted on by Christ s face himself There are legends attached with examples like these One most known is of a cloth that Christ used to wipe his face that had an image of his face left on it The idea behind this is that his presence is transferred onto the object History of Style 0 Greeks did a lot of vase painting 0 Abstract These vases had very abstract or geometrical painting styles There was value placed in these vases 0 Classical dea 0 These were black and white and had fleshy tones to show human figures 0 Don t assume that the Greeks got better with time These are just different styles of art that changed over time It is uncertain the reason the styles changed but they both still maintain some sort of abstraction Body 0 The Greeks developed what we today consider a quotgreat body or the quotbody builder body There are various ways body norms are culturally determined All cultures are different 0 The Greek s viewed nudity as a male hero complex This shows how the Greeks saw the human body comparable to the divine gods body 0 Example Polykleitos O Abstraction o This is an example of abstraction taken from the Book of Kells We will focus an entire class looking at the Book of Kells and discussing why they had such ornamentation in the book There are also other examples of this is medieval art Perspective quotSeeing through 0 quotVillaquot vquot 39 72 means to the physical world and the heavens Gender Nudity 0 Female 0 Soft gestures as if ashamed ver the years to lust or temptation 35 w a Monsters 0 This is very common in 13th and 14th century Europe It was understood as a o Monsters were typically shown as hybrids of beings They could be spirits or deities even demons Sacred Space 0 These can be churches mosques temples etc We will focus a lot on the architecture of these Lecture 2 Art and Architecture Ritual and Propaganda in Ancient Sumer and Akkad September 4 2015 Mesopotamia30001750 BCE o quotthe cradle of civilization 0 The geography was a very significant aspect Located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Mesopotamia was a rich area Also known as the Fertile Crescent it was watered by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers In other areas it was very dry and arid not good for farming The focus was very much on surviving on the rivers Similar to Ancient Egyptian cultures the Nile 0 We will be looking at the architecture sculptures and decorative arts from this area 0 Prehistoric 0 quotbefore the written word 0 Visual religious magical historical events military triumphs o quotSomethings don t change quotProfessor Dale Geography 0 The Fertile Crescent was the southern part of Mesopotamia Iraq today 0 The Sumerians were a collective of individual city states numbering at 2030 city states at the most 0 We will be focusing a lot of the city of Ur 0 Where Abraham from the Bible was from 2000 BCE Around the same time that the Zigorat was built 0 This is a very important city historically o Nanna the god of the moon was the god dedicated to the city of Ur 0 Each city had a specific god dedicated to them 0 The Sumerians claim to fame was the invention of a writing system so this time period and people were very well documented 0 Akkadians 0 North of Sumer o Sargon I His claim to fame was the invention of a centralized government imperialcolonial I His grandson Naramsin was compared to the gods He is shown wearing attributes of the gods and was very certain of his power 0 Hammurabi was a law giver I There were around 200 cases of law carved on his statue He is well known for his quoteye for eye tooth for tooth mentality Ur o The remains of Ur were excavated in the 19205 by Leonard Woolley This is when they found the Ziggurat of Nanna the moon god They also found a grand forecourt and a palace complex The palace complex was a uniting of sacred and priestly precinct o Everywhere around Ur is flat and lowlying land The Ziggurat was the tallest thing for miles and it really stood out on the topography It was also seen as the most sacred because it was closest to the deity Nanna here 0 Around the palace complex was a canal where water would have flowed Beyond the canal were houses When the floods came the temple was safe and stayed dry Most likely the houses were all flooded because they were so close to the canal and were not raised from the earth at all 0 The City Plan 0 Euphrates on one side the canal on the other 0 There were multiple formal processional axis leading to the temple I They went over the canal through the forecourt to the temple proper and up three sets of stairs to get to the very top I The separate stair cases were seen as a hierarchy of power 0 There are texts that tell us about the sacredness of the temple From Ur we have the sacred text from the myth of Nanna I The city of Ur was seen as a meeting place between heaven and earth I The river Euphrates was seen as a quotpure river I The canal was described in sacred terms I The cities were seen as very sacred I The text Sumerian myth of Nanna moongod o quotBehold the bond of Heaven and earth the City Behold Nipuur the city Behold the kindly wall the cityits pure riverits quay where the boats stand Behold the Pulal its well of good water Behold the dnunbirdu its pure canalquot o Nanna Ziggurat o This is an example of symbolic architecture of artificial mountains There were no mountains anywhere near because this area was so flat and lowlying The Ziggurat was made to be noticed from a distance o It had almost a square base measuring 190x160 ft 0 The sloped sides resembled Egyptian funerary structures The Egyptians provided the model 0 There were three separate platforms Stepping up was seen as becoming closer to the gods If you went up you were going up to meet the gods The highest part was restricted to the priesthood and the king I Sometimes a virgin woman was symbolically married to the god They were laid on the couch in the chambers and covered in oils 0 Since the gods didn t come down and have sex with the woman it was thought that the king probably did to keep the population in his community strong 0 The text of Herodotus an Ancient Greek historian describes the place where the couch was 0 Herodotus ca 484 BC 425 BCE Histories I quotOn the topmost tower there is a spacious temple and inside the temple stands a couch of unusual size richly adorned with a golden table by its side There is no statue of any kind set up in the place nor is the chamber occupied by anyone but a single native woman who is chosen for himself by the deity out of all the women in the land They also declare that the god comes down in person into this chamber and sleeps upon the couchquot o The chamber was pretty much a receptacle for the deity o Takes the form of a mountain and sculpts into obstruction Pyramids were seen as quotladders to heaven and the Ziggurat was some kind of ladder According to Herodotus there were no statues in the chamber but we know there were sculptures around the temple These sculptures were seen as surrogates for the gods and the person it was modeled after Each sculpture may seem similar eyes beards hair hand gestures but they are each different They ranged from 13 ft in height They were not to human scale Burials Were these sculptures portraits You need to be broadminded A portrait is a likeness or similarity to a living things So yes they could be considered portraits if what the sculptures were modeling were human beings Each individual statue had inscriptions of who they were inscribed on them People would seek help and give thanks to the surrogates Some of the inscriptions said that the speaking to the statue was like speaking to a god The wide eyes were the most distinctive because of their larger than life look It was though that the gods could come and look at you through the eyes Form 0 Males had an inverted cone figure with square shoulders tubular arms and the full torso was exposed 0 Females had modest costuming with one breast exposed O O O Ur was known for its rich burial goods The grave goods in the quotroyal burials were of a high caliber It was common to be buried with useful or important object for the afterlife similar to the Ancient Egyptians thoughts There is textual evidence of Sumerian funerals and the thoughts of the afterlife It describes the needs and offerings to be buried with the body so that they would be treated well with the gods They were buried with humans and animals servants oxen bulls for the king and queen The bull lyre had a hammered gold head glass eyes and a lapis lazuli the long beard These gave it a human nature The narrative on the front were images in white shell It was likely played at funerals also possibly in the courts t followed the king basically It was a show of status It was thought of as a tableau in the afterlife We know the bull lyre was actually used because it is seen in impressions found at the site I The narrative on the front of the bull lyre tells a story It was part of the funerary culture but the pictures were not of this world but of another The actors are animals acting like humans I 4 zones of the narrative o 1 Muscular male is the hero The upper torso faces the front with the head and the legs are in profile facing to the left The hero is naked and the act of holding the bulls is a show of the quotforces of nature being held at bay 0 2 A feast the funeral feast The lion and hyena are on hind legs holding wine in a vase and oil There is a table with lots of choice meat 0 3 Lots of animals around a lyre the bull lyre probably playing the funerary music 0 4 Man and scorpion hybrid This scene has an unknown explanation The hybridity of the man and scorpion is symbolic and the possibility of a reference to a deity Historically recognizable in later Babylonian as the guardian of the sun and mountain from which the sun rises Maybe this narrative is about the cycle of time or the afterlife There were skeletal remains found of oxen and men in the trench of a royal grave This suggests that the whole procession was buried together with the king 0 Standard from a royal cemetery 0 It is a trapezoid box possibly held aloft by a pole The shape suggests it might be a sound box This is a giant narrative telling the story of a war It is in formal presentation Three registers or quothorizontal zones o The lower has asses donkeys not horses The long arrows suggest war The asses are moving faster as the picture moves right It looks like they were trampling their enemy who were possibly already dead from the arrows The soldiers had daggers and the prisoners were naked The soldiers were shown upright and full figured while the prisoners were laying on the ground and seemed very skinny The largest figure was in white and was seen as the ruler victor and protector The Sumerians were a relatively peaceful communities with few enemies They had no central authority so they were more susceptible to invaders Akkadians with Sargon The cast copper head found in Nineveh was thought to be the representation of Sargon This is more of a portrait than the Sumerian votive statues The fleshy lips and modeling of the face are what give us this impression Originally this was thought to be part of a whole body statue set in a public place but was decapitated o It was hollow cast Original was made in wet clay then a layer of wax was put over it then another layer of wet clay It was then pardoned the wax evaporated then the copper was poured in They basically used a mold to make this This is less abstract than the votives While it still emphasizes the eyes it does so through the brows instead of larger than life eyes There might have been glass originally in the place of the eyes but we cannot be sure because they were bashed out We can tell he was a ruler because of the headdress the hair is tied back and the beard was coiffed It was damaged later in life which could prove how important people thought eyes were The damage relates to depriving the statue of quotsightquot or power There was really no other reason to damage the eyes unless there was some sort of power believed in them It is thought that this happened when the Meads attacked Nineveh Stele of NaramSin This was 2 meters 657 ft tall It was a very large narrative This shows the role of the ruler as a military force He is leading the defeat of a mountain tribe This is thought to be the grandson of Sargon Naramsin The figures are attached to the backdrop at different degrees to tell who is most important This takes place on a mountain top which is associated with the deities and as a meeting place of the gods It held a sacred and priestly role the 3 disks at the top The horned helmet that Naramsin is wearing is a symbol of Nanna the moon god He is also shown as a godlike and absolute ruler 0 They are trampling the enemy Naramsin has a victorious stance and is larger than life compared to all the other figures His upper torso is fully facing the front which is similar to other art from this period along with the Ancient Egyptian art 0 The other figures are overlapping which shows different levels of space on the mountain Possibly seeing or reading back into space The Akkadians were short lived They were replaced as a major power by the Sumerians again this is when the Ziggurat was thought to have been built and then by the Babylonians under Hammurabi Pictures 1 The Fertile Crescent 6 Bull Lyre 5 Votive Figures 4 Nanna Ziggurat 7 Narrative on the Bull Lyre 8 Standard a 9 Head of an Akkadian Ruler Sargon I 10 Stele of NaramSin
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