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by: Ezequiel Orn


Ezequiel Orn
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Class Notes
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ezequiel Orn on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 301L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Chinnery-Allgeier in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/181709/bio-301l-university-of-texas-at-austin in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.




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Date Created: 09/06/15
BIO 301L Lecture 4 Mitosis meiosis DNA 0 DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid 0 A deoxyribonucleic acid is made up of four different nucleotides each of which consists of a sugar phosphate and base A G C or T BASE PHOSPHATE SUGAR DNA Jaque I a JoLJbJa heJL with gash 511 9quot a sugardphwpha se back Jydmgi m ijraud Q My 39 5mg sons a s Wm strands are haJsJ wge sh ijj sb hits eras on I quot 3 3 WEE39139 DNA bagg gairing rule In the double stranded DNA helix certain nucleotides are always found basepairing with certain others A always pairs with T 2 hydrogen bonds C always pairs with G 3 hydrogen bonds if base sequence of one strand is known then sequence of other strand can be inferred l l Amount of DNA in a cell is usually measured in base pairs bp In a human gamete cell one copy of each chromosome the total amount of DNA is approximately 3000000000 bp 3 billion human cells two copies of every i Nome the total amount of DNA is Q lf l h 5 6 billion bp Total length z 2 meters Nucleus size is often 2 20 um Thus total DNA is 1 million times longer than nucleus in which it is contained As such DNA must be tightly packaged to fit in the nucleus Certain proteins called histones are involved in this packaging C hm39rm mm 3 G DNMdcunlei39tela r g WWquot Iquot i n Each DNA strand contains all the information in the molecule As such either strand could be used as a template to synthesize the other strand Replication of DNA involves unzipping DNA strands and using each as a template to synthesize a new strand Orlglnal strands Orig nal dou leslranded DNA molecule quot gt DNA double llale V 139 Flepllcatlcn under we Original strands 39 Unalt achaddnucg olida u are a tracts lo all New slrands oompIe 1 men an nucleolides lormlng a new slrand Repllcatlon complelad Twu ldenllual doublestranded DNA molecules Original strands New strands 1 pmmnmr mding regiun leminatm Il g DNA l39 Chromosome morphology W Short arm Centromere Q Long arm Key Maternal set of chromosomes n 3 Paternal set of chromosomes n 3 2n6 of one replicated chromosome 3 Centromere Two nonsister a f 5 Pair of homologous chromatids in chromosomes a homologous pair one from each set Human chromosome number somatic cells versus gametes Somatic cells possess 46 chromosomes Gamete cells possess 23 chromosomes human somatic cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes each pair looks identical in banding pattern Paternal Maternal homologue homologue Ka ryotypes One pair of homologous chromosomes a 1 u 7 Sex chromosomes The Cell Cycle 7 7 Mitosis A One kind of cell division sgseumoyio A A Due 31 41 SSBqdo39el 3 I All cell growth and differentiation Result is two identical quotdaughter cells Growth and development Reproduction L 13kg Copyright 2009 P eeee on Ed uuuuu on Inc Mitotic cell diVision in an animal cell III39I ERPHASE MITOSIS nuclear I spindle envelo e chromatin p condensing Splndle POIB mlcrotubules chromosomes beginning of r klnetochore Spindle foma on spindle pole a Late lnterphase h Early Prophase 2 Late Prophase The d Melaphase Chromosomes condense K39 etochores interact an shorten spindle breaks s ndle microtubules ate 39 begin to dow 39 39 line up the duplicated centrioles for ween separating 39 e oc ore chromosomes remain clustere centriole pairs of each sister chromatid at the cell39s equator INTERPHASE l unattached spindle microtubules Chromosomes nuclear envelope f ing Sexual vs Asexual reproduction Asexual Reproduction in livdm ff What are the advantages of reproducing sexually Asexually b L Key Haploid gametes n 23 9 Haploid n r Diploid 2n 139 x 599 n ru H I lt 2quot Sexual life cycle of an animal k 39 iff Diploid parents Mother Father Zn In Meiosisl quot i Haploid Ibid 9 sp39ewm Fertilization Maternal chromosome Ovary E Testis l l i i Paternal quot 2quot L chrmnos mlg39 zlaid zygote 7 2n46l l T 39 a iIMEIEE and development 0 Multicellular diploid adults 2n 46 Diploid organism 2n Haploid i Diploid Gametes Haploid multicellular organism gametophyte M EIOSIS Diploid 7 3977 39 multicellular Mitosis multicellular organism organism sporophyte a Animals b Plants and some algae Copyright 2005 Pearson Educa lion Inc Publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings All rights reserved Mitosis CD Mitosis How are these different Haploid multicellular organism Mitosis Mitosis Gametes MEIOSIS IFEBTILIZATION I Zygote c Most fungi and some protists MITOSIS MEIOSIS I Prophase PrOPhase I Homologous chromosome pair Replicated chromosome Metaphase Metaphase I Anaphase Telophase 2n Daughter cells of mItOSIS Daughter cells of meiosis II Copyrlghl 2008 Pearson Educallon mar publlsmng as Pearson Benjamin Cummings MITOSlS MEIDSIS Paternal Maternal homologue homologue 239 r 39 Bivalent Genetic variation is increased more through Crossing over recombination Independent Assortment Random Fertilization 7 Nonsistsr chromatids recombination Chiasma site of gt crossing 39 over Recombinant chromosomes Independent Possibility 1 assortment Possibility 2 Two equally probable arrangements of chromosomes at metaphase I Metaphase II Daughter J Combination 1 Combination 2 Combination 3 Combination 4 Random fertilization 39 6 n Q T 3 M 15m f 39 quot I x


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