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by: Ezequiel Orn


Ezequiel Orn
GPA 3.89

Timothy Keitt

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Timothy Keitt
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ezequiel Orn on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 373 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Timothy Keitt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/181725/bio-373-university-of-texas-at-austin in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 09/06/15
Communities I Are communities organized Clements vr Gleason Clements 7 superorganism Gleason 7 individualistic Test sharp versus gradual boundaries Few sharp ecotones or boundaries between discrete ecosystems Gleason won the argument but perhaps too much emphasis on individualistic responses Energy and nutrient closure in ecosystems as coevolved ecosystem function Functional groups may be more important than individual species in terms of ecosystem organization Common view that there are no laws in ecology rather ecology is a collection of individual ecosystem and species descriptions Much new research has emphasized invariant properties of eco systems These may arise because of fundamental constraints of conservation of energy and matter 1 St law of thermodynamics plus dissipation 211d law of thermodynamics l l D D H7Z7ilog7i H7prilngi x39 Predation and Herbivory Trophic cascades HSS GIairston Smith and Slobodkin World is green Herbivores not effective Must be regulated from above by predation T op down Example Urchins Sea Otters Seals and Killer whales Why HSS doesn t work plants have many defenses against herbivory therefore regulation might actually be bottom up generally both are important Spines Tough leaves Dif cult to digest stuff tannins Toxic stuff Alkaloids morphine nicotine Terpenoids latex resins Phenolics many antimicrobial agents Secondary compounds not used in metabolism Eg soybeans have compound that inhibits development of beetle larvae Bamboo species produce cyanide to protect young shoots Leads to plantherbivore evolutionary arms races Herbivory can nonetheless have a signi cant impact on plant biomass Predation complicates species interactions Eg Apparent competition Defense against predation Be too big to eat Be too fast to catch Be or look like something that is spiny prickly smelly bad tasting toxic Be hard to see Mimicry systems Batesian Mullerian Bright colors aposematic Parasites parasitoids pathogens Parasites predator like but do not kill host Parasitoid 7 larvae often eat host alive Evolution Loss of unneeded functions Adaptations that facilitate transmission Coevolution Repeated reciprocal selection leading to adaptation by interacting species Coevolution of antagonistic relationships 7 arms races Predatorprey Hostpatho gen 7 resistance Competition 7 character displacement Mutualism 7 coevolution of symbioses Many examples Plantpollinator systems Gut microbes assisting in digestion Seed dispersal Protection 7 eg Bullhom acacia Evolution by natural selection requires Heritable variation Differential reproduction tness depending on genotype Coevolution involves simultaneous natural selection with each species playing the agent of selection


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