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by: Ezequiel Orn


Ezequiel Orn
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ezequiel Orn on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 321L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/181727/bio-321l-university-of-texas-at-austin in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.




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Date Created: 09/06/15
2000 Edition Entomology Orders and Families of Hexapoda compiled by Wendy L Hodges and C Riley Nelson with numerous past contributors Page and gure numbers refer to Borror TIiplehom amp Johnson 1989 Phylum Arthropoda subphylum Atelocerata Class Hexa o a subclass Entognatha About the subclass Entognatha Your text classifies Entognatha as the sister taxon to lnsecta Members of Entognatha are considered primitiver Wingless and are grouped together in this subclass because the mouth parts are more or less withdrawn into the head Order Protura page 165 Diagnosing Features 0615 mm long whitish eyeless no antennae Habitat moist soilhumus leaf mold under bark decomposing organic matter m habits decomposers Metamorphosis anamorphosis Preservation alcoholslide Order Collembola springtails pages 165168 Diagnosing Features 0256 mm long furculatenaculum 0 to 8 ommatidia collophore Habitat soil or leaf litter under bark decaying logs in fungi ant nests termite nest m habits decomposers Metamorphosis ametabolous Preservation alcoholslide Notes The furcula is a forked structure on the ventral side ofthe fourth abdominal segment which folds into the tenaculum on the ventral side of the third abdominal segment The collophore is an appendage for water uptake Order Diplura pages 169170 Diagnosing Features lt7 mm pale colored two caudal filaments eyelessno ocelli 1segmented tarsi lacks scales Habitat damp places soil under bark stones or logs rotting wood caves m habits decomposers Metamorphosis ametabolous Preservation alcohol Notes In one family the Japygidae the cerci are formed into pincers szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 1 2000 Edition Phylum Arthropoda subphylum Atelocerata Class Hexapoda subclass Insecta Order Microcoryphia bristletails orjumping bristletails pages 171172 Diagnosing Features upto 15 mm long cylindrical body often arched in live specimens compound eyes large and contiguous ocelli body with scales 3segmented tarsi middle and hind coxae usually bear styli 3 caudal filaments which are more or less parallel maxillary palps large and prominent Habitat under leaves in grassywooded areas on cliff sides rocky areas under bark stones dead wood M habits decomposers Metamorphosis ametabolous Preservation alcohol Notes Most are nocturnal and eyes glow at night under flashlight These animals resemble Thysanura quite closely They have the plesiomorphic condition however of monocondylic mandibles Order Thysanura silver sh pages 172174 Diagnosing Features elongate and flattened 3 caudal filaments often with cerci projecting at near right angles from the median caudal filament body with scales usually with compound eyes that are small and widely separated ocelli may be present 35segmented tarsi Habitat homes soil books bookshelves ant nests caves m habits generally decomposers can be household pests Metamorphosis ametabolous Preservation alcohol Notes Their mandibles are dicondylic a feature they share with all the orders of insects which follow One family the Nicoletiidae is found locally in older nests ofthe red imported fire ant Solenogsis invicta Order Ephemeroptera mayflies pages 175185 Diagnosing Features small to mediumsized elongate softbodied 2 or 3 long caudal filaments membranous wings with numerous cross veins forewings large and triangular hind wings rounded small or absent antennae short small and setaceous Habitat rivers streams lakes and ponds M habits generally decomposers Metamorphosis hemimetabolous Preservation alcohol Notes Mayfly wings are held together above the body when at rest Immature stages are aquatic This order is unique in having a winged subimago stage The subimago molts to become an adult Both subadult and adult stages have wings Subimagoes may be distinguished from imagoes adults by the milky color ofthe wings and hairier bodies and wings Mayflies are effective bioindicators of habitat quality szlszd 82900 at 1 009AM page 2 2000 Edition Order Odonata dragonflies and damselflies pages 187201 Diagnosing Features wings are elongate manyveined and membranous large and manyfaceted compound eyes setaceous antennae secondary genitalia on abdominal sternite 2 small prothorax mesothorax and metathorax large and tilted long and slender abdomen chewing mouthparts Habitat near water Metamorphosis hemimetabolous Preservation adults preferably stored in glassine envelopes they may be pinned and spread Notes V ngs are held out from body when at rest due to the lack of appropriate muscles to fold them against the dorsum Odonata use direct flight mechanisms rather than indirect Immatures are aquatic and called nymphs or naiads Suborder Anisoptera dragonflies page 194 hind wings are broader at base than the fore wings held out perpendicular to body midline cannot be flexed or folded to make them more compact nymphs have internal gills in the form of ridges in the rectum nymphs draw water into the rectum through the anus and expels it to breathe They can also use this as a form ofjet propulsion if the insect needs to make a quick escape head is round Family Aeshnidae darners arge with compound eyes largely contiguous touching a considerable distance on dorsal surface of head argest individuals gt75mm brace vein present on proximal end of stigma Family Libellulidae common skimmers ana loop of hind wing forms a boot leg and toe 2075 mm in length usually several up to 100 mm hind margin ofthe eye straight or with a small lobe maes are not lobed on second abdominal segment Family Corduliidae greeneyed skimmers ana loop elongate with a bisector leg but no toe triangle in hind wing opposite the arculus or nearly so geneary dark or metallic with little color on body eyes brillant green in life hind margin of eye slightly lobed 8545 mm in length usually maes do not have a small lobe on each side of second abdominal segment Family Gomphidae clubtails 6075 mm in length posterior tip of abdomen is typically swollen generay dark colored with green or yellow markings stigma less than 8 mm median lobe ofthe labium is not notched szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 3 2000 Edition Suborder Zygoptera damselflies page 198 front and hind wings have the same basic shape can hold wings flexed over body in a somewhat compact fashion nymphs have external gills in the form of 3 leaflike structures at the caudal end of the abdomen aduts are usually smaller and more delicate than dragonfly adults wings are usually attached to the body in a petiolate manner head is flat between the eyes Family Calopterygidae broad winged damselflies wings not on long petiolate stalks Family Coenagrionidae narrow winged damselflies M3 arising near nodus wings flexed over abdomen at rest Family Lestidae M3 arising near arculus wings outstretched at rest Order Grylloblattaria rock crawlers page 203 Diagnosing Features 1530 mm pale slender elongate wingless eyes small or absent no ocelli long and filiform antennae long cerci swordshaped ovipositor in female Habitat glaciers and cold caves amp fissures m habits predators and scavengers on ice fields and below ground Metamorphosis paurometabolous Preservation alcohol Notes This order was discovered in 1914 Order Phasmida walking sticks or leaf insects pages 205207 Diagnosing Features tarsi are usually 5segmented sometimes 3 elongate and stick like body wings are reduced or absent in North American forms Habitat trees or shrubs m habits defoliators Metamorphosis paurometabolous Preservation pinned move appendages close to the body when preparing for storage Notes Some tropical forms are flattened and expanded laterally with welldeveloped hind wings to look like leaves Walking sticks can emit a foulsmelling substance from glands as a means of defense Family Heteronemiidae common walkingsticks wings absent first abdominal tergum much shorter than metanotum vertex without stout spines szlszd 82900 at 1 009AM page 4 2000 Edition Order Orthoptera grasshoppers katydids and crickets pages 208226 Diagnosing Features 34segmented tarsi bitingchewing mouth parts winged or Wingless forewings manyveined and thickened tegmina hind wings broader and membranous body elongate cerci welldeveloped antennae long manysegmented and filiform mpana Habitat trees shrubs grasses M habits most defoliators some predators and decomposers Metamorphosis paurometabolous Preservation pinned near posterior margin of pronotum some in alcohol Notes The hind wings fold under the tegmina Family Acrididae shorthorned grasshoppers pages 214216 antennae are shorter than the body auditory organs tympana are on sides of first abdominal segment 3segmented tarsi short ovipositor Family Tettigoniidae longhorned grasshoppers or katydids pages 217218 long hairlike antennae wings held tentlike tympana on base of front tibia tarsi are 4 segmented laterally flattened bladelike ovipositor Family Gryllidae crickets pages 222223 long hairlike antennae wings held flattened on dorsum of abdomen tympana on base of front tibia tarsi are 3segmented needle like ovipositor forewings bend down sharply on sides of body Family Gryllacrididae cave amp camel crickets pages 220222 wingless often very humpbacked lack tympana tarsi are 4 segmented Notes They can often be collected by setting out a trail of oatmeal at night and checking the trail periodically The adults of this family are preferentially stored in alcohol szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 5 2000 Edition Order Mantodea Praying mantids page 227228 Diagnosing Features large 50 mm long or longer in this area elongate raptorial forelegs extended pronotum which is loosely attached to the pterothorax head is freely movable they can look over their shoulders Habitat trees and shrubs m habits predators Metamorphosis paurometabolous Preservation pinned through the base ofthe wing Family Mantidae Notes Some species are very cryptic resembling leaves twigs or even flowers Females often eat males during or after mating This is the only native family in the United States Order Blattaria cockroaches pages 229233 Diagnosing Features oval dorsoventrally flattened body cursorial legs 5segmented tarsi head concealed dorsally by pronotum Habitat house apartment place of work or local university wooded areas and under tree bark M habits decomposers several species are household pests Metamorphosis paurometabolous Preservation pinned through the middle of the fore wing Family Blattidae Front femur with row of stout long spines equal in length large 18mm or more in length welldeveloped wings in most cases but sometimes short female subgenital plate divided longitudinally Family Polyphagidae ana area of hindwing flat not folded fanwise at rest females often wingless frons thickened and bulging smaller ususally less than 16mm in length Notes One species is found in leafcutter ant nests in Texas and Louisianna szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 6 2000 Edition Order lsoptera termites pages 234241 Diagnosing Features usually white always softbodied abdomen broadly joined to thorax most Wingless if winged wings are membranousforewings and hind wings equal in size moniliform or filiform antennae Habitat under rocks in soil in decaying wood M habits decomposers cellulose specialists Metamorphosis paurometabolous Preservation alcoho Notes This social insect contains protozoa which digest the cellulose that termites ingest This endosymbiotic relationship is an obligate mutualism where both parties need each other lsopteran caste structure consists of soldiers workers and reproductives Family Rhinotermitidae common family in Texas soldiers with large heads longer than broad eongate functional mandibles without marginal teeth Order Dermaptera earwigs pages 242245 Diagnosing Features elongate slender somewhat flattened body forceps like cerci wings shorter than body don t project much over the abdomen filiform antennae 3segmented tarsi chewing mouth parts mandibulate Habitat under bark or other debris decaying plant matter M habits decomposers some defoliators and predators Metamorphosis paurometabolous Preservation pinned through wing or mesothorax Notes Some dermapterans emit a foulsmelling substance as defense Family Forficulidae second tarsal segment dilated and broad extends distally beneath base of third tarsal segment antennae 1216 segmented body brownish or yellowish 4520 mm in length Family Carcinophoridae antennae 1424 segments tegmina with rounded flaps not meeting at base or wingless male right forceps more strongly curned than left 925 mm in length szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 7 2000 Edition Order Embioptera or Embiidina web spinners pages 247249 Diagnosing Features fore leg with basal tarsi enlarged less than 10 mm long antennae filiform or moniliform chewing mouth parts prognathous mouthparts legs are short and stout tarsi 3segmented metathoracic femora enlarged Habitat silken galleries in leaf litter under stones in soil cracks and bark crevices M habits decomposers Metamorphosis paurometabolous Preservation alcohol Notes The basal segment of the fore tarsus is enlarged and contains silk glands Embioptera live in social groups in their silken galleries They can run equally well forward and backward an uncommon feature in insects Order Plecoptera stoneflies pages 250257 Diagnosing Features hind wing usually has large anal lobe softbodied and flattened wings reticulated and fold flat over abdomen fore wings elongated and narrow long antennae usually 3segmented tarsi chewing mouth parts Habitat near streams or rocky lake shores nymphs are aquatic m habits some decomposers others predators Metamorphosis hemimetabolous Preservation alcohol Notes Stoneflies are indicators of the quality of aquatic habitats Family Perlidae common stoneflies 2040 mm in length most commonly collected in the United States front wing with cua if present opposite basal anal cell or distad of it by no more than its own length remnants of branched gills on thorax Order Zoraptera pages 258259 Diagnosing Features 3 mm long or less wings usually absent but occasionally present winged forms are dark colored wingless forms light cerci with long terminal segment Habitat under slabs of wood bark and rotting logs old mill shavings sometimes found in berlese samples m habits decomposers Metamorphosis paurometabolous Preservation alcohol szlszd 82900 at 1 009AM page 8 2000 Edition Order Psocoptera book lice pages 260274 Diagnosing Features mm long or less softbodied swollen clypeus winged or wingless forewings held tentlike over body hind wings greatly reduced or vestigial long antenna 2 or 3segmented tarsi no cerci Habitat in bark or foliage oftrees or shrubs in dead leaves or in old books or papers M habits decomposers Metamorphosis paurometabolous Preservation alcoholslides Order Phthiraptera lice pages 275283 Diagnosing Features Wingless eyes reduced or absent ocelli absent antennae 35segmented Habitat hairs or feathers of bird or mammal hosts near skin M habits parasites Metamorphosis paurometabolous Preservation alcoholslides Notes Lice are ectoparasites on birds and mammals Some are vectors of serious diseases Look for on fresh roadkill Suborder Anoplura fattened body small heads sucking mouthparts wedeveoped claws generally on mammals Suborder Mallophaga fattened body egg shaped head chewing mouthparts simpe claws generally on birds Order Hemiptera true bugs or halfwings pages 284311 Diagnosing Features wings held flat on body with tips crossing apically forewingshemelytra hind wings membranous piercingsucking mouthparts antennae fairly long 45 segments welldeveloped compound eyes in most cases 02 ocelli most with a distinct scutellum Habitat plants water some predacious widely distributed M habits diverse all suck fluids Metamorphosis paurometabolous Preservation pinned in scutellum many are small and should be pointed Notes Many hemipterans have lateral thoracic scent glands which give off a foul odor szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 9 2000 Edition Order Hemiptera cont39d Family Corixidae water boatmen page 295 hind legs are oarlike natatorial swim dorsal side u eongate oval body somewhat flattened usually gray mottled front tarsi forming a one segmented scoop beaks are broad conical and one segmented Family Notonectidae backswimmers page 296 hind legs are oarlike natatorial swim ventral side up body more or less cylindrical often with some ivory white color on body some have hemoglobin hind tarsi without claws Family Naucoridae creeping water bugs page 296 aquatic ova from above dorsoventrally flattened raptoria forelegs with enlarged femora no veins in hemelytra Family Gerridae water striders page 298 eongate middle and hind legs short fore legs a tarsi two segmented Family Belostomatidae giant water bugs page 294 the largest bugs in the order eongateoval and somewhat flattened body raptoria forelegs paterna egg care Family Miridae plant or leaf bugs pages 299300 also see Fig 244 cuneus present in hemelytra only one or two closed cells on the wing membrane antennae and beak are four segmented ack ocelli most are plant feeders but a few are predaceous softbodied most 410 mm often brightly colored Family Reduviidae assassin bugs pages 301303 head elongate with constriction behind the eyes yielding a necklike appearance beak is short and threesegmented and the tip fits into a prosternal groove abdomen often widened in middle exposing lateral abdominal margins beyond wings Family Lygaeidae seed bugs pages 304305 also see Fig 244 four or five simple veins in the membrane of the wing arge variation in size shape and color sometimes with front femora enlarged appearing raptorial many are conspicuously marked with spots or bands of red white or black four segmented antennae four segmented beak ocei present szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 10 2000 Edition Family Largidae generay black insects with bright orange or red markings arge number of veins complex pattern rounded pronotum laterally 6 h visible abdominal sternum in female is cleft Notes some have very short elytra and mimic ants Family Coreidae leaffooted bugs page 306 most species have flattened flange on hind tibia giving a leaflike appearance medium to largesized insects wedeveoped scent glands laterally between the middle and hind coxae hind femora often enlarged and spiny on the males for defense of territory Family Pentatomidae stink bugs pages 307309 round or ovoid shape body looks like a shield in dorsal view 5 segmented antennae many brightly colored or conspicuously marked forms generay large scutellum Order Homoptera cicadas hoppers whiteflies aphids scales pages 312347 Diagnosing Features sucking mouthparts arising from posterior of head appear to arise between front coxae forewings have uniform texture either membranous or thickened and leathery hind wings membranous wings held tentlike over body setaceous or filiform antennae 03 ocelli Habitat widely distributed vegetation M habits plant suckers Metamorphosis paurometabolous some with pupalike stage Preservation pinned or pointed except scales mealybugs psyllids and aphids go in alcohol or on slides Notes All homopterans are plant feeders the only completely phytophagous insect order Family Cicadidae cicadas pages 322325 arge membranous w39ngs setaceous antennae arise anterior to eye Notes Many spend several years underground as nymphs feeding on root fluids Family Cicadellidae leafhoppers pages 325332 uniform row of many spines on hind tibia antenna anterior to eye ocei on scutellum Superfamily Fulgoroidea planthoppers pages 315316 334 antenna below eye may have uniform row of many spines on hind tibia Notes There are several families that are relatively easy to distinguish Family Cercopidae spittlebugs or froghoppers pages 325 327 nymphs in a froth of spittle on plants crown of short spines at apex of hind tibia in addition to one or two long spines Family Membracidae treehoppers pages 325326 enarged pronotum covering wings and abdomen in adults szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 11 2000 Edition Family Aphididae aphids or plant lice pages 336338 cornices present on dorsum of abdomen Superfamily Coccoidea scale insects and mealybugs page 341 sowmoving or sessile generaly wingless but the rarely encountered males have only two wings secrete waxy substances used as dyes commercially Order Thysanoptera thrips pages 350355 Diagnosing Features 0550 mm slender body sucking mouthparts if present wings are like sclerotized rods with fringe of hairs few or no veins short antennae 12segmented tarsi with 1 or 2 claws Habitat composite flowers foliage debris m habits plant raspers some predators Metamorghosis paurometabolous but with pupalike stage Preservation alcoholslides Order Neuroptera alderflies dobsonflies snakeflies lacewings antlions owlflies pages 357367 Diagnosing Features multiveined especially in costal area softbodied 4 membranous reticulated wings wings held tentlike over body but somewhat flattened in Corydalidae mandibulate mouthparts long antennae filiform pectinate clubbed 5segmented tarsi no cerci Habitat some larvae are aquatic others are terrestrial some adults are near water M habits predators Metamorghosis holometabolous Preservation pinned through the mesothorax Notes The neuropterans are sometimes divided among three different orders Megaloptera Rhaphidioptera and Neuroptera Family Corydalidae dobsonflies and fishflies pages 359 363364 ana area of wing enlarged and folded aquatic larvae prominent ocelli arge body some males with huge mandibles sometimes placed with Sialidae in the Megaloptera Family Chrysopidae green lacewings pages 360 365 usuay green or yellow sometimes with a few red body markings fore wing with a single unbranched radial sector Fig 273B costa field with unforked minor veins eggs laid on stalks due to predaceous larval habits Family Hemerobiidae brown lacewings pages 360 365 usuay brown fore wing with several radial sectors Fig 272A costa field often with forked minor veins szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 12 2000 Edition Family Myrmeleontidae antlions pages 362 366367 cubbed antennae antennae as long as head and thorax combined Family Ascalaphidae owlflies pages 367368 antennae as long or nearly as long as body capitate short hypostigmatic cell arvae are found in leaf litter primarily some arboreal Order Coleoptera beetles pages 370476 Diagnosing Features elytra which meet at midline highly diverse sizes from less than 1 mm to 125 mm chewing mouthparts nearly all lack ocelli variety of antennal types Habitat ubiquitous Metamorphosis holometabolous Preservation pinned through right elytron Notes Absolutely the most species rich group in the animal kingdom Suborder Adephaga page 408 1st abdominal sternum divided by hind coxae arge hind trochanters prothorax with notopleural sutures nearly always with filiform antennae 555 tarsal formula Family Carabidae ground beetles page 409 terrestria most are predators cursoria legs head narrowerthan pronotum body usually elongate Family Cicindelidae tiger beetles Pages 408409 1024 mm long primarily ong toothed sickleshaped mandibles often brightly colored or marked with metallic or irridescent patterns antennae arise from front of head head as broad as pronotum Family Dytiscidae predaceous diving beetles page 410412 aquatic predators hind legs like oars fore legs have scoops and are raptorial short maxillary palps body more ovate than elongate szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 13 2000 Edition Suborder Polyphaga page 412 hind coxae do not divide abdominal sternite various antennae tarsal formulae normally without notopleural sutures Family Staphylinidae rove beetles pages 414416 truncate elytra usually with functional hind wings beneath elytra 67 visible abdominal sterna most are decomposers some predators Family Hydrophilidae water scavenger beetles page 417 aquatic short clubbed antennae long maxillary palps metasternum often with elongate metasternal keel carry a plastron for respiration underwater decomposers scavengers Family Scarabaeidae scarab and dung beetles pages 419426 heavy bodied ovalconvex elongate beetles front tibia somewhat dilated lamellate antennae diverse food habits often root and dung feeders as larvae Family Buprestidae wood boring beetles pages 426427 metalic at least on venter hardbodied buetshaped in dorsal view head is hemispherical wood miners Family Elateridae click beetles pages 429431 cick mechanism flexible at prothorax with prosternal spine fitting into mesosternal groove posterior margins of prothorax with points or spines antennae usually serrate body parallel sided and rounded at each end decomposers or root feeders Family Lampyridae fireflies page 432 also see Fig 2851 soft elytra pronotum obscures head from view from above pronotum often with clear windows not all produce light predators Family Dermestidae skin beetles pages 433434 usually small oval to convex short clubbed antennae usualy hairy or scaly especially on venter median ocellus present a rare condition in beetles Family Coccinellidae ladybird beetle pages 441442 body hemispherical short clavate antennae 833 tarsal formula head concealed by pronotum predators szlszd 82900 at 1 009AM page 14 2000 Edition Family Tenebrionidae darkling beetles pages 445446 usuay hardbodied eyes notched with antennae arising from a cleft 554 tarsal formula decomposers Family Meloidae blister beetles pages 446448 oose connection between head and prothorax tips of elytra rounded and allow abdomen to be seen parasites of other insects pollen feeders Family Cerambycidae longhorned beetles pages 449454 antennae greater than onehalf the length of body often very long tarsa formula appears to be 444 with third segment bilobed and concealing fourth in notch body usually elongate cylindrical wood miners Family Chrysomelidae leaf beetles pages 455459 antennae shorter than in cerambycids tarsa formula appears to be 444 with third segment bilobed and concealing fourth in notch body usually hemispherical defoiators or leaf miners Family Curculionidae snout beetles or weevils pages 464473 cubbed geniculate antennae often with long snouts diverse feeding strategies usually on plants Family Scolytidae bark beetles pages 474476 small and cylindrical posterior apex of body often obliquely truncate in lateral view sometimes with tubercles Order Strepsiptera twistedwing parasites pages 479481 Diagnosing Features small 05 20 mm males with protruding raspberrylike eyes with few ommatidia males freeliving and winged hind wings large and membranous fanlike with reduced venation forewings reduced to clublike structures like dipteran halteres females are eyeless wingless and legless in most cases Habitat in hosts Hymenoptera Homoptera Orthoptera Hemiptera and Thysanura M habits parasites Metamorphosis holometabolous hypermetamorphic Preservation alcohol pinned if found in host szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 15 2000 Edition Order Mecoptera scorpionflies and hanging flies pages 482488 Diagnosing Features 922 mm slender body head clypeus often prolonged below eyes as a beak rostrum most have 4 membranous wings similar in size and venation Habitat around vegetation dense decaying matter M habits decomposers scavengers of dead insects Metamorphosis holometabolous Preservation pinned through right side of mesonotum Family Panorpidae scorpionflies page 486 genita segments of males curls up over abdomen such that it resembles a scorpion very elongate rostrum Order Siphonaptera fleas pages 489497 Diagnosing Features laterally flattened Wingless small 05 20 mm numerous backwardprojecting spines and bristles long legs with enlarged coxae forjumpingsaltatorial hind legs short antennae in grooves on head piercing sucking mouthparts Habitat hosts birds and mammals and their nestshomes M habits parasites Metamorphosis holometabolous Preservation alcohol Order Diptera flies pages 499575 Diagnosing Features one pair of wings halteres diverse mouthparts including piercing sucking cutting and lapping or sponging but plesiomorphic biting and chewing type not represented Habitat ubiquitous M habits diverse Metamorphosis holometabolous Preservation pinned or pointed Notes The halteres have been functionally modified as organs of equilibrium during flight Suborder Nematocera longhorned flies page 535 approximately 6 antennal segments usually delicate flies with long legs Family Tipulidae crane flies page 535 V on mesonotum many veins in wings egs break off easily decomposers and predators Family Culicidae mosquitoes pages 541544 ong proboscis scaes on wing veins and on mouthparts of males aquatic as larvae femaes often bloodsuckers pumose antennae szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 16 2000 Edition Family Chironomidae midges pages 546547 scuteum with midline suture front tarsi lengthened ong narrow wings without scales M unbranched often plumose antennae especially prominent in males decomposers Suborder Brachycera shorthorned flies page 547 three to six antennal segments usually stout flies Family Tabanidae horsedeer flies pages 548549 R4 and R5 divergent enclose wing tipsapical cell widely open forming a V caypteres large third antennal segment elongate usually annulated mae eyes contiguous female with blade like mouthparts bood feeders Family Bombyliidae bee flies page 555 beelike colors due to hairs or scales Rm and R4 sinuous styate antennae many with long proboscis parasites of many insect orders especially Hymenoptera Family Asilidae robber flies page 553 sunken vertex with a turret of ocelli face bearded mystax arge generally hairy scerotized proboscis styate antennae lnfraorder Muscomorpha Circularseamed flies aristate antennae Rs bifurcate Family Syrphidae hover flies pages 557558 spurious vein between R5 and M1 bee and wasp mimics R veins sinuate beelike colors often based in sclerites predators and decom posers Section Acalypterata No transverse suture on mesonotum No calypteres No dorsal longitudinal suture on pedicel Family Drosophilidae page 566 broken C at Sc and h sunken face pectinate arista decomposers szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 1 7 2000 Edition Section Calypterata calypteres developed fig 324 p 505 longitudinal suture on pedice mesonotum with transverse suture Family Muscidae pages 568569 no hypopleural or pteropleural bristles Cu22A does not reach wing margin fig 3213D if stripes on mesonotum there are decomposers Family Calliphoridae page 569 often metallic hypopleural bristles present arista plumose at ip 2 notopleural bristles comblike decomposers Family Sarcophagidae pages 569570 usually 3 black mesonotal stripes hypopleural bristles present decomposers and parasites Family Tachinidae pages 571573 subscutellum present welldeveloped arista bare hypopleural bristles present parasites of insects Extras Family Tephritidae fruit flies pages 560562 patterned wings Sc bent abruptly 90 degrees not quite reaching costa fig 32208 p524 fruit eaters and decomposers Family Anthomyiidae pages 567568 Cu22A long reaching wing margin subscutelar hairs no hypopleural bristles Family Sepsidae page 565 antlike with apical spot in wing like to twirl their wings bristle near metathoracic spiracle decomposers especially decaying flesh Family Chloropidae page 566 shiny ocellar triangle decomposers some plant feeders CuA has a kink in the vein szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 18 2000 Edition Order Trichoptera caddisflies pages 576587 Diagnosing Features small to mediumsized most are dullcolored slender body four membranous wings which are very hairy and have scales wings held tentlike over body antennae long and slender filiform chewing mouthparts welldeveloped palps but reduced mandibles in adults larvae are aquatic some build rock or stick cases Habitat near water Food habits decomposers and some predators Metamorphosis holometabolous Preservation alcohol large adults pinned through mesonotum Family Hydropsychidae netspinning caddisflies adults with 5 segmented maxillary palps last segment elongated no ocelli no warts on mesoscutum brownish coloration larvae with retreat made of pebbles sand debris with a cupshaped net close by found in strong currents Family Leptoceridae longhorned caddisflies sender pale 517 mm in length very long antennae up to twice as long as body mesothoracic tibiae without preapical spurs Order Lepidoptera moths and butterflies pages 588664 Diagnosing Features scales on wings adult mouthparts are sucking larvae have chewing mouthparts large compound eyes Habitat ubiquitous M habits diverse many are plant feeders Metamorphosis holometabolous Preservation pinned and spread Notes Lepidoptera can be split into 2 primary groups the moths and butterflies Moths are generally nocturnal and the fore and hind wings are hooked together by a frenulum orjugum Butterflies are generally diurnal and have clavate or capitate antennae Their hind wings overlap but are not hooked together Butterflies Family Papilionidae swallowtails page 638 usually have one or more tail like elongations on the hind wing Figs 3457 Family Pieridae whites sulphurs and orangetips page 639 mediumsized to small usually white or yellowish in color with black marginal wing markings radius in the front wing is usually 3 or 4 branched front legs well developed Family Lycaenidae coppers hairstreaks blues harvesters and metalmarks page 640 small and delicate brightly colored with slender body antennae usually ringed white line of white scales encircling the eyes some with delicate tails on hind margin of hind wing szlszd 82900 at 1 009AM page 19 2000 Edition Family Nymphalidae brushfooted butterflies pages 642643 reduced forelegs which lack claws brushfooted only the middle and hind legs are used in walking very common family Family Danaidae milkweed butterflies monarchs page 645 arge and brightly colored butterflies usually brownish with black and white markings quotbrush footedquot and don39t use their forelegs for walking radius in the fore wing is Sbranched fore wing discal cell is closed by awelldeveloped branch short third anal vein in the fore wing Family Hesperiidae skippers pages 636637 usually small and stoutbodied wing veins arise from discal cell none of the five R branches in fore wing are stalked Fig 348 antennae are hooked Fig 3456 and widely separated Moths Family Saturniidae giant silkworm moth pages 649651 North American species may have a wingspread of about 150 mm many are brightly or conspicuously colored and have transparent eye spots in the wings antennae are bipectinate mouthparts are reduced and the adults do not feed Family Sphingidae sphinx hawk or hummingbird moths pages 652654 mediumsized to large heavybodied somewhat spindleshaped and tapering at both ends ong narrow forewings antennae are slightly thickened in the middle or toward the ti arvae are called hornworms due to horn or spinelike process on dorsum of posterior end Family Arctiidae tiger moths pages 655657 most are brightly spotted or banded small to mediumsized often white or brownish Sc and Rs in the hind wing are usually fused to about the middle of the discal cell Fig 3426 arvae called woolybears pectinate or plumose antennae Family Noctuidae pages 657660 mosty heavy bodied forewings somewhat narrowed hind wings broadened Figs 3485 3486 abia palps are long very thin antennae szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 20 2000 Edition Order Hymenoptera sawflies parasitic wasps ants wasps and bees pages 665744 Diagnosing Features winged species have four membranous wings hind wings are smaller than forewings hamuli located on the anterior margin ofthe hind wings connect hind and forewings tarsi usually 5segmented welldeveloped ovipositor some species ovipositors are modified into a sting antennae long usually 10 segments mandibulate mouthparts Habitat particularly near vegetation and flowers M habits diverse Metamorphosis holometabolous Preservation pinned through right side of mesonotum Suborder Symphyta page 701 abdomen broadly joined to thorax trochanters 2 segmented usually 3 closed cells at the base of hind wing Fig 351 SuperFamily Tenthredinoidea Families Tenthridinidae and Argidae ovipositor saw like antennae between the eyes anterior tibia with 2 apical spurs costal cell not divided in the front wing by an intercostal vein and only 12 marginal cells larvae can be defoliators gall makers or leaf miners Suborder Apocrita pages 704705 basal segment of abdomen fused with thorax and separated from abdomen by constriction petiolate 1 or 2 segmented trochanters no more than 2 closed cells at the base of hind wing Family Ichneumonidae pages 708711 also see Figs 3546 3532 2 trochanters ovipositors longer than body 16 antennal segments 2 mcu recurrent veins Fig 35318 parasites Family Braconidae pages 707708 gs 3544 3545 small less than 15 mm no costal cell 2 trochanters one or no mcu crossvein 2 d and 3rd metasomatic tergites are fused Superfamily Chalcidoidea pages 711712 also see Figs 3548 3550 3551 3553 inute elbowed antennae reduced wing venation parasites Family Pompilidae spider wasps page 735 also see Figs 3534 3577 collared pronotum transverse mesopleural suture predatorparasite of spiders antennae often curled szrsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 21 2000 Edition Family Sphecidae digger wasps pages 724727 also see Figs 3562 3564 3565 coared pronotum with lobes below tegula fig 354 vertica sulcus on mesopleuron usually not very hairy Family Vespidae paper wasps yellow jackets hornets pages 736 also see Fig 3580 pronotum forms a V predators often specific in prey types gathered for young genicuate antennae Family Mutillidae velvet ants page 734 also see Fig 3576 femaes wingless males winged covered with dense hairs parasites Family Formicidae ants pages 737739 also see Fig 3583 12 nodes on petiole antennae elbowed usually diverse feeding strategies Superfamily Apoidea bees pages 727728 pronotum terminates laterally in rounded lobes as in sphecids hairs of thorax plumose scopae or corbiculae for carrying pollen pollen and nectar gatherers Note The superfamily Apoidea includes the following three families along with some others Family Apidae page 732 also see Fig 3566 3573 honey bees and bumble bees broad corbicula on hind leg pygidial plate absent Family Halictidae sweat bees pages 729730 also see Fig 35136 small to moderate size often metallic strongy arched first free segment of medial vein Family Megachilidae pages 730732 also see Fig 3569 femaes with hair patch on underside of abdomen scopa szxsed 82900 at 1 009AM page 22


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