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by: Ezequiel Orn


Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Biology > BIO 361T > COMPARATIVE ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
Ezequiel Orn
GPA 3.89


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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ezequiel Orn on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 361T at University of Texas at Austin taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see /class/181744/bio-361t-university-of-texas-at-austin in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.




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Date Created: 09/06/15
41 Neural Circuits BIO 361T Fall 2014 1 If a cat steps on something sharp with its forepaw it will reflexiver withdraw its foot by contracting its biceps muscle and relaxing its triceps a What other re ex do you know of that involves limbs in a tetrapod mammal Patellar re ex in human legs b Use this as a model to draw a hypothetical labeled diagram of what happens in the cat Ascendan pathway in hrain a 77 arm Mammy mp 39 y may BICEPS ilexor contracts Tnceps extanscr relaxes Stimulates lnhtbils o ExciIatcry inlemeumn o lt lnhibilory memeumn Foot withdrawn nespunse 2 Explain how excitation of the Mauthner cell on one side of a teleost fish results in inhibition of the muscles in the ipsilateral same side body wall Draw a diagram if it is helpful Mauthner cell excites an inhibitory interneuron which inhibits the contralateral Mauthner cell which controls the ipsilateral body wall 3 The reliability and speed of the escape reflex is crucial for a fish s survival For each of the following features of this neural circuit denote whether it increases reliability likelihood of responding appropriately to a stimulus speed or both Explain your answer a Convergence of multiple sensory afferents onto one Mauthner cell Reliability by spatially summing inputs the chance of reaching threshold and fning is higher b Electrical synapses between some sensory afferents and the Mauthner cell Speed electrotonic conduction is faster than diffusion of chemical signals c Large axon diameter of Mauthner cell Speed by decreasing Rm but decreasing Ri even more the length constant increases so an electrical signal can go farther in the same amount of time d Contralateral inhibition Reliability by only exciting the ipsilateral Mauthner cell only the contralateral side contracts 4 Scavenger hunt In this activity there is an example of each of the following principles Indicate where each one is found a Krogh s principle 2 b Excitatory chemical synapse everywhere c Inhibitory chemical synapse either cat or fish reflex d Spatial summation 3a e Increasing 9t 3c f Pure electrotonic conduction 3b 5 Based on the three re ex arcs you have learned write out the process of a generalized reflex arc Sensory afferent detects stimulus Sensory afferent fires AP Motor efferent is excited Motor efferent fires AP Muscle contracts 13 1 OsmoRegulation BIO361T Fall 2014 1 When an animal eats an abundance of salt Why Will it retain more water Total osmolarity in the body increases because salt has increased but water has not salt Will be absorbed into the plasma through the digestive epithelia Kidneys need to increase salt excretion While maintaining water retention Kidneys Will excrete small amounts of concentrated urine to bring salt back down and keep water up When water is retained blood volume increases However the kidney has many mechanisms to maintain filtration rates in spite of changes in blood volume and pressure Fill in the following ow chart to illustrate hoW the kidney uses myogenic regulation to maintain normal rates of filtration When blood volume increases 1 magi wallImp L in biggd PWSIUm L n 39n vv39 L 39 l mth 0mm At a um are Smi iil w n QWM mi gt L L If He at 19 jla vm ultw n mt 5c EL pvt3 is two L Jame 1 m a smirbzww L pilg 39i if f titLU a 3 How does the kidney also use tubuloglomerular feedback to maintain normal rates of filtration in the face of an increase in blood volume 54ka Gad KNEE WA Vaivxmz can C11 a 352 Q ims gk e V JV T am vi Vi mm Q A U I i 7r calW r a h 39 B I 5 N i uwa i W quot T u m b WW A y UV if wa 39 RAM 397 quotr 1 l Gama Hang A ALL I a i I m0 5 m A ma LL15 0151 P l LR can if MJCAIJ J vi L W L vv 39 AW A m 5 W pt 394 7er I N 3V1 klhi i t 3 9 5118 1 womb M Malina J13 M A 3 M S yuj v Nld L NIquot 39 glyobmm omidn39c w v I How does the juxtaglomerular apparatus prevent both the afferent and efferent arteriole from being vasoconstricted simultaneously When the macula densa release ATP and it is converted into adenosine this constricts the afferent arteriole and inhibits renin release from the juxtaglomerular cells This prevents constriction of the efferent arteriole Although systemic changes in blood pressure and volume do not cause changes in filtration filtration does affect systemic blood pressure and volume For example when blood osmolarity is too high arginine vasopressin AVP is released into the bloodstream How does AVP then decrease blood osmolarity back to normal values Insert aquaporins into collecting ducts 9 increase H20 reabsorption T Martl whim lbw mf salutes gin IN m 7 curd swim if S W50 9nm SM u l39 K 1 mg L 1 f NSJavm m rkgrkrJl39 d rf39wrv may in va39 5 quotWm y 4 439 m mecmi L 3quot bl yl 334531ng I 39 Elf budii 398 I L W W mm W ll MUM quotham WACBLLH iv T xxg Iv or 4 Te LitaLA 3 3 l Why is vasopressinvasotocin also called anti diuretic hormone ADH It has the opposite effect of a diuretic which results in the excretion of large volumes of dilute urine Vasopressin increases H20 reabsorption which resultsin the excretion of small volumes of more concentrated urine How is the effect of ADH magnified by the loop of Henle Urine is at its maximal concentration at the tip of the loop due to the countercurrent multiplier between the ascending and descending limbs Thus the osmolarity of the kidney increases deeper into the medulla As urine goes down the collecting duct it goes deeper into the kidney through the medulla and into the pelvis The osmolarity gradient will be higher which will draw more H20 out of the aquaporins inserted by ADH further concentrating the urine as it approaches the renal pelvis 10 When blood pressure drops too low renin is released from the juxtaglomerular apparatus How does renin increase blood pressure By angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction and increases thirst to increase blood volume By aldosterone increases Na and thus H20 reabsorption in distal tubule and collecting duct to increase blood volume OASWi quot W L mock Al WA 9 UJIYEU l ch k39 0amp3 Ur L t om l bwd quotrcin m h l P l M 3 0L3 539 LGquotS N39t L39T w ballwt bra I all 1 a L a m mm in WV wm w K I K 391 m r W k W Rtelt39 MA f so 3 l any ow h n 35 395 Nu b 139 if wtva U X39s L ALI L IW39JU I w4 Mu ivyquot 3 I hn 139 CK in 7 105 lief J a 2 JCSLa lt 01 cl max wmbw t mi MN VJFF mariare i T X g redji an 3am for V N 03 CWme 9 NEXT Iii My on m quotNWM werede 959quot Why does aldosterone take several hours to increase Na reabsorption It exerts its effects by altering gene expression The genes have to be transcribed and translated and the proteins have to be transported to and inserted into the membrane Because aldosterone is a steroid hormone it is non polar and can diffuse across the cell membrane just like sex steroid hormones like testosterone or estradiol It translocates to the nucleus Where it binds a transcription factor and activates transcription of ion channel genes Predict how each of the following Will affect renin release a Increase in blood pressure Inhibits renin release Which Will prevent H20 reabsorption in the distal tubule and collecting duct and thereby increase H20 excretion Detected by stretch receptors in the atria carotid artery and aorta that also decrease ADH release to further decrease H20 reabsorption in the collecting duct Increase in plasma K Activates renin release Which stimulates aldosterone release Which increases NaK ATPase in distal tubule and collecting duct that actively secretes K into filtrate Renin also stimulates release of ADH Decrease in GFR and filtrate flow Activates renin release which vasoconstricts the efferent arteriole and increases blood volume 11 When blood volume is high atrial natriuretic peptide is released What pathways are inhibited by ANP and how will this decrease blood volume 1 stimulus for ANP release is atrial distension The reninangiotensinaldosterone pathway ANP inhibits the release of renin which inhibits the formation of angiotensin II which decreases thirst and inhibits aldosterone release AN P also directly inhibits the release of aldosterone which will decrease Na and H20 reabsorption and increase K secretion in the distal tubule and collecting duct If Na is excreted instead H20 will follow reducing the volume of uid in the body ANP also inhibits the release of ADH which will further prevent H20 reabsorption in the collecting duct 12 Fill in the following table showing how each regulatory mechanism responds to changes in the kidney or cardiovascular system Note that these are negative feedback mechanisms of regulation I f a mechanism responds to high GFR that means it will lower GFR and vice versa Intrinsic regulatory mechanism High GFR causes Low GF R causes Mesangial cells Mesangial cell contraction which decreases GFR Mesangial cell relaxation which increases GFR Myogenic regulation Afferent arteriole constriction Efferent arteriole dilation Afferent arteriole dilation Efferent arteriole constriction Tubuloglomerular feedback Macula densa releases ATP which constricts afferent arteriole Macula densa releases prostaglandins juxtaglomerular cells release renin which constricts efferent arteriole Extrinsic regulatory mechanism High blood pressure causes Low blood pressure causes VasopressinADH Less ADH release less H20 reabsorption more H20 excretion ADH release more aquaporins in collecting duct more H20 reabsorption higher blood volume Reninangiotensinaldosterone pathway Less renin release less Na and H20 reabsorption more excretion more K secretion Renin release more Na and H20 reabsorption higher blood volume vasoconstriction more H20 intake Atrial natriuretic peptide ANP release less reninangiotensinaldosterone ADH release more Na and H20 excretion Less ANP release more reninangiotensinaldosterone ADH release more reabsorption higher blood volume 13 Elasmobranchs also use ANP for osmoregulation when they eat salty foods Based on how ANP works in mammals predict how ANP will affect the rectal gland of an elasmobranch Blood VIP i gt E Rectal gland cell 1E G protein Adenylate cyclase Ls Rectal gland lumen Increase ingested salt 9 more salt diffuses through gut epithelia into blood 9 circulates to atria Atria release ANP which stimulates insertion of apical Cl39 channels that increase Clquot secretion and excretion by the rectal gland ANP circulates through the blood and stimulates vasoactive intestinal peptide VIP which binds a GPCR on the rectal gland cell By a G proteiniactivated cascade vesicles containing Cl channels are targeted to the apical membrane 122 Osmoregulation The Kidney BIO 361T Fall 2014 1 Draw a mammalian nephron labeling each section film on concentrated diluted a Indicate how it differs from the nephron of a reptile N 0 loop of Henle b Label where filtration secretion and reabsorption occur including solute examples for each c Label where Na is reabsorbed and whether it is passive or active 1 Label where H20 is reabsorbed Explain this mechanism Follows solute concentration through aquaporins e Label where the filtrate is being concentrated and diluted 2 The diagram above now illustrates the single effect in the nephron How is this multiplied by the loop of Henle Give a detailed mechanism This is a good opportunity to practice drawing Single effect osmolarity gradient generated between ascending limb and medullary interstitium Multiplied As filtrate ows up the ascending limb of the loop it is progressively diluted by NaCl reabsorption This reabsorbed solute then draws water from the nearby descending limb so that the filtrate owing down through the descending limb is progressively concentrated by this osmotic removal of water Via this recycling mechanism the osmotic concentration at the tip of the longest loops may reach levels of many thousands of mOsmkg HZO and it is this concentration that limits the concentration of the urine Greenwald ltrate being ltrate beingmaZV diluted concentrated W L 9quot Why does length of the loop of Henle when examined across a wide range of animals correlate to maximum urine concentration As animals get larger so do their kidneys As kidneys get larger their loops of Henle getlonger If the countercurrent multiplier of the loop is longer it has a greater effect by the tip of the loop the urine is extremely concentrated in solutes that the body needs to get rid of This sets up an extensive gradient in the interstitial uid of the kidney that will drive HZO reabsorption in the collecting duct concentrating the urine Do you think larger kidneys will always produce more concentrated urine Explain your answer Based on the countercurrent mechanism alone one would predict that absolute loop length would correlate with maxim urine concentration However there are other mechanisms that concentrate the urine Further measurements of loop length and maximal urine concentration between small and large mammals shows that this is not absolutely true For example small desert rodents whose loops of Henle are quite short in absolute terms 7714 mm produce the most osmotically concentrated of mammalian urines with some concentrations exceeding 8000 mosmkg H20 Larger mammals for example cows sheep and horses with much longer loops 37 mm for the horse produce urines of much lower maximal concentrations eg 1800 mosmkg HZO for horse Umxisee Greenwald and Stetson 1988 for other examples These data which show that Um decreases with increasing loop length are exactly the opposite of what we are generally led to expect from countercurrent theory Greenwald 1989 Suggest two other mechanisms that may differ between mammalian taxa to explain differences in urine concentration collecting ducts in larger mammals might be less sensitive to hormonal regulation larger space between ascending and descending tubes might lessen the impact of the countercurrent multiplier ascending limbs in larger mammals might be permeable to water more blood ow in larger mammals might wash out the osmotic gradient in the interstitial fluid of the kidney More basolateral membrane infolding which may correlate to NaK ATPase concentration Higher concentration of mitochondria which means more ATP for pumping Na out These last two differences are evident in electron micrograph photos of the mick ascending limbs of horses vs big brown bats Greenwald and Stetson 1988 Why did doctors used to taste a patient s urine to test for diabetes Include a molecular mechanism for what is going wrong in the kidney Diabetes is a failure to properly metabolize sugar either because insulin is not producedType I or the body does not recogmize itType 11 Sugar is higher than normal in the blood Whereas 100 of glucose is normally reabsorbed by secondary active transport through a NalGlc symporter that is driven by the Na gradient set up by the basolateral NaK ATPase an accumulation of sugar in the blood will decrease the concentration gradient for Glc Instead it will accumulate in the urine because it can no longer be reabsorbed 122 Kidneys The vertebrate kidney is responsible for several crucial osmoregulatory functions filtration ofthe blood active secretion of solutes from the blood reabsorption of solutes into the blood and excretion By regulating solute and water balance the kidney also regulates blood pressure and pH balance in the body There is a lot of variation in kidney structure which has been shaped by the selective pressure of osmoregulating in different environments such as aquatic habitats terrestrial habitats food availability and diet In general the vertebrate kidney has become more extensive over evolutionary time with the transition from seawater to freshwater and with the transition from water to land Around 400 mya the first amphibians transitioned to land In larval forms amphibians have pronephros from Greek before kidneys for formation and excretion of urine These are fairly simple structures with tubules nephric ducts that open into their coelom body cavity Capillary aggregates called glomi singular glomus are closely associated with the openings ofthe ducts to facilitate filtration of the blood Like in aquatic molluscs and annelids blood is filtered between leaky podocytes in the capillaries due to blood pressure in the glomi Water and small solutes are able to squeeze between the podocytes the blood retains its cells and macromolecules The filtrate is collected by the ducts and conducted to the outside of the body for excretion Recall that in their larval stages amphibians breathe water using gills and also exchange a lot of gas through their skin Like freshwater fish there is little need for water retention and they excrete large amounts of dilute urine As the amphibian metamorphoses into an adult its gills are resorbed and its lungs mature Although it is still dependent on water to maintain the moisture of its skin to facilitate C02 release and 02 absorption to a lesser degree it now breathes air and lives on land where it has adaptations to retain water lts bladder restructures to facilitate water reabsorption and its kidneys restructure into more organized efficient units called nephrons The glomi become more organized forming blood filtration units called glomeruli singular glomerulus The figure below illustrates the larval amphibian kidney pronephros and adult amphibian kidney mesonephros or metanephros in some More recently evolved vertebrates also go through these stages during development but only the adult stage metanephros is functional This is an illustration of recapitulation theory that as animals develop they progress through embryonic stages that resemble their ancestors adult forms in order of evolution Although there are many examples ofthis also phrased as ontogeny recapitulates phylogenyquot there are as many counterexamples For example a chick does not resemble an adult reptile during any point of its embryonic development However this theory posited by many but most often attributed to Ernst Haeckel 18341919 is an interesting observation on embryonic development and possibly one that reflects how much animal genomes have in common across taxa lf animals develop using many of the same genes it is not surprising that they would go through similar stages during ontogeny Kidney quotw ham 1 and 39 L I 39 I I c Pmnenhms 3 Mmmnnm Melanuvmus a sz agk 2 up Aunuh 39 m WWW e m mw u newmm deg39mmquotquotg uquot quotcam nmmvnmm 1 Ghrmm 1 Nanhmsvomu memmr N quotquotquot39gt quot thxmnlmr mm mumo g amemms cucimn Gmmv m39m CnL mm Mesmwphuc v mm 1 i guveabuve mm n seem n s mpur an u keep m mm the pvmmp es ule echuchemmd gyameme passwe vs acme hanspur and m h v N m eemamsw rmHmn nepmens m vascu amve Many emese enwunmenL we metabuh acwwty etc Each segmem uHhe tubu e has epnhehaw ceHsma dwev m shuduve and anmzn39s capsulercuHeds mmamhvate mm g umevu av eapuxanes 7 39 39 h 39 w sume secveuun huvmuna vegu auun n a hymnhm hn 2mm Nephrons are the functional units uf the vertebrate kidney Secliun of he maplme are differentiated by cell mumm and pro le cf trampurt proteins and thus mcliun Anenmes mm H n m n g ucuse ammu amds m amd muvea dependmg an m spemes and same Wamms mxms and was Them ave vulnmnrulnr lillrminn me 3 n ma mm m m human may 3 L gasmmeu appmwma e y evevy mmmas Blood is mum through the glomerular capillaran mm Bowmns capsule En ulhallul Fun places aquot oi pudener Endolhallll cull av capillary capmurlu w Maslnglll call Pedncyle lb slomomlavcapumlu ll Glnmarnm mum a Glumnrullr mm mumnuny Wm The mum u th u pm Mwatey Fm mm y y backmtu 012 m mm mm 0mm m w m WatevWHHuHuw Aha h w m h n mm Same mm mHm q m mbu e sub ances even agamst a cuncemvatmn gvamem membvanes Tm m a gwen nephmn each sum has a mamum cuncemvauun mm m nephmn can mummy A39 I Pm maltubule Easolaxeral membvm lul lelii cell membrane capillary Reabsorption of endomenan uquot solutes and water occurs primarily in he pruxima lu ule Each solute 1r 4 renal threshold ue to number of transport proteins Parlmbulnr m Pullubulur quotqu M S e g mmnn 3quot g rug aluminum1 Kmmn m nephvun Cunespundmg these mm Each kmney has me magma Empues mm m b addev Mammalian Imphrom vary in position mum the ki my and loop 01 Henle length Naphmn T s Conlul Jummeuuunry ephmn nepmyn urinary system Reduced water amulnlulny Longer loops m Hen e Slum 190n g x g L J m m H mm mm uHhe mum mcveases mm mm panama mm mm the meduHa w n M Because we wam Huweveh m we Thwswm dee m reamorpnon Same K W be mam and same wm be reabsuvbed as mm ave tvanspun pvmemsmv K my mum Mvate meywm accumma e m we meduHa mcveasmg me mtevs ma usmu amy descendmg hmb h v ucan m mam Watey The ascending 1mm sets up an osmotic grudie Tom mm comenmlnn mam 111mquot mnmng quotml dw aHubu e Same sans and Watey ave veabsuybed bythese ceHs Pvutunsand K ave anwe y swam uwevmg guve be uw my tempuvavy smvage m n h m y We mama 123 OsmoRegulation 1117 l have updated the reading to clarify a few confusing points and align it better with the activity These changes are noted in blue Between mammalian taxa the ability ofthe kidney to concentrate urine is affected by the loop of Henle As filtrate travels up the ascending limb Na is passively and actively reabsorbed causing the filtrate to become more dilute than the interstitium the single effect This is multiplied by countercurrent exchange between the descending limb and the ascending limb One might expect that a longer loop of Henle results in more concentrated urine as the countercurrent multiplier will span a larger distance and have a greater effect If larger kidneys have longer loops it is reasonable to expect that these animals would produce more concentrated urine which is generally true However there are exceptions For example some desert rodents are highly adapted to retain water and produce extremely concentrated urine They have much smaller kidneys and shorter loops of Henle than large mammals but they produce much more concentrated urine Read the following brief paper by Greenwald and Stetson 1988 39 39 39 391099761Ifiles35307177download HOHNcOBRQnTm5 eampwra 1 aquot rnrifinrnnnnDVhTzDDY quot h I quotI quot5370 tr I7 mnDVhTzDIDY HOHNcOBRQnTm5 eampwra 1 to learn more about hypothetical and observed differences that may account for this apparent contradiction M mamquot nu lnburmaxy m um nwnu xmls SW Wmm Wu wm m w ww w MWHM an A 1 qu my In mud m any mummmxz Hymn m WNW w me ecmve quotmm 39 I rrow size range 5 39 max urine absolute mquot loop length 531nm 39 39 I V Vide size range mquot max urine im39 E quot absolute loop length 239 1 m a v lVzy 1035117 711111 11mm with absolute 00 lenglh Cmpirically 39 Max urine relative h 39 Relative 00p length inv bndy size 39 Thus max urine msz loop lelwt n m Mm Aqua AqualK mu m m 1 m 1 udy M45 My on ln5 ule Mechanistically w mu m n w n pvessuve uvvulume eapuxanes and the em pvucesses e the puducytes excludmg anylhmg lavgevthan 14 nm m dwametev These ave bland thvuugh the glumevulus GFR l5 typmally expvessed m umts e1 mL bluud mm m2 Fm example m humans e mal GFR yangesnemau m 12H mLm 71173 m2 GFR 5 a cumbmatmn uHhvee wees 1 Bland 2 3 Osmutm pvessuve due m 3ng pmtem m the bluud m nncnlic pressure hydvustatm pvessuve m the glumemlav eapuxanes each Enulnl Bewmm s Slum mm 7 r Tau421 Iruymrnvnw In Ghmumlnrrmram anr an M mm mm IN Glumuulnr capillary Mood mm wun mmmuu Plnmnvnllnid ppmcs lxmlinn m V mull pmmm nwman39i causal 0mm mu Is 01 hydxmmic wanu Nellihraliun mm Fawn hmlixm warnmm mm Ionx luvo ng lmion and lam oDPuiinu mmm mm I u 122 These ave Aha sums um mum g umem av capwHaHes theveby veducmg GFR As a mum ess m N y GFR n Cunvevse y mm 39 rm my g umem us decveases due a 2mm d ahun GFR Wm decvease m m y mm 39 Tugemev Jux ag umem av appamus Gav mm Enamnl mm VandalquotHim mums ween rm um um wandm decveasmg GFR 0m mpun Na and basa ateva WM ATPasesmat amwe y expun Na WH EH vesuhs m Na yeapsmpuen mm me pumped up and me eeu sweHs Thwamwates snatchrsensmve membvane charme sma MATP passwe y eseape he eeu 39 me neavby alleremanenoe theveby decveasmg GFR backm nunna WhenGFR wsmu Jux ag umem av ceHs Whmh Hne We a eyem anevm e When MEJuxlag umevu av eeus ave summed by m lt1 m mp By cunsmclmg We elleven enemaems sys em bnngs GFR back up u nume MAP quotmm mm uvevaH weed pvessuve m We anepes Humm ol numm snarl1h l Myusunlc lagulmian 1b Yubulwlomumllv loe hlck m m way m h dw evem uuymnamwasmun H55 25 vegmauun caHed palhwzy and atrial nzlriur mum mm M n w n n amma s The m h m y H n me hypmha amus ye awe y qmcw vespunse m changes m mum usmu amy High blood solute orluw blood presume Release ADH 9 reabsorb water 9 excrem concentrated urin Eonumwnn m m n a Damn lem Imamm m yum mum on w and w WWWIll m unmamuw mulls may Ihh h u h ewevem anenme stuu uw Asvenn m h hwy1 m N pvessuve back up m nume n a su mcveases Na and H20 veabsurptmn whmh Wm mmase mm vu ume and anginlensinl enzyme ACE m GFR 125123525 H mm dvuppmg mu uw smmd nhsh cumsu M v n N m M H n nm V n m H nstead u nuc eus Hnnnm m anquonnnn m mx he p bung mama pvessuve back up m quotmm Fm u dunk w h the Mvate vemn WM be mhwbned and MW the a evem anevm es WM vasucunsmct 39 39 39 hmhwavincreaaesblood 39 quot n 1 Vmoconstriuion of Lhe etfcrenL arlmo e Increasing realmrpuon of Na and 130 Maximum Tquotquotrnbxmplun ndmnl m ula A mueulng mm mm mm mm plumquot to Low V venInangmennn synml mum hean ve ease u DH Hmmrmm N TF ase and pas qum ms yeabsuvphun and 2mmquot lncrensmg ltration 1 acuve secretion of mm Decreasing reabmrpunn at N Mm pmiuu m high mm mlllllllk mm m


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