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Chapter 1 Notes

by: Cierra Notetaker

Chapter 1 Notes BIO 412-01

Cierra Notetaker
La Salle
GPA 3.0
Stefan Samulewicz

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About this Document

I will upload Chapter 2 tomorrow! This just covers the basics
Stefan Samulewicz
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cierra Notetaker on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 412-01 at La Salle University taught by Stefan Samulewicz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Biochemistry in Biology at La Salle University.

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Date Created: 09/06/15
Biochemistry Chapter 1 Notes Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry of life processes The processes entail 2 different kinds of molecules 0 Macromolecules large molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids 0 Metabolites low molecular weight molecules such as glucose and glycerol Key metabolic processes also are common to many organisms which provide us with the knowledge that all living things came from a common ancestor an evolutionary path There are l Eukaryotes presence of defined nucleus within each cell 2Prokaryote Bacteria unicellular organisms no definite nucleus 3Prokaryote Archaea diverged from bacteria no definite nucleus Key concept Covalent and non covalent bonds Covalent strongest of all bonds this bond forms by sharing a pair of electrons between adjacent atoms because these bonds are strong it takes a great deal of energy to break the bond for some molecules more than one pattern of covalent bonding occurs anxi can kxa expressed jll equivalent ways anxi that is called resonance structures Noncovalent Electrostatic hydrogen bonds van der 39Waals interactions Electrostatic Interactions when a charged group on one molecule attracts a n oppositely charged molecule H1 another molecule Coulombs law Hydrogen Bonds fundamentally electrostatic the hydrogen atom ij1 a hydrogen bond jiS partially shared km 2 electronegative atoms like oxygen or nitrogen the electronegative atom that hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to pulls electron density away from hydrogen giving it a partial positive charge this can cause the hydrogen to interact with another atom that has a partial negative charge through electrostatic interaction van der Waals Interactions basis of this interaction is the distribution of electronic charges around an atom fluctuates with time because charge distribution is never symmetric the electrostatic interactions induce complimentary charge with neighboring atoms and they then attract one another in class example was the gecko that glides on walls and ceilings can do so by van der Waals interactions also the way hemoglobin hold iron DNA Base pairs participates in hydrogen bonding H H N xyN yHlHIHHEIO OIIIIEIIIIIHEN i y NgHHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIN C NIIIIiIHHN 0 R r H AMT base pair GC base pair httpwwwatdbiocomimgarticlesAT CG base pairs largepng With that expressed we need to go over some properties of water that will be vital when discussing biological systems 1 Water is 39very jpolar it is Ibent not linear and so the distribution IE charge ii asymmetric THEE oxygennucleus draws electrons away from 2 hydrogen nuclei and this leaves each area around the hydrogen with a new positive charge making this water molecule electrically polar 22Water is highly cohesive the molecules within water strongly interact with one another networks of hydrogen bonds hold ice together and similarly link liquid water molecules together and this accounts for the cohesion of water HYDROPHILIC and HYDROPHOBIC Hydrophilic are molecules that are polar thus will dissolve in water Hydrophobic are molecules that are nonpolar and thus do not interact with water and do not dissolve in it cannot participate in hydrogen bonding or ionic interactions Amphipathic a molecule with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions


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