New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Quincy Bashirian PhD


Quincy Bashirian PhD
GPA 3.84

James Denbow

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

James Denbow
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Quincy Bashirian PhD on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by James Denbow in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/181753/ant-304-university-of-texas-at-austin in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/06/15
Anthropology 12312 1262012 95000 PM Man through stone age Clovis point 0 13500 years old oldest artifact o hunting weapons take down animals most valuable resource was rock flutes grooves on arrow heads discovered in mammoths 13000 big animals went extinct 2400013000 0 last ice age 0 lowered sea levels 0 exposes bridge between Asia and north America 0 natives became isolated until Columbus eventual native Americans 16000 BC artifacts were found 0 this leads to the question was there an alternate route 0 Large collections of caribou bone were found in a bear cave If bears could be found So could humans CaliforniaAlaska Monte Verde 0 There was found unquestionable evidence of older preclovis artifacts Genetic Variation 0 Reconstruct history of migration 0 Mitochondria powerhouse of cell 0 Came from Asia first 0 3 or 4 diverge from ancestors about 24000 years BC 0 they came in 3 waves of migrations o Clovis would not be first people Where did the Clovis point come from o Artifact type of assemblage o Solutriam Europe 0 Arrow heads are from Europe What are artifacts controversies 0 DNA might end the battle 0 Found a new DNA Strand X that wasn t from Asia 12512 X proved to be an origin from 15000 years ago DNA strand got to North AM From Europe X lineage could ve existed in Siberia but died out Either across Atlantic or Asia 0 Clovis point was invented in America Stone was found in Texas 0 Perfect rocks for developing stones However there are very few spear Clovis points What explains lac of spear points And why would they need tools The spears were used to cut grass for baskets and thatches Other bones turtles fish variety Not exactly big game hunters Spread of Clovis 0 Technology spread across in America Gault Monte Verde Metaorf Mitochondrial DNA Clovis point carbon dating 0 O O O O O Archaeology is the study of our human past combining themes of time and change Archaeological methods provide a foundation for comprehending that past Artifacts objects and materials that people in the past made and used Ecofacts remains of plants animals sediments and unmodified materials that result from human activity Burned wood in a fireplace Butchered animal remains Features immovable structures layers pits miden Trash dumps and posts in the ground Sites accumulation of these artifacts ecofacts and features representing where people lived or carried out certain activities on the landscape Out develop questions hypothesis research plan Out background research In Field archaeology requires survey and excavation Surveyis used to discover artifacts and sits on the ground visible and invisible Excavation is used to expose buried materials and address the question Out data analysis interpretation and presentation of materials What archaeologists do 0 Environment and climate change 0 Community involvement Bosutswe Botswana 0 Archaeological excavation InSitu 0 An artifact that has not been removed from its original spotposition Faunal remains o What they ate 0 Diet 0 Status meat was rare Floral Remains 0 Construct the vegetation that was around back then 0 Track changes in the environment 0 What resources were accessible Archaeological Matrix 0 Physical medium that surrounds holds and supports the archaeological material Sand silk soil the area Excavation o How archaeologists apply data Unit 0 Excavation site very specific area and dimensions First thing in a archaeological site is surveying Surveying 0 First phrase in an archaeological project 0 Surveying is how we locate sites 0 Surface survey ground reconnaissance Most common form Establish a site grid 0 Basic reference system 0 Report all excavation units 0 Control where you are excavating 0 Datum point Established point of reference at your site Fixed point in the ground stick point nail All of the measurements will be taken from the datum point Very big sites may have multiple datum points o Horizontal and vertical excavation or a combination of both o Vertical excavation 0 Very massive timescale o What activities occurred through time o What is happening through the years thousands o Stratigraphy Examination of the layering of archaeological remains at a site 0 Detect changes in color and texture in soil 0 Law of superposition This observable stratalayers from the bottom to the very top represents the order of deposition from the earliest to the latest 0 diachronic o Horizontal excavation 0 Provide us with a view of a settlement plan 0 Across a site 0 Activity at a site that coexist o Pompeii and Herculenium o Synchronic excavation o Contemporary Archaeology 0 Physical anthropology Variation of different living populations Primates 0 Social anthropology Social issues Power politics race 0 Historical linguistics 0 Geological sciences o Paleoecology Classical Archaeology 0 Mediterranean region 0 Ancient languages 0 Rely heavily on written sources 0 Fine art o Underwater archaeology o Shipwrecks etc o Prehistoric archaeology 0 Before written history o Historicalarchaeology o Documented 0 Doesn t make it true 0 Contradictions between data on the ground or archives o Cultural resource managementCRM o a major and highly important part of archaeology today Most archaeology performed in the US is conducted by a CRM firm 0 CRM manages sites and other records of the past within a framework of federal state tribal and local records designed to minimize destruction of the material remains of the past 0 If something is going to be built CRM will be sent in to excavate from the site before it is demolished o Public Archaeology 0 Covers the general activity of public education about the past 0 It is an integral part of CRM and sometimes academic archaeology o Contemporary ArchaeologyModern garbage 0 William rathje modern garbage project in Tucson AZ Studied the waste disposal of lowermiddleupper income households a What are some of the broader archaeological implications from this study a Provides useful theoretical information for studying ancient middens garbage heaps a They found there wasn t a difference between social class garbage Archaeology 0 O 0 Is often considered a subfield within four field anthropology the study of humans which also includes cultural or social anthropology biological anthropology and linguistic anthropology and folklore It is interdisciplinary combining social and natural sciences while also being essentially a humanity Archaeologists use scientific techniques to record and analyze data and draw on physics chemistry human and animal anatomy biology botany geography and geology to analyze materials and understand past technology and environments Archaeology can be defined as the study of the human past from material remains or material culture such as tools clothing and shelter An anthropological perspective 0 Human are not only biological organism whose adaptation is rooted in our genes we are also cultural organisms Our cultures are invented adaptations that have evolved just are surely as have our bodies and brains But like biological evolution one must be wary of assuming there is one overall trajectory Social and cultural anthropology O Ethnographers Study humans by residing in particular societies and observing behaviors Ethnography n The description of contemporary cultures Ethnologists a Study particular groups of people to develop crosscultural studies that compare the behaviors of different cultures Ethno archaeology n Archaeologists study contemporary behavior and material goods to find parallels or analogies to past human behavior a How to prehistoric people make clothes produce textiles Discussion section 21 c What is the purpose of surveys 0 Methods for identifying and assessing archaeological sites in the landscape 0 Sites can be found systematically or unsystematically o Unsystematic surveys 0 Documentary sources Treasure maps Oral sources Other nonacademic excavation Grave robbing ranches o Aren t planning on how to find the sites o Systematic surveys 0 Aerial O Satellites high resolution multispectral photographs 0 Surface Surface collection a Field walking farm and agricultural area Topography n The trash they accumulate cultural layers a Deposits people leave behind Remote sensing or geophysical sensing devices a See what s in the ground by variations in the electro magnetic field in the ground 0 Invasive Digging into archaeological material o Aerial Survey 0 Oblique view factors the use of shadow and perspective to outline differences in topography Bird s eye view reflect a more accurate picture of the ground Lidar O O o Surface Surveys 0 Surface collection Either systematic or unsystematic depending on the survey conditions Intensive or extensive depending on the project goals 0 Topographic survey Use of the TDS total data station Height Distance GPS 0 GIS Geographical information systems Google earth Combines database with mapping tools Also incorporates the ability to carry out statistical analysis of site and artifact distribution Holds information on attributes of sites 0 Remote Sensing Acoustic method a Works through echolocation dolphins n Useful for locating caves cavities cracks a Best used underwater Electromagnetism n Like acoustic sends signals through survey area by radar n Reflects in soil sediments ditches walls Earth resistance a Electrical current is run through the ground a Different readings on the watersaturation of different types of sediments as well as disturbances in the soil Magnetic survey D Detects variations in the earth s magnetic field which occur in the presence of minerals like oxides n Useful with detecting hearth kilns pits and ditches Geochemical analysis a Random or regular soil samples D Detects elements minerals that are indicative of human occupation such as phosphorus magnesium and calcium B These are however minerals that occur in nature 0 Invasive surveys Tests pits shovel testing a Undertaken to gain a preliminary idea of what s beneath the ground a Testing done usually in a grid system at regular intervals n Soil screened floated and examined any artifacts analyzed for their distribution a Done when remote sensing is unavailable or restrictive Class 2112 The archaeological method methods and approaches to data collection Archaeologists rely on the material cultural remains left behind by past peoples to interpret the cultural development of humankind What is material culture 0 Artifacts Eco facts What are some disciplines of anthropology in the US Name examples of types of archaeology Classical prehistoric historic The archaeological record and data 0 All of the physical past and present remains that exist in the present that provide insight into the past 0 Aids in reconstructing the past and provides insight into activity 0 Data must be gathered through systematic and controlled circumstances Archaeology and space 0 1Used to describe finds o 2Study specific activities o 3Position data in time and space 0 4Aids in identifying patterns in human behavior as a reflection of the individual community or entire societies o Scientific method in Archaeology 1Research questions 2Background research 3Research design 4Survey O O O O O O O identifying areas of human activity 5Mapping generating maps of physical remains of human activity 6Excavation small process slow tedious systematic recovery and documentation of material 7Analysis quantifying data making sense of it all 8interpretation what does it all mean o Steps in the Excavation process 0 1 Iquot 9quot 45 U1 9 l Determining where to dig answer basic questions where to plot Setting up excavation units in rectangles Recording notes maps video journals Recovery removing objects from ground Placing in lab Processing weighing storing Classification shape size form Analysis carefully examining objects o Research design 0 How to get at the information to answer the questions being asked o The first step is to decide what method is appropriate based on the questions being asked and the conditions of the environment 0 At this site in Austin TX It was necessary to establish a grid and conduct horizontal excavations This helped expose a single feature burned rock midden and delineate its boundanes In Situ archaeological remains 0 When an artifact is encountered during excavation that has not been disturbed since abandonment it is In Situ o Obsidian core Site formation process 0 Events both natural and cultural that contribute to the archaeological record effecting the site after it has been occupied o Archaeologists must consider these processes when interpreting the archaeological record Survey 0 Locating areas of human activity 0 Environment landscape and types of material remains determine survey methods 0 Attempting to identify sites and features on survey in jungle environment in Belize 0 Field reconnaissance Classification of Archaeological sites 0 Patters human activity households communities activity areas Archaeological excavations o Controlled and systematic recovery of archaeological material 0 Often artifact features and structures 0 Artifacts are removed from their original context for further investigation 0 Excavation Archaeological features 0 Nonportable human manufactured items Assemblage o The patterning of a collection of artifacts that represent the shared activities of a group Sub assemblage 0 Multiple artifacts together within the same context These items represent the material required to carry out specific tasks by an individual 2612 Archaeology the science of reading material culture 0 1262012 95000 PM


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.