Environmental Studies 3
Environmental Studies 3
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Date Created: 05/20/14
May 13 2014 Today s Music Pink Floyd Animals 1977 POLITICAL ECONOMY AND THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT 0 Thomas Malthus 1700slate l800s trained to be an Anglican minister came from a wealthy family and so had the leisure to philosophize called themselves Malthus and his father political economists pioneer of population studies modern population theory saw rapid population growth depleting food supply and mass death the cycle that Malthus saw the poor would be the most 0 Robert Heilbroner I The gloomy preeminence I the dismal world of Thomas Malthus o The Worldly Philosophers 0 An essay on the Principle of Population As it Affects the Future Improvement of Society 1798 I Also called The Essay by Malthus for short 0 Doubling Poverty Scarcity I Double 2 you get 4 double 4 you get 8 I Because of this idea he thought that food production would never catch up with population growth I Malthus thought that no one would be able to control themselves and reduce population growth 0 Thomas Carlyle I Read Malthus essay I He s a political economist I Called it an economic treaty o the dismal science I Carlyle called economy the dismal science after reading Malthus gloomy essay I First economist to use the word scale I How big can the economy get before it outstrips it resources is it sustainable I Malthus is looking at limits I He saw food as the crucial resource I were people living beyond their means during the Industrial Revolution Malthus thought yes 0 Green Revolution I Put more acres into production by using irrigation fertilizers and pesticides applying technology to grow more food 0 Applied technology 0 Birth control I Slows down the doubling o ZPG movement Paul Ehrlich I Zero Population Growth movement headed by Paul Ehrlich I Classic Malthusian I Only replace yourself zero population growth I Ehrlich 9 classic ecological economist I Believes that population is far too large 0 Ecological economists I Ppl who believe we are already too big to be sustainable Malthus 17661834 David Ricardo Who gets what in a capitalist society really questioned the wonderful world of Adam Smith Became rich on stocks and friends with Malthus 0 Workers capitalists landlords I Shapes the greed of the workplace aka the jungle of avarice I Workers were brought from the farm for wages works hard but stays poor because they have too many children and has low wages expendable workers I Capitalists plant managers hired workers to make their products and sells those products for profit With profit they make more plants and hire more workers they are in intense competition for more profits amp eliminate other capitalists still at the mercy of the economy I Landlords they skim right off the top they collect rent rent is rent it is not affected by the rise and fall of resources or people They own the land 0 Sheep dogs pigs I Animal Farm by George Orwell 1945 I Pigs landlords dogs capitalists sheepworkers o The Escalator I The workers are on the bottom cranking the escalator I The capitalists are riding up the right side of the escalator and they re ghting to get an advantage I The Landlords have their own lane and ride up without any obstructions o The Principle of Political Economy and Taxation 1817 I Was described Spare bare lifeless and tragic 0 Rent wages profits 0 Corn Laws I Tariffs protecting English grain imposed import taxes to protect the profits of English grain I Ricardo decries these laws because it allows the landlords to keep prices high because imports were so expensive 0 Distribution I Who gets what out of these three groups 0 Profit maximization I Obj ectification of the earth for economic determinism I Corporations maximize profits 0 Economic determinism I Economy determined everything 0 How to maximize profits I Lower wages The capitalist makes more money I Lowers standards this is why a lot of companies left US because other countries don t have these standards worker safety insurance etc I Reduce environmental safeguards Ricardo 17721823 0 Karl Marx Grew up in feudal Europe grew up in a wealthy merchant family and was expected to be a lawyer o Prussia AustriaHungary I Prussia was part of AustriaHungary empire I Had the most absolute rulers and absolute feudalism 90 peasants o 1848 Revolutions I The peasants became more educated then they realized the conditions were terrible results in revolution I Revolution against the monarchy and merchant classes 0 George Hegel I German philosopher he was a great in uence to Marx o Dialectical materialism I eventually there will be dialectical change in Europe I Sweeping progressive change dialectical o Fredrich Engels I Marx s writing partner in the 1840s 0 Communist Manifesto 1848 I Written by Engels amp Marx I History would eventually favor the working classes I After the 1848 revolution they were banished from Europe they eventually moved to New York 0 Das Kapital 18671894 I Published in 3 volumes New York I By Marx amp Engels o Huntergatherers v farmers I First struggle in human history I Eventually the farmers prevailed over huntergatherers 0 Farmers v merchants I Merchant culture is emerging dominant o Merchants v capitalists or bourgeoisie I Capitalists are triumphant over the merchants o Bourgeoisie v proletariat or workers I 1800s the last struggle I Marx says this was happening in the middle 1800s and would last for a while eventually the workers of the world wills triumph o Socialist utopia I When the workers triumph there will be a socialist utopia I No need for government money property authority title etc o 1 Russian Revolution 1904 I After the last volume of Das Kapital I Educated peasants rebelled I Created the Soviet Union 0 1917 Revolution 0 Resource valuation I Obj ecti cation of world s resources they have no value unless it was improved by humans 0 Economic determinism I Who gets what Hegel 17701831 May 15 2014 Today s Music WA Mozart 17561791 Eine kleine Nachtmusik IT S A TOUGH OLD WORLD 0 Iron Horse The symbol of the early industrial revolution what the Native American s called the train the railroad was the first 0 The rst big business I The railroad 0 Transportation Revolution I Railroads were important for the transportation revolution I Had many employees I First the waterways were improved I Then the roads were improved I With improved roads came stagecoaches I Great Britain was the first to bring railroads they applied steam power to a locomotive first appeared 1820 I Railroads gt waterway transportation 0 Spinoff industries I Spinoff industries off the railroads 0 Iron steel machine tools I 3 spinoff industries This was all necessary to make railroads steel industry boomed o Bessemer process I 1850 Englishmen found how to blow air into pig iron to make pure steel 0 London Smog I Early mid 19 century I London killer smog air quality was terrible because industries were giving off coal smoke coal burned to smelt steel I 1870s locomotives also burned coal I First big business caused first externalities 0 Profit maximization I Railroads had to deal with huge capital they had to hire accountants to manage their profits it was taken to a new level by the railroads o Hierarchical management I Railroads were the first to create hierarchical management I CEO 9 vice president 9 accountants 15 corporate structure 0 Time zones I The railroads created time zones all across the world I Demonstrates the power the company had 0 Stocks and bonds I The railroad requires huge amounts of money I Started selling stocks amp bonds I Railroads invented modern Wall Street stocks and bonds sold and bought in hopes of future profit 0 The great resource gobbler I Trees iron coal all needed for railroads I In the history of the world till that time railroads used up huge amounts of resources 0 Transatlantic transference I Railroads were used to transfer information across the Atlantic from England to the US I 1869 California connected to other side of continent Luddism Early 1800s in England they broke textile machines because they were afraid of being replaced by them Luddism is a response to the technology being imposed on the mills o Weavers stockingers croppers I Thought they had secure jobs these are skilled laborers good wages I These jobs were not as secure as they though 0 Against the Machine 0 Nichols Fox I Wrote Against the Machine I In the early 1800s the economy in London turned down I The competition increased in the textile industry I 3 bad crop years food costs increased in response the govt increased tariffs on imports and food prices increased even more I It was hard to sell British goods in other countries due to the high tariffs o Capitalists skilled and unskilled workers I Wages were cut for skilled amp unskilled workers I Capitalists needed more money so they brought technologies to replace skilled workers and stop paying so much money into Wages o Luddite Rebellion I Began 181 1 I Started breaking machines 0 Ned or King Ludd I Legend luddite leader he was never found 0 Nottingham I First machine breaking incident at a lace company smashed 67 machines 0 Machine breaking I New threat to industry I 18111812 machine breaking increased textile industries were being targeted I This was their response of being replaced I Industries hired guards amp spies and made gov t place a law that made machine breaking a capital crime punishable by death soon after luddite rebellion was broken 0 Modern Luddism I Aversion to modernism likes the natural world over the modern human world I Branches to genetic engineered open spaces etc o Aversion to modernity 0 Fear of the machine I Technology is taking over 0 Fear of capitalism I They do not like the relationship bt gov t and capitalization I Worried about globalization Early Environmentalism Movements were responses to the Industrial Revolution Paris Germany North Sea were places that were industrializing rapidly o The Romantics I Called themselves the romantics who looked at naturalism I Romantics nostalgic look on GrecoRoman times I Wants to revive the romantic times and want to avoid over civilization of their societies 0 The lament I Laments the overcivilized world 0 Overcivilization o Primitivism I Jean J acque Rousseau 17171781 lived in France wrote about primitivism I Primitivism was a virtue o Transcendentalism I Own form of environmentalism called transcendentalism I Founder of RW Emerson 18031882 I Talked about improvement of self being an individual amp closeness to nature 0 Preservation movement 0 Conservation movement Spirituality v science 0 Enlightenment Resource depletion Degradation Species extinction Government s role I George Perkins Marsh 1801 1880 0 Humans are like new glaciers they are going to change the environment 0 Look at the Grecoromans they fell because of environmental reasons we need to change our own ways or we ll end like that 0 World conservation 0 John Muir I Came to Califomia and fell in love with Yosemite wrote about the need to preserve the environment I Focuses on Preservation o Gifford Pinchot 18651947 I First chief of US Forest Service OOOOO I Had a strong belief that government was the only way to change this I In the early 1900s the idea of world conservation I Focuses on Conservation 0 Ypres
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