Lifespan Development week 6 notes
Lifespan Development week 6 notes 2603
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Lara Mayeux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Week 6 notes psych Stepping reflexcontinued Disappears because infants put on so much weight in the beginning of life, mostly on lower half of body/upper legs. Muscles aren’t strong enough to move the heavier legs. Can reappear in the right conditions. Postural control holding the head up (gross motor skill) Gross vs fine motor skills large muscle activities (walking, running) vs. finely tuned movements that require fingers dexterity (buttoning a shirt, playing piano, typing) both tend to develop on same general time line improve across infancy, childhood, adolescence—and up to about age 30 then its all downhill (but slowly) Gross motor development Learning to walk o milestone: around age 1 (1014 months is typical) o ability to alternate leg movements: birth o stepping reflex What does it take? o Muscle strength to support body weight o Ability to balance on one leg long enough o Motivation not typically a problemthey want to chase things and investigate o Links to social development Gross motor milestones beyond the first year Build on walking skills (12 years) o Running, walking backward, maneuvering stairs Running, jumping, climbing on jungle gyms (3+) Coordinated enough for organized sports (school age) Gross motor skills in adulthood Peak physical performance: 1926 years o Athletes depends on the sport! Decline begins about age 30, assuming no extraordinary effort to maintain in shape o Decline about 1% per year o All major systems, not just motor/muscle Esp. cardiovascular function, muscle strength, bone density, response time (neurological functioning) Main issue: slowed movement o Neural noise (neural interference) messages don’t fire as rapidly or directly o Some people slow down in order to remain accurate (strategies to remain errorfree, safe) Fine motor development Infancy o Virtually no fine motor control at birth o Arms can go many ranges of motion, so for infants to overcome and go to a specific place, they must learn how to direct and reach in the right direction o Reaching, grasping objects: Palmar grasp vs pincer grasp What does it allow? More interaction with environment Childhood and adolescence o Improvements in precision of movements themselves o Improvements in coordination between hands, eyes o Due to myelination Adult development o Dexterity decreases o Movement slows down o Because: neural noise and trying to avoid doing more damage Sensory and perceptual development Sensation: information from environment interacts with sensory receptors air waves are transmitted to auditory nerve chemical molecules hit receptors on taste buds Perception: sensory info is interpreted air waves= noises, music, voices chemicals= bitter food, sweet food, etc. Infant sensation and perception how do we know what we know? High amplitude sucking Preferential looking/ visual preference paradigm Habituation and dishabituation Infant hearing Remember the cat in the hat stories? Need louder sounds, higher pitch Age 2: can hear low pitched sounds too Preference for human voices Esp. moms, right at first Hearing in adolescence and adulthood Adolescence Can suffer hearing loss from listening to loud music frequently Adulthood declines in middle adulthood 40ish o First to go: sensitivity to high pitched sounds Becomes problematic late adulthood (6575) o 75% adults in late 70’s have substantial hearing loss Infant vision Visual acuity before 1 month of age: 20/240 o Adultlike by 6 months to one year o Optimal vision about 810 inches from face Color perception intact by 4 months Perceiving faces o infants’ favorite thing to look at o developmental shifts in feature scanning o around 1 month, can focus on eyes, mouth o babies prefer more attractive people why? Contrast, symmetry, etc. denotes health, fertility, etc. Depth perception o Binocular vision by 34 months o Visual cliff experiments o Under 6 months intrigued by heights, decrease heart rate o Older than 6 months afraid of heights, increased heart rates Crawlers vs noncrawlers? o What role does locomotion play in the fear of heights? Fear corresponds with onset of crawling Peripheral vision is key remember the babies driving cars (not realizing they are moving forward) Vision in childhood Many preschoolers are farsighted o Unable to see well closeup o Can interfere with reading readiness o Usually corrects itself by first grade Signs of vision problems o Rubbing eyes o Excessive blinking o Squinting o Irritability during activities that require visual acuity Vision in adulthood Aging: brings changes in o Acuity: Ability to focus an image decreases Causes trouble with reading, working in dim light Dark adaptation is slower o Color vision: Changes with age, green blue violet spectrum lenses yellow with age, causes distortion of color o Depth perception: declines in late adulthood hard to tell distances Diseases of the eye: Cataracts o Lens thickens o Vision becomes cloudy, distorted o Treated by glasses and surgery Glaucoma o Fluid builds up in eye o Puts pressure on optic nerve, causes damage o Treated with eye drops Macular degeneration o Deterioration of the retina o Causes poor visions, blind spots o Difficult to treat; laser surgery can work (temporarily) o Progressive disease will need to continue to have laser treatments o Highly genetic Other senses: Touch o Babies do feel pain (e.g. circumcision) but recover very quickly o Speeds weight gain for preemies (kangaroo care) Smell o Can differentiate smells at birth o Have same preferences as older people sweet, light scents o Babies have same facial reactions to scents that adults do o Can recognize mom by her scent within days Taste o Ability to discriminate tastes before birth? o Make similar facial expressions as older people when presented with flavors such as sour, bitter o Begin to prefer salty flavors around 4 months o Decline in sensitivity of taste with age elders may heavily salt food or add spices in order to taste Chapter 6: Cognitive development: Jean Piaget Basic principles and concepts Piaget biologist, studying a standardized test of intelligence, noted how children made same types of errors Principles of Piaget’s Theory: The concept of a scheme o An organized set of related memories, thoughts, strategies, or behaviors o Used to understand the environment and react o Infancy physical schemes—things like grasping, sucking o Older kids problem solving, classification Cognitive processes o Organization: combining simple schemes into more complex schemes o Adaptation: the tendency to adjust our schemes to environmental demands, new experiences Assimilation occurs when new information is presented and cannot be interpreted so existing scheme is applied to the new information (ex: elephant is seen, child says it’s a dog) Accommodation adapt to new information new info doesn’t fit existing schemes, so a new scheme is made or an existing scheme is changed Four stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor (birth 2 years) 6 stages o Period of most dramatic achievement o Purely reflexive behavior beginning of symbolic thought, goal directed behaviors o Building blocks for such things as language acquisition and problem solving Stage 1: reflex activity (01 months) infants practice reflexes, such as grasping and sucking; Exercising the reflexes allows the infant to provide himself with stimulation Stage 2: primary circular reactions (14 months) repetitive behaviors that center on the child’s own body; repeating actions that are pleasurable or satisfying often start as accidents and begin to be associated with entertainment, so action is repeated Stage 3: secondary circular reactions(48 months) repetitive behaviors that are focused on other objects; infants are able to combine multiple simple schemas into more complex schemas grasping + shaking = hear the sound of rattle; no intentionality yet Stage 4: coordination of secondary schemes (812 months) intentionality: infant plans goaldirected behavior; combines multiple complex schemes to achieve goals Stage 5: tertiary circular reactions (1218 months) experimentation that leads to knowledge about objects; curiosity + intentionality, “scientist stage,” trial and error approach Stage 6: internalization of schemes (1824 months) beginnings of symbolic thought; drawing, fantasy or pretend play, deferred imitation; facilitates problem solving o Object permanence or the “object concept” people and objects exist independently of our own interactions with them Knowing an object or person still exists even though we can’t see, hear, or touch it Preoperational (27) Concrete operations (711) Formal operations (12+)
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