Psych 261, Week 6
Psych 261, Week 6 Psych 361
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
2.17.16 Body size Weight • Newborns typically lose 5-‐10% of their birth weight in the first few days. • Newborns gain about 1 oz per day for several months. • Birth weight typically triples every year. • Birth weight typically quadruples by 2 years (most toddlers are 28 lbs when they turn 2 years old) Height • Roughly doubles in the first 2 years, increasing from an average of 20 inches at birth to 34 inches of at age 2. Brain development • The infant's brain has far fewer dendrites and synapses • There is a fivefold increase in dendrites called transient exuberance and trillions of synapses formed called synaptogenesis in the first 2 years. • Pruning-‐ unused connections (dendrites and synapses) atrophy and die (use it or lose it). Each muscle fiber is connected to only one motor neuron. • Cycle of synaptogenesis and pruning continues throughout the lifespan. A 1 year old has denser dendrites and synapses but the infant's network is not as efficient. That is why it's easier for children to learn languages and heal from wounds faster than adults. Enriched environments can help the young brain to overcome damage caused by teratogens for example. • Rich and intellectually challenging environments result in a more complex network of synapses and dendrites. • Some intellectual disabilities (e.g.-‐autism) have more rapid brain growth and less pruning. We need an optimal amount of pruning, , not too little or too much. Myelination-‐ sheaths of myelin insulate axons from one another and improves their conductivity. • Most rapid The Newborns senses 1 Touch-‐ infants are born with a well developed sense of touch. For example: rooting, grasping • Born with reflexes that respond to touch on cheeks, palms and soles of feet. • Can distinguish shapes and textures (will hold onto objects with an unfamiliar shape longer) • Some suggest that infants are highly sensitive to pain, pre-‐mature babies feel pain more intensely. Some people believe that the pain does not develop until much later. 1 Taste-‐ can distinguish several basic tastes • Relax their facial muscles in response to sweetness, purse their lips when a taste is sour and arch their mouths when a taste is bitter. • Breastfed infants are exposed to a wide variety of tastes because the taste of breast milk is affected by diet. 1 Smell-‐ can distinguish several basic smells • Relaxed and pleasant facial expression in response to smelling bananas and chocolate and foul odors make then frown. • At 4 days breastfed babies prefer the smell of their own mother's breast over another lactating woman • Both breast and bottled fed 3 days olds orient more to the smell of unfamiliar human milk than formula. 1 Audition-‐ system fairly developed at birth. • Infants can distinguish between 2 different languages spoken by the same bilingual speaker. • Newborns show a preference for mother's voice, complex sounds (like voices) and native language. • Sensitivity to sound occurs over development. 1 Vision-‐ can see, but not clearly because visual system (in eye and brain) is not fully developed. • Focus only on things between 4-‐30 inches away • Before 1 month acuity is between 20/800 to 20/200 (best in low light) • By 2 months acuity improves to 20/15. • By 4 months acuity improves to 20/60 • Acuity reaches 20/20 around 6 months. • Depth perception is acquired around 3 months. • They can tell the difference between their mother's and a stranger's face despite having crappy vision. Motor development • Gross motor skills-‐ physical abilities involving large body movements. • 2-‐4 months-‐ rolls from side or stomach to back. • 6-‐8 months-‐ sitting independently • 8-‐10 months-‐ crawling • 11-‐14 months-‐ stand unsupported, around 1 year they start walking Fine motor skills-‐ physical abilities involving small body movements like the fingers, lips, toes. • They have a strong reflexive grasp, not something they can control. They are also born with the ability to suck. 2 • Newborns-‐ pre-‐reaching (makes poorly coordinated swipes towards objects in front of them) • 1 month-‐ holds object that is placed in hands. • 4-‐6 months-‐ reaches for and grasps objects. • 7-‐9 months-‐ transfers objects from one hand to the other. • 9-‐12 months-‐pincer grasp (used to grasp cheerios-‐ index and thumb fingers) Physical abilities involving small body movements 10-‐12 months-‐ they can decide whether they want to be left or right handed. Shows signs of hand preference, grasps spoon but poor aim to mouth. 13-‐18 months-‐ stacks 2 blocks, put objects in and takes them out of containers. 19-‐24 months-‐ stacks 4 to 10 blocks and uses spoon to feed self. Autism and vaccines • Compelling evidence time and time again that has proven that vaccines do not cause autism. Dr. Andrew Wakefield falsified his findings and was stripped off of his titles. 3 2.19.16 • Immunizations (Vaccination) o Stimulates the body’s immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease o Immunizations have eradicated small pox (the most lethal disease for children) o Polio, measles, whooping cough and chicken pox have been greatly diminished o Many of these diseases are returning because parents refuse to immunize their children - Some believe immunizations cause autism • Herd immunity o When 90% of the population or more are immunized, we see herd immunity § The 10% that are not immunized are safe because of it § You are safer when most of the people (the herd) around you are vaccinated o Children cannot be immunized against measles until they are 1 year old o Because parents did not want to immunize their children, other young infants could contract the diseases o Impaired immune systems cannot be immunized so they are more susceptible to catching diseases ClickerQ: Which of the following is NOT a benefit of breastfeeding for infants? They gain weight more slowly right after birth (Lecture 3, Part I) • Breastfeeding o Colostrum: thick, high calorie, nutrient rich fluid which Is produced in the first few days after birth § Mother’s milk hasn’t come in yet so this is the alternative until it happens § Helps newborn’s digestive track to develop - Benefits for baby: § Fewer allergies § Lower rates of asthma, SIDS, obesity, diabetes and heart disease § Higher IQ - Benefits for mom: § Lower rates of ovarian and breast cancer § Burns average of 500 calories/day (helps mom lose baby weight) § Releases oxytocin (increases bonding with baby) § Reduces uterine bleeding (helps uterus shrink back to normal size) § Its FREE! And it’s the perfect temperature *The WHO recommends exclusively (no other drinks/food) breastfeeding for 6 months and continuing to breastfeed for at least 2 years in addition to giving food Review ClickerQ: Who developed the Stage Theory of Cognitive Development (Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational)? Piaget • Sensorimotor Intelligence o Infants learn through their own senses and motor skills o Stage 1: REFLEXES (0-‐1 month) § Behaviors reflect innate reflexes (they just happen) o Stage 2: PRIMARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS (1-‐4 months) § Stage of first acquired adaptions § Behaviors focused on their bodies (primary) and repeated over and over again (circular) § Infants begin to refine these reflexes and combine them into more complex actions (thumb sucking after opening and closing hands) o Stage 3: SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS (4-‐8 months) § Behaviors now extend beyond their own bodies to what is around them (secondary) and they are repeated over and over (circular) § Infant is able to reach for objects § Infants try to produce and prolong exciting experiences (pick up and drop stuffed animal) o Stage 4: COORDINATION OF SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS (8-‐12 months) § Slowly but surely acquires knowledge of cause-‐effect relationships and begins to engage in goal directed behaviors (point, fuss and gesture towards things they want) § Begins to initiate and anticipate pleasurable experiences § Begins to imitate others § Acquire object permanence – the knowledge that physical objects continue to exist even when they are removed from view o Stage 5: TERTIARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS (12-‐18 months) § Begins to show increasing flexibility and creativity in behaviors § Begins to “experiment”: try out new ways of playing with and manipulating objects § Piaget referred to children at this stage as “Little Scientists” o Stage 6: MENTAL REPRESENTATION (18-‐24 months) § Develop symbolic thought/mental representations (ability to represent and think about objects and events in terms of internal, mental entities or symbols) § Begin to use mental prediction and planning (used to do things over and over again, but after learning, they can predict possibilities) § Demonstrate deferred imitation – the ability to recall and copy another person’s behaviors hours or days after they observe the behavior 2 § Engage in make-‐believe and pretend play § Can solve A not B problem ClickerQ: What is the A not B error? When an infant looks under a blanket that a toy was previously hidden under, even though they watched an experimenter move the toy and place it under a different blanket 3
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