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Psych 261, Week 6

by: BoseAmosun

Psych 261, Week 6 Psych 361

GPA 3.12

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Chapter 3 & 4: The First Two Years Part I: The Body (Physical Development)
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Carrie Cuttler
Class Notes
Psych 361, Cuttler, chapter 3, chapter 4, developmental psych
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
2.17.16   Body  size       Weight   •  Newborns  typically  lose  5-­‐10%  of  their  birth  weight  in  the  first  few  days.   •  Newborns  gain  about  1  oz  per  day  for  several  months.   •  Birth  weight  typically  triples  every  year.   •  Birth  weight  typically  quadruples  by  2  years  (most  toddlers  are  28  lbs  when  they  turn  2  years   old)       Height   •  Roughly  doubles  in  the  first  2  years,  increasing  from  an  average  of  20  inches  at  birth  to  34   inches  of  at  age  2.       Brain  development   •  The  infant's  brain  has  far  fewer  dendrites  and  synapses   •  There  is  a  fivefold  increase  in  dendrites  called  transient  exuberance  and  trillions  of  synapses   formed  called  synaptogenesis  in  the  first  2  years.   •  Pruning-­‐  unused  connections  (dendrites  and  synapses)  atrophy  and  die  (use  it  or  lose  it).   Each  muscle  fiber  is  connected  to  only  one  motor  neuron.   •  Cycle  of  synaptogenesis  and  pruning  continues  throughout  the  lifespan.  A  1  year  old  has   denser  dendrites  and  synapses  but  the  infant's  network  is  not  as  efficient.  That  is  why   it's  easier  for  children  to  learn  languages  and  heal  from  wounds  faster  than  adults.   Enriched  environments  can  help  the  young  brain  to  overcome  damage  caused  by   teratogens  for  example.   •  Rich  and  intellectually  challenging  environments  result  in  a  more  complex  network  of   synapses  and  dendrites.   •  Some  intellectual  disabilities  (e.g.-­‐autism)  have  more  rapid  brain  growth  and  less  pruning.  We   need  an  optimal  amount  of  pruning,  ,  not  too  little  or  too  much.       Myelination-­‐  sheaths  of  myelin  insulate  axons  from  one  another  and  improves  their   conductivity.   •  Most  rapid       The  Newborns  senses   1  Touch-­‐  infants  are  born  with  a  well  developed  sense  of  touch.  For  example:  rooting,   grasping   •   Born  with  reflexes  that  respond  to  touch  on  cheeks,  palms  and  soles  of  feet.   •   Can  distinguish  shapes  and  textures  (will  hold  onto  objects  with  an  unfamiliar  shape   longer)   •   Some  suggest  that  infants  are  highly  sensitive  to  pain,  pre-­‐mature  babies  feel  pain  more   intensely.  Some  people  believe  that  the  pain  does  not  develop  until  much  later.       1  Taste-­‐  can  distinguish  several  basic  tastes   •   Relax  their  facial  muscles  in  response  to  sweetness,    purse  their  lips  when  a  taste  is  sour   and  arch  their  mouths  when  a  taste  is  bitter.   •   Breastfed  infants  are  exposed  to  a  wide  variety  of  tastes  because  the  taste  of  breast   milk  is  affected  by  diet.       1  Smell-­‐  can  distinguish  several  basic  smells   •   Relaxed  and  pleasant  facial  expression  in  response  to  smelling  bananas  and  chocolate   and  foul  odors  make  then  frown.   •   At  4  days  breastfed  babies  prefer  the  smell  of  their  own  mother's  breast  over  another   lactating  woman   •   Both  breast  and  bottled  fed  3  days  olds  orient  more  to  the  smell  of  unfamiliar  human   milk  than  formula.       1  Audition-­‐  system  fairly  developed  at  birth.   •   Infants  can  distinguish  between  2  different  languages  spoken  by  the  same  bilingual   speaker.   •   Newborns  show  a  preference  for  mother's  voice,  complex  sounds  (like  voices)  and   native  language.   •   Sensitivity  to  sound  occurs  over  development.       1  Vision-­‐  can  see,  but  not  clearly  because  visual  system  (in  eye  and  brain)  is  not  fully   developed.   •   Focus  only  on  things  between  4-­‐30  inches  away   •   Before  1  month  acuity  is  between  20/800  to  20/200  (best  in  low  light)   •   By  2  months  acuity  improves  to  20/15.   •   By  4  months  acuity  improves  to  20/60   •   Acuity  reaches  20/20  around  6  months.   •   Depth  perception  is  acquired  around  3  months.   •   They  can  tell  the  difference  between  their  mother's  and  a  stranger's  face  despite  having   crappy  vision.       Motor  development   •   Gross  motor  skills-­‐  physical  abilities  involving  large  body  movements.   •   2-­‐4  months-­‐  rolls  from  side  or  stomach  to  back.   •   6-­‐8  months-­‐  sitting  independently   •   8-­‐10  months-­‐  crawling   •   11-­‐14  months-­‐  stand  unsupported,  around  1  year  they  start  walking       Fine  motor  skills-­‐  physical  abilities  involving  small  body  movements  like  the  fingers,  lips,  toes.   •   They  have  a  strong  reflexive  grasp,  not  something  they  can  control.  They  are  also  born   with  the  ability  to  suck.   2   •   Newborns-­‐  pre-­‐reaching  (makes  poorly  coordinated  swipes  towards  objects  in  front  of   them)   •   1  month-­‐  holds  object  that  is  placed  in  hands.   •   4-­‐6  months-­‐  reaches  for  and  grasps  objects.   •   7-­‐9  months-­‐  transfers  objects  from  one  hand  to  the  other.   •   9-­‐12  months-­‐pincer  grasp  (used  to  grasp  cheerios-­‐  index  and  thumb  fingers)       Physical  abilities  involving  small  body  movements   10-­‐12  months-­‐  they  can  decide  whether  they  want  to  be  left  or  right  handed.  Shows  signs  of   hand  preference,  grasps  spoon  but  poor  aim  to  mouth.       13-­‐18  months-­‐  stacks  2  blocks,  put  objects  in  and  takes  them  out  of  containers.   19-­‐24  months-­‐  stacks  4  to  10  blocks  and  uses  spoon  to  feed  self.           Autism  and  vaccines   •   Compelling  evidence  time  and  time  again  that  has  proven  that  vaccines  do  not  cause   autism.  Dr.  Andrew  Wakefield  falsified  his  findings  and  was  stripped  off  of  his  titles.   3   2.19.16   •   Immunizations  (Vaccination)   o   Stimulates  the  body’s  immune  system  to  defend  against  attack  by  a  particular   contagious  disease   o   Immunizations  have  eradicated  small  pox  (the  most  lethal  disease  for  children)     o   Polio,  measles,  whooping  cough  and  chicken  pox  have  been  greatly  diminished   o   Many  of  these  diseases  are  returning  because  parents  refuse  to  immunize  their   children   -   Some  believe  immunizations  cause  autism     •   Herd  immunity     o   When  90%  of  the  population  or  more  are  immunized,  we  see  herd  immunity   §   The  10%  that  are  not  immunized  are  safe  because  of  it   §   You  are  safer  when  most  of  the  people  (the  herd)  around  you  are   vaccinated     o   Children  cannot  be  immunized  against  measles  until  they  are  1  year  old   o   Because  parents  did  not  want  to  immunize  their  children,  other  young  infants   could  contract  the  diseases   o   Impaired  immune  systems  cannot  be  immunized  so  they  are  more  susceptible  to   catching  diseases   ClickerQ:  Which  of  the  following  is  NOT  a  benefit  of  breastfeeding  for  infants?  They  gain  weight   more  slowly  right  after  birth  (Lecture  3,  Part  I)     •   Breastfeeding   o   Colostrum:  thick,  high  calorie,  nutrient  rich  fluid  which  Is  produced  in  the  first   few  days  after  birth     §   Mother’s  milk  hasn’t  come  in  yet  so  this  is  the  alternative  until  it  happens   §   Helps  newborn’s  digestive  track  to  develop   -   Benefits  for  baby:     §   Fewer  allergies   §   Lower  rates  of  asthma,  SIDS,  obesity,  diabetes  and  heart  disease   §   Higher  IQ   -   Benefits  for  mom:     §   Lower  rates  of  ovarian  and  breast  cancer     §   Burns  average  of  500  calories/day  (helps  mom  lose  baby  weight)   §   Releases  oxytocin  (increases  bonding  with  baby)   §   Reduces  uterine  bleeding  (helps  uterus  shrink  back  to  normal  size)   §   Its  FREE!  And  it’s  the  perfect  temperature   *The  WHO  recommends  exclusively  (no  other  drinks/food)  breastfeeding  for  6  months  and   continuing  to  breastfeed  for  at  least  2  years  in  addition  to  giving  food     Review  ClickerQ:  Who  developed  the  Stage  Theory  of  Cognitive  Development  (Sensorimotor,   Preoperational,  Concrete  Operational,  Formal  Operational)?  Piaget   •   Sensorimotor  Intelligence   o   Infants  learn  through  their  own  senses  and  motor  skills   o   Stage  1:  REFLEXES  (0-­‐1  month)   §   Behaviors  reflect  innate  reflexes  (they  just  happen)   o   Stage  2:  PRIMARY  CIRCULAR  REACTIONS  (1-­‐4  months)   §   Stage  of  first  acquired  adaptions   §   Behaviors  focused  on  their  bodies  (primary)  and  repeated  over  and  over   again  (circular)   §   Infants  begin  to  refine  these  reflexes  and  combine  them  into  more   complex  actions  (thumb  sucking  after  opening  and  closing  hands)   o   Stage  3:  SECONDARY  CIRCULAR  REACTIONS  (4-­‐8  months)   §   Behaviors  now  extend  beyond  their  own  bodies  to  what  is  around  them   (secondary)  and  they  are  repeated  over  and  over  (circular)   §   Infant  is  able  to  reach  for  objects   §   Infants  try  to  produce  and  prolong  exciting  experiences  (pick  up  and  drop   stuffed  animal)   o   Stage  4:  COORDINATION  OF  SECONDARY  CIRCULAR  REACTIONS  (8-­‐12  months)   §   Slowly  but  surely  acquires  knowledge  of  cause-­‐effect  relationships  and   begins  to  engage  in  goal  directed  behaviors  (point,  fuss  and  gesture   towards  things  they  want)   §   Begins  to  initiate  and  anticipate  pleasurable  experiences     §   Begins  to  imitate  others   §   Acquire  object  permanence  –  the  knowledge  that  physical  objects   continue  to  exist  even  when  they  are  removed  from  view   o   Stage  5:  TERTIARY  CIRCULAR  REACTIONS  (12-­‐18  months)   §   Begins  to  show  increasing  flexibility  and  creativity  in  behaviors     §   Begins  to  “experiment”:  try  out  new  ways  of  playing  with  and   manipulating  objects   §   Piaget  referred  to  children  at  this  stage  as  “Little  Scientists”   o   Stage  6:  MENTAL  REPRESENTATION  (18-­‐24  months)   §   Develop  symbolic  thought/mental  representations  (ability  to  represent   and  think  about  objects  and  events  in  terms  of  internal,  mental  entities   or  symbols)   §   Begin  to  use  mental  prediction  and  planning  (used  to  do  things  over  and   over  again,  but  after  learning,  they  can  predict  possibilities)   §   Demonstrate  deferred  imitation  –  the  ability  to  recall  and  copy  another   person’s  behaviors  hours  or  days  after  they  observe  the  behavior     2   §   Engage  in  make-­‐believe  and  pretend  play   §   Can  solve  A  not  B  problem     ClickerQ:  What  is  the  A  not  B  error?  When  an  infant  looks  under  a  blanket  that  a  toy  was   previously  hidden  under,  even  though  they  watched  an  experimenter  move  the  toy  and  place  it   under  a  different  blanket       3  


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