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US History II Week 5 Notes

by: Jonesy

US History II Week 5 Notes Hist 2020

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About this Document

These notes cover the era of Progressivism (1870-1920), as well as the Roaring 20's up to the Stock Market Crash of 1929.
Survey of United States History II
J. Nelson
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jonesy on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 2020 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by J. Nelson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Survey of United States History II in History at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
Progressivism (1890-1920)  President William McKinley named 25 President o Served from 1897-1901 (assassinated)  There were many reasons for the rise of Progressivism; one of them being how dangerous life in the city was o There were many fire safety hazards, especially in tenements and factories o For that matter, barely any emergency standards had been implemented  Most famous example of this was the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, in which the building caught on fire with all the women workers trapped inside  Idea of “Good Society” o Progressives sought to bring change, and came up with new philosophical ideas  John Watson’s Behaviorism: a school of psychology stating that behavior could be influenced by the individual’s environment  William James’s Pragmatism: emphasized practicality, and looked at results to move forward  Social Jurisprudence: recognizes the law, but also goes a step further by acknowledging the sociological context in which the law was written o Along with these ideas, the “Progressive Method” arose  Progressivism: through careful allocation of resources, applied the principles of theories that had been proven  Used bureaucracies and special interest groups to achieve reform results  Progressives held a lack of trust towards legislators, and therefore looked to the government to solve societal problems  Under the idea of the “Good Society,” all citizen’s needs were met. This was the ultimate goal of the Progressives  The Women’s Sphere o There were over 500 women’s clubs by the turn of the century  These clubs brought women out of the home and introduced them to public affairs, significantly expanding the role that women played in society o Term “Women’s Suffrage” emphasized ALL women and their right to vote. It was coined at the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention  Jane Addams (Founder of Hull House) o Had vested interests in all women’s rights issues o She served as a consultant of sorts to Theodore Roosevelt  She said the key to his success and election could be heavily impacted by women voters o She won the Nobel Peace Prize  Controlling the Masses o As huge waves of immigrants poured into America, many citizens recognized eugenics (which has since been discredited), a branch of genetics that justified the idea that immigrants were biologically inferior to Americans.  Many less tolerant citizens sought to limit immigration, stating that they wished to maintain social harmony  Margaret Sanger was one such reformer  Margaret Sanger o To battle chronic pregnancy, she was a huge promoter of birth control o Her reforms took long times to be enacted  This was commonplace, especially for women’s rights issues. This drove many progressives to militancy  Social Reforms o Prostitution – Many saw prostitution as a danger to women and a crime. Despite this, there were over 5,000 full-time and 10,000 part-time women working the streets at this time o Prohibition – The temperance movement spearheaded the war against alcohol and its distribution  African American’s Plights o Despite all the social progress being made, most progressives paid little attention to African American rights  Segregation continued unchallenged; many progressives either ignored it, or used it to gain support from white supremacists o W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington clash often over how to deal with issues of African American rights  Washington proposed “Atlanta Compromise,” arguing that by learning a vocational skill and being agreeable with whites, you can make room for upward economic mobility and eventually secure your rights  DuBois countered with “The Souls of Black Folk,” in 1903, which intensely criticized Washington’s theory. DuBois said to never accept segregation, and not to abandon intellectual growth in favor of a single skill o Niagara Movement  One of the first African American Civil Rights Groups o For African Americans, lynchings were on the rise. However, they often did not have legitimate healthcare, education, or housing  Death of Pres. McKinley o 1901, Leon Czolgosz fired 2 rounds into the President’s chest. o 8 days later, McKinley died  Progressives in Washington o Theodore Roosevelt carried on the Presidency after McKinley’s assassination  Roosevelt saw reform as a way to avoid radical change  He came from a family of wealthy NY aristocrats o Considered “a man’s man,” he sharpened his mind through reading and made sure to stay physically fit.  Sierra Club (founded by John Muil) was very important to Roosevelt  It was a nature club that proved essential in founding and saving our natural wildlife areas.  Muir convinced Roosevelt to found the National Parks System o San Francisco and Hetchhetchy Dam  1900-1913, the city of San Francisco flooded Hetchhetchy Valley to build a reservoir. It was very controversial due to its environmental implications, but future President Woodrow Wilson would decide it beneficial to San Francisco The Roaring 20’s  A shift occurred from Traditional to Modern values o A decline in individual’s self worth brought about the breaking down of traditional morality o American had built an empire with all of its new money and new technologies. These rapid changes only spurred a change in social morals o Due to the rapid nature of the progress being made, many Americans were both afraid of and excited about the future  They liked the prosperity brought about by the postwar era, but looked back with nostalgia on the past  An Alternative Society emerged o Many didn’t participate in the changes made after WWI o One example was Harlem, NY; home to the Harlem Renaissance  At this time, America enjoyed a higher standard of living than any other nation in the world o Millions of homes and apartments were built o Modern bathrooms were now the norm o The number of telephones doubled from 1915-1930 o Plastic was invented  Electricity and Electrification o The electric industry grew incredibly fast, almost as fast as industrialization itself  Power stations were built  Two out of three Americans had electricity readily available to them  This began a reliance on labor-saving devices  Synthetics and cellophane were invented  The Hoover (vacuum) was invented  Poverty was still fairly abundant o Rural areas especially suffered, they progressed much more slowly than urban areas  Henry Ford o Born July 30, 1863, he grew up in a wealthy family o He invented the Model-T automobile, the first automobile to ever be mass produced o In 1920, there were ~10 million Model-T’s  By 1929, there were ~26 million o Ford came up with the idea of interchangeable parts, greatly reducing cost of repairs and time needed to assemble  However, he did not invent the idea of assembly lines o By 1913, Model-T production to 1.5 hours vs. the previous 14 hours  Assembly Line o In 1914, Ford paid workers $5 per day  He wanted a dependable work force o The work was hard and repetitious, so the pay was intended to bring in workers that were willing to work  By 1912, there were no decent roads to speak of in the U.S. o The few miles of paved roads were always centered around the cities  The rest of the 2.5 million miles of road was dirt, and often lead nowhere  The Lincoln Highway was the first paved road to cross the U.S. o It went from Lincoln Park to NYC Times Square o Cars changed people’s lifestyle  People could now choose where they lived  A traveler culture arose  The suburbs boomed as people could drive to work in the cities o New typed of American companies were also changing the landscape  Early service stations arose to meet the needs of the new travel culture o Drive-in restaurants also boomed, leading to the demise of the crossroads store  With more cars around, shopping centers were erected and often had large parking lots to accommodate many customers o 1922, first shopping center was built in Kansas City, called the Country Club & Plaza  Calvin Coolidge elected President, served from 1923-1929 o He was a Republican lawyer from Vermont  Served as governor  19 Amendment o Passed on August 18, 1920 o Prohibited any U.S. citizen from being denied their right to vote based on sex  The Scopes Trial – Dayton, TN o The court case was formally titled State of TN vs. John Thomas Scopes o Scopes was a high school substitute teacher, and taught evolution. This violated the Tennessee Butler Act, which stated evolution illegal to teach in state-funded schools  The Ku Klux Klan o The 1920’s saw the rise of a national KKK  This incarnation was twice as ferocious as the original Klan  It was set on reclaiming morality in cities  It would go on to successfully implement many Klan members into political office and positions of influence  Stock Market Crash of 1929 o On October 24, 1929, Wall Street Crashed. This was the most devastating crash in the history of the U.S., and spurred the Great Depression


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